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AMERICAN CIVIL WAR IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY The Great Republican Experiment Cynthia Szwajkowski, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN CIVIL WAR IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY The Great Republican Experiment Cynthia Szwajkowski, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICAN CIVIL WAR IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY The Great Republican Experiment Cynthia Szwajkowski, Ph.D.

2 THE CONTRADICTION TAKES US TO CIVIL WAR

3 WILBERFORCE INTRODUCED A BILL TO END SLAVERY IN BRITAIN AND ITS COLONIES EVERY YEAR BEGINNING IN HE SUCCEEDED IN 1833

4 BUT THE WORLDS LABORERS LOOKED TO THE FREE NORTH TO SAVE THE GREAT REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENT British Poor Laws Could even separate Women from their children

5 THE GREAT REPUBLICAN DREAM VS. COTTON & ARISTOCRACY

6 The South Aristocratic roots shared with Englands ruling elite – Palmerston sympathetic Tight trade relationship

7 DEPENDENT ON BRITISH GOODS - $200 million worth of goods to South during war Enfield rifle for both sides. Increasingly go to Remington & Colt during war. Shoes for South Uniforms for South CSS Alabama built in Liverpool Rams built for South in England U.S. made legal claims against G.B. for abuse of neutrality

8 KING COTTON In 1858 Senator James Henry Hammond of South Carolina replied to Senator William H. Seward of New York: "Without the firing of a gun, without drawing a sword, should they [Northerners] make war upon us [Southerners], we could bring the whole world to our feet. What would happen if no cotton was furnished for three years?.. England would topple headlong and carry the whole civilized world with her. No, you dare not make war on cotton! No power on earth dares make war upon it. Cotton is King."

9 KING COTTON Southern plantations generated three-fourths of the world's cotton supply. The states that entered the Confederate States accounted for 70 percent of total US exports, and the Confederate leaders believed that this would give the new nation a firm financial basis.

10 BLOCKADE Now therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States...have further deemed it advisable to set on foot a blockade of the ports within the States aforesaid, in pursuance of the laws of the United States and of the Law of Nations in such case provided. For this purpose a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid.

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12 What went right with Cotton Diplomacy? LANCASHIRE COTTON FAMINE 400,000 workers lost their jobs England under Palmerston & France under Louis Napoleon close to intervening on the Confederate side

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14 Mass Starvation in British Cotton Mills Brought the beginning of the British Social System & a more humane approach than the Poor Laws Caused Britain to turn to Indian cotton

15 DEPRIVATION The starving in the British cotton mills led to the worlds first welfare programs. NONETHELESS, MOST of the workers supported THE GREAT REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENT.

16 What went wrong with Cotton Diplomacy? 1860 – Bumper crop – Glut on world market EMBARGO deprived South of cash to buy weapons, etc. EMBARGO deprived South of cash to buy weapons, etc. Southerners found the embargo too painful, and they cooperated in running more than 1 ½ million bales of cotton through the northern blockade. Cotton successfully grown in Egypt & India British textile workers act against self-interest & SUPPORT THE NORTH EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION

17 Gettysburg Address, Nov Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure… It is rather for us the living, to here be dedicated to the great task remaining before us-that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last measure of devotion-that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom.

18 KING CORN U.S. INCREASED EXPORT OF GRAIN TO G.B. DURING THE WAR BRITISH FOUND THEMSELVES MORE DEPENDENT ON U.S. GRAIN THAN ON ITS COTTON

19 CORN WINS See documents. Lincoln & the workingmen of Manchester 1863 George Griswold carried donated bacon, bread, rice, corn, barrels of flour

20 Extract of the Address from the Working People of Manchester to His Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America. Public Meeting, Free Trade Hall, Manchester, 31 December "...the vast progress which you have made in the short space of twenty months fills us with hope that every stain on your freedom will shortly be removed, and that the erasure of that foul blot on civilisation and Christianity - chattel slavery - during your presidency, will cause the name of Abraham Lincoln to be honoured and revered by posterity. We are certain that such a glorious consummation will cement Great Britain and the United States in close and enduring regards."

21 LINCOLN Extract of the President Abraham Lincoln's letter in response to the Working People of Manchester 19 January, 1863 "...I know and deeply deplore the sufferings which the working people of Manchester and in all Europe are called to endure in this crisis. It has been often and studiously represented that the attempt to overthrow this Government which was built on the foundation of human rights, and to substitute for it one which should rest exclusively on the basis of slavery, was unlikely to obtain the favour of Europe. "Through the action of disloyal citizens, the working people of Europe have been subjected to a severe trial for the purpose of forcing their sanction to that attempt. Under the circumstances I cannot but regard your decisive utterances on the question as an instance of sublime Christian heroism which has not been surpassed in any age or in any country. It is indeed an energetic and re-inspiring assurance of the inherent truth and of the ultimate and universal triumph of justice, humanity and freedom. "I hail this interchange of sentiments, therefore, as an augury that, whatever else may happen, whatever misfortune may befall your country or my own, the peace and friendship which now exists between the two nations will be, as it shall be my desire to make them, perpetual."

22 The George Griswold Arrives in Mersey from NY, February, 1863

23 The statue of Abraham Lincoln in Manchester, EnglandAbraham LincolnManchester

24 On the grounds of the Ewa Plantation School just west of Honolulu stands a bronze statue just west of Honolulu stands a bronze statue of a young Abraham Lincoln with ax in hand, forearms rippling after splitting logs. Fifteen years before Hawaii became a state in 1959, school officials unveiled this statue, a symbol of Lincolns popularity in Hawaii during the American Civil War, when many Hawaiians enlisted in the Union Army and Navy despite the kingdoms official neutrality. the kingdoms official neutrality.

25 On the grounds of the Ewa Plantation School just west of Honolulu stands a bronze statue just west of Honolulu stands a bronze statue of a young Abraham Lincoln with ax in hand, forearms rippling after splitting logs. Fifteen years before Hawaii became a state in 1959, school officials unveiled this statue, a symbol of Lincolns popularity in Hawaii during the American Civil War, when many Hawaiians enlisted in the Union Army and Navy despite the kingdoms official neutrality. the kingdoms official neutrality.

26 HAWAII & LINCOLN Strong antislavery sentiment motivated a substantial number of Hawaiians to serve in African American military units, supporting the Union cause against the seceding slave-holding South. These views, plus Lincolns personal relationship with Hawaiian ruler, King Kamehameha IV, strengthened Hawaiians affection for the American president.

27 GEORGE GRISWOLD DOCKS AT LIVERPOOL February boxes of bacon 50 barrels of pork 500 bushes of corn 500 barrels & boxes of bread Rice 13,216 barrels of flour… GREETED BY A GREAT CONCOURSE OF PEOPLE

28 In 1865, shortly after Lincolns assassination, the Honolulu newspaper Ka Nupepa Kuokoa expressed the sorrow of the Hawaiian people at the death of what it called the peoples friend. It argued that no parallel for this great crime can be found in the worlds history since the Crucifixion. On Lincolns birthday, Ewas students place leis around the statue.

29 STUDENTS: FIND LINCOLN STATUES THROUGHOUT THE U.S. & THE WORLD EXPLAIN WHY

30 WILKES PROCLAIMED Hero in the North although he nearly provokes war with British Trent was leaving Havana Wilkes San Jacinto intercepted the Trent, a British Neutral ship with Confederate ambassadors aboard A flip of War of 1812 & impressment issue

31 MASON & SLIDELL & THE TRENT AFFAIR

32 CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS U.S. AMBASSADOR TO G.B. James Russell Lowell said of him: None of our generals, nor Grant himself, did us better or more trying service than he in his forlorn outpost of London. Prince Albert stepped in to calm public after Trent Affair.

33 LOUIS NAPOLEON SEES CIVIL WAR AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ADVENTURE IN MEXICO He created a French puppet state, installing the Hapsburg Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico in direct violation of the Monroe Doctrine. Propped up by French troops, Maximilian hung on to his shaky throne for several years, with Napoleon planning to give the Confederacy, from that base, more active support. After Appomattox, Phil Sheridan and 50,000 veterans marched to the Mexican border in blunt warning & Napoleon withdrew his soldiers. Mexicans regained control and Maximilian was executed.

34 RUSSIA 1863 – WARSHIPS IN NY & SAN FRANCISCO HARBORS FOR THE WINTER U.S. TOOK THIS AS A SIGN OF FRIENDSHIP 1867 – TSAR ALEXANDER II SELLS ALASKA Check used to purchase Alaska, $7.2 million

35 PRUSSIA PRUSSIAN OBSERVER FREEMANTLE See Killer Angels Danish War – 1863 Austro-Prussian War 1866 FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR – 1871 UNIFICATION OF GERMANY & TOTAL WAR


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