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Laboratory Safety Safety Training for Research

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Presentation on theme: "Laboratory Safety Safety Training for Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Laboratory Safety Safety Training for Research
Laboratories at Stanford University

2 Topics We’ll Cover: Chemical hazard awareness
Control of chemical exposures Chemical storage/transportation/shipping Chemical waste management Emergency response

3 Introduction: Overview

4 PLAN: Gather Information
Sources Labels MSDS Reference books Chemical safety database Toxic gas table EH&S Exposure limits listed in: *Cal/OSHA Regulations *ACGIH TLV and BEI booklet

5 PLAN: Gather Information
Cal/OSHA’s Lab Standard (8 CCR 5191 – Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories) Appendix A of regulation provides basic rules and procedures for working with chemicals SU’s Chemical Hygiene Plan Each laboratory responsible for developing Lab Safety Plan

6 PLAN: Gather Information
MSDS quality varies presumes industrial use helpful info included: Visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemical when being released signs/ symptoms of chemical exposure permissible exposure limits (if established)

7 PLAN: Gather Information

8 PLAN: Gather Information
Chemical Safety Database Stanford system Basic safety info Storage code designations Access through on-line inventory or EH&S web page (

9 PLAN: Gather Information

10 PLAN: Know The Chemical Hazards
Physical Hazards: Flammability, corrosivity or reactivity Health Hazards: Acute Health Hazards High concentration (ceiling limit), short exposure duration Damage happens quickly Chronic Health Hazards Low concentration, long exposure duration Long latency (symptoms may appear long after exposure)

11 PLAN: Know Routes of Exposure
Inhalation Absorption (skin or eye contact) Ingestion Injection (cuts, puncture)

12 PLAN: Assessing Hazard Level
Depends on: Chemical: toxicity, concentration Use: duration, frequency, amount Evaluation may include: Baseline survey or audit Observation of work practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), engineering controls Air monitoring

13 The Dose Makes The Poison
Men Hospitalized for Eating Chili 1999 Darwin Awardee, Honorable Mention (May 1999, Philippines) Three men attempting to land in the Guinness Book of World Records were hospitalized in Legaspi after eating huge amounts of chili peppers. They were treated for acute gastritis and high blood pressure, and released.

14 PLAN: Controlling Hazards
1) Substitute to less toxic material or less hazardous procedure (microscaling expt.) 2) Use of engineering controls Ventilation, isolation 3) Use of administrative controls Ensuring safe work practices, rotating staff 4) Use of personal protective equipment Gloves, safety glasses/goggles

15 PLAN : Waste Reduction Purchase only what you plan to use
Check inventory prior to any purchase Inventories only remain as accurate as your lab keeps it!

16 PLAN: Updating Inventory
SCIMSweb at: Update SCIMSweb inventory to: Add chemicals new to the lab Delete old chemicals no longer used Report increases or decreases in average volumes kept Contact EH&S at to gain inventory access

17 . Reproductive Health Protection Program
University promotes early recognition of potential reproductive hazards. Reproductive Hazards: Chemical, biological, radiological or physical agents that can damage reproductive systems of males and females. Can result in infertility, spontaneous abortion, developmental impairment or death of fetus or child. EH&S services include: Evaluates work areas. Recommend proper procedures to reduce workplace exposures Tier II training. Contact the IH/Safety Program at for assistance.


19 USE: Labeling Label every container Change the label when you
change the contents Label water! Spell out the common chemical name Add date to label when received

20 USE: Exposure Control Inhalation: Lab hoods Designed to:
(1) Exhaust contaminant out of breathing zone of worker (2) Provide some splash protection (3) Not designed to contain or withstand explosions. Never put your head inside the hood! Close chemical containers

21 USE: Exposure Control Inhalation: Lab hoods For proper performance:
Ensure certification is current Lower sash to required height Do not place anything within 6” of the front and back Elevate large equipment off surface Minimize storage in the hood Do not disable flow alarm

22 Energy Conservation A substantial amount of energy is used to heat and cool air that goes out fume hoods. A 6-foot fume hood can cost Stanford as much as $6,200 per year to operate. Please keep hood sashes closed and lights off when not in use.* * Applies to Moore (aka McCullough Annex), McCullough, and Green Earth Sciences.

23 USE: Exposure Control Remember: Lab hoods are NOT designed to contain or withstand explosions.

24 USE: Exposure Control Inhalation: Respirators
Generally not required in labs May be needed if: can’t work in fume hood need protection in addition to fume hood Call EH&S if you think you need one requires medical evaluation, training and fit testing

25 USE: Exposure Control Absorption: Gloves Disposable / reusable
disposable: drip/drop and low toxicity reusable: high exposure and/or higher toxicity Glove material choice balances many factors: protection side effects (possible latex allergies?) ease of use (durability / tactility / grip) cost Double glove may be necessary Check EH&S website for glove selection:

26 USE: Exposure Control Absorption: Glove use
Inspect gloves before wearing Remove immediately if splashed or contaminated and WASH HANDS! Dispose of contaminated gloves as hazardous waste Remove gloves before you leave the lab Use designated pens when wearing gloves

27 USE: Exposure Control Absorption: Eye/ Face Protection
Labs are eye hazardous areas Safety glasses, goggles Face shields How about Prescription glasses? Contact lenses?

28 USE: Exposure Control Absorption: Protective Clothing
Also have to protect skin on other body parts Researchers have been injured:

29 USE: Exposure Control Nitric Acid:

30 USE: Prevent Absorption

31 USE: Prevent Absorption
Sodium Hydroxide

32 USE: Exposure Control Proper Lab Attire Lab coat Closed toe shoes
Pants are much safer than shorts and skirts Don’t wear loose clothing Don’t wear tight clothing

33 USE: Exposure Control Ingestion: No mouth pipetting !!!
No eating, drinking or applying cosmetics in chemical use areas Wash hands before leaving the lab No food or drink storage in labs

34 USE: Exposure Control Injection:
Don’t directly handle broken glassware, needles and other sharp objects

35 USE: Ergonomics Repetitive activities Manual handling
microscope computer use pipetting Manual handling heavy lifting pushing carts shelving items For training or post-injury work-site evaluation, call EH&S


37 CHEMICAL STORAGE Provide Lab Security
Keep the public from your chemicals Systems already in place: Lock your lab when unattended Do not prop open building doors Respect the card key system

38 CHEMICAL STORAGE Select locations away from exits Shelves Sinks
provide earthquake protection use overhead storage judiciously don’t store within 18” of ceiling Sinks do not store chemicals over a sink do not store chemicals in a sink

39 CHEMICAL STORAGE Secondary containment Segregation
check volume of containment keep them clean Segregation separate by storage group letter codes

40 CHEMICAL STORAGE Flammables Flammables storage cabinet
required for > 10 gallons of flammable & combustible liquids inspect for rust acetic acid

41 CHEMICAL STORAGE Flammables Refrigerators explosion proof flammables
regular 1 gal of isopentane did this

42 CHEMICAL STORAGE Compressed Gases Store upright Restrain
metal two-restraints no gang chaining Place in safe location Segregate incompatibles

43 CHEMICAL STORAGE Protect the valve Disconnect regulator
Use valve cover NO BENCH CLAMPS Mark once emptied Get compressed gas safety training !!

44 STORAGE: Exercise Heavy items stored on low shelf
Secondary containment and lips on shelves in use

45 STORAGE: Exercise Blocked eyewash and shower Box overhead - heavy?
Food in lab Jar of juice on benchtop

Preventing Spills Transportation within or between buildings use carts with secondary containment segregate by storage group safety carriers Container selection good condition compatible

All shippers (Fedex, UPS) will require you to state if a “Dangerous Good” Determine if hazardous material Toxic, biohazard, corrosive, flammable Dry Ice. Compressed gasses (even air) Proper packaging and labeling Use only specifically designed packages Shipping papers signed by certified person

Overseas shipments require Customs Broker contract Stanford Contract; American Overseas Research exclusion from export controls PI must file documentation with Dean of Research For additional assistance, contact EH&S at or, Dean of Research at  


50 DISPOSE: Identify Wastes
Point your browser to: What is hazardous waste? First, it has to be a waste Your decision Surplus Chemicals not wastes Surplus Chemicals In original non-leaking container Legible manufacturers label See Obtain chemicals or donate

51 DISPOSE: Identify Wastes
All chemical waste is hazardous, except: chemicals listed on Many buffers are hazardous due to organics empty containers, 5 gallons or smaller, did not contain acutely hazardous material (E.g.: acrolein; see website) Mixed waste biohazardous + chemical  chemical waste Deactivate any biological organisms radioactive + chemical  “call EH&S first” Short half-life preferred (32P) Treat the chemical portion

52 DISPOSE: Label Use one label per container Accumulation Start Date
Instructions on back Accumulation Start Date Chemical Composition Hazard Identification Name/Location Call to get labels

53 DISPOSE: Accumulate Time and Volume Limits in Labs
8 MONTHS!!! 55 gallons total/1 quart of acutely hazardous waste Satellite Accumulation Area: In the Lab Waste from your lab only Proper segregation, secondary containment Laboratory Satellite Accumulation Area Waste from several labs (lab waste only) As close a practical to generation site All people who have access must be trained Notify EH&S if you want to set up.

54 DISPOSE: “Universal Wastes”
Fluorescent Tubes Batteries Electronic Equipment Not waste unless monitor is physically broken. If broken, needs hazwaste label. Follow “Sensitive Property” procedures

55 DISPOSE: Pickup Procedures
Standard pickup: when a container is full or is 8 months old Blanket pickup: for repetitive wastes, at least 5 gallons/month submit blanket pickup request one form per waste

56 DISPOSE: Prohibitions
Illegal Disposal don’t put in a drain or trash don’t intentionally evaporate Transportation EH&S will pick the waste up Treatment without EH&S approval

57 DISPOSE: Benchtop Treatment
Call EH&S for additional training Volume and time limitations Peer-reviewed treatment method Especially useful for mixed wastes Non-sewerable but non-hazardous wastes No additional requirements Example: pH>2.0 but < 5.5


59 RESPOND: Life Safety Boxes
Life Safety Box Contents Item: Updated by: room map lab emergency contacts lab front cover EH&S inventory printout EH&S

60 RESPOND: Chemical Spill/Exposures
Safety Shower/ Eyewash Use Yell for help Stays on once activated Flush for 15 minutes Remove clothing Keep injured eye lower Keep area accessible Water accumulates Water not tempered!

61 RESPOND: Chemical Spill/Exposures
Medical Response - depending on severity Employees go to Stanford Hospital ER or Sequoia Occupational Health (454 Forest Avenue, Palo Alto) Students go to Stanford Hospital ER or Vaden Student Health. Take MSDS with you! Reporting: Complete SU-17 and DWC-1 and SU-16, as appropriate – with assistance from supervisors.

62 RESPOND: Chemical Spill
If health threatening: cal alert others evacuate remain nearby to provide information If not health threatening Clean it up yourself Call (EH&S; 24/7)

63 RESPOND: Chemical Spill
When to call EH&S ( ) DO call if: spill is not contained in a hood or a lab bench and might either enter a sink, floor drain, contact soil, or produce hazardous vapor emissions, OR Spill is > 50 ml you can’t complete cleanup within 8 hours DON’T need to call if: spill is < 50 ml, AND you are knowledgeable of the hazards, AND you can clean it up with what you have at-hand

64 RESPOND: Spill Cleanup
Spill cleanup kits Absorbent kits (from EH&S) Solvents, dilute acids/bases, other liquids Acid / base neutralizer kits (stores, supplier) Mercury spill kits (stores, supplier) All contaminated spill cleanup materials must be managed as hazardous waste

65 RESPOND: Fire Extinguisher
Know location Keep accessible Get training

66 EH&S Training Resources
This is Tier II training. Get operation-specific training (Tier III Training) from your PI or supervisor. Information and training required upon initial assignment to work area where hazardous chemicals are used and prior to assignments involving new exposure situations.

67 EH&S Training Resources
Training courses available include (but not limited to) : Ergonomics (laboratory, computer, safe lifting) Fire Extinguisher Bloodborne Pathogens Laser Safety Compressed Gas Electrical Safety Waste Accumulation Area, Benchtop treatment Contact EH&S at to schedule trainings

68 EH&S Resources SU Environmental Health & Safety 723-0448

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