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**Motion, Speed, Acceleration**

Chapter 8

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Motion When you are riding in a car, why don’t the people in the car look like they are moving? Why do the things outside the car look like they ARE moving? Are YOU moving right now? Are you sure? When riding in a car, some people go around you and it looks like you’re going backwards. Why?

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**Motion Motion is a change in RELATIVE position:**

Motion requires a reference point, usually stationary. Distance measure the path taken: To measure how far you went, you have to follow the actual path Displacement is the distance moved, regardless of path Straight line from start to finish

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**Speed Speed measures how fast a motion occurs**

Requires distance and time Speed = distance/time Miles per hour (mph = miles/hr) Feet per second (feet/second) PER means divided by (usually using time) SI unit of measure for speed is meters per second (m/s) Constant speed means same distance is covered in the same amount of time.

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Speed

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**Graphing Speed Graph Time on X-axis Graph Distance on Y-axis**

Slope of line is speed Assumes constant speed Faster speed = more slope to line Slower speed = less slope to line

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Average Speed Average speed is calculated based on starting and ending points (distance) and total time elapsed. Used to describe objects that don’t move at constant speed Exercise: You travel 100 miles in 50 minutes, then 50 miles in 50 minutes, then 50 miles in 100 minutes. What is your average speed? Answer: Distance is = 200 miles Time is = 200 minutes Distance/time = 200/150 = 1 miles/minute

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Instantaneous Speed Instantaneous speed describes the speed and any particular point in time Very difficult to measure

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**Velocity VELOCITY measure how fast in a particular direction**

Velocity is speed with direction 60 mph north 4 m/s South Velocity is a very important concept for physics The DIRECTION portion makes things act differently If one direction is considered ‘positive’ The opposite direction is ‘negative’ The velocities can cancel out based on direction

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**Velocity When you combine velocities, you get a ‘resultant velocity’:**

What is resultant velocity of 15 m/s east and 1 m/s east? Going same direction, so add them 15 m/s + 1 m/s = 16 m/s What is resultant velocity of 15 m/s east and 5 m/s west? Going opposite directions, so west is negative direction 15 m/s east + (– 5 m/s west) = 10 m/s east What is resultant velocity of 10 m/s east and 10 m/s south? 14 m/s southeast (use Pythagorean theorem)

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Acceleration When you accelerate your car, what are you doing to the motion? Acceleration is a change in velocity Acceleration can be a change in speed Either up or down (positive or negative) Acceleration can be a change in direction Velocity has direction, so acceleration does also A uniform circular motion is constant acceleration (always changing direction)

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**Calculating Acceleration**

Acceleration is the change in velocity, so you have to calculate the change. Acceleration = (Velocityfinal – Velocityinitial)/time Also: Because final velocity can be less than initial velocity (slowing down), acceleration can be negative Negative acceleration is called deceleration in normal speech In science, it is still acceleration with a negative value

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Velocity-Time Graphs Velocity changes can be graphed on velocity/time graphs Velocity on Y-axis Time on X-axis Constant Velocity

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Velocity-Time Graphs Negative Acceleration (slowing down)

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**Forces Force – a push or a pull**

Science definition: an action on a body (object) in order to change the body’s motion Many forces act at the same time on any object Combination results from many forces acting on an object is called the net force

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**Forces Balanced Forces do not cause changes in motion**

This includes from rest (no motion) to motion or motion to rest Example: Tug of War with equal teams Unbalanced Forces result in changes in motion The net force is larger in one direction Example: Tug of War with one side stronger

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Net Forces

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**Friction Friction is a Force Caused by objects rubbing together**

Like hands in winter Acts in direction OPPOSITE the applied force Why your bike stops rolling! Why a ball stops rolling! Because of friction, a constant force must be applied to your car to keep it rolling (= gas) Rougher surfaces have more friction Why do tires have grooves & knobs? Why do court shoes have tread?

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**Types of Friction Static Friction - between stationary objects**

Like brakes on a car when it’s not moving Kinetic Friction – between moving objects Sliding Friction – two (flat) surfaces rubbing Rolling Friction – round object to flat surface Like tires on bike or car Fluid Friction – in liquids or gases Air Resistance is a type of fluid friction Force of Friction: Static > Sliding > Rolling > Fluid

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Friction and Motion Friction between 2 objects results in HEAT buildup and low efficiency Reduce Friction by: Make surfaces smoother Use of lubricants (turn it to fluid friction) (oil, grease, wax. graphite Convert Sliding Friction to Rolling Friction Increase Friction by: Make surfaces rougher Make more surface area rubbing Increase force pushing objects together

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**Assignment: Friction and Motion**

You are riding your bike to school. Is friction good or bad. Justify your answer using the principles of force, motion, acceleration, air resistance, sliding friction rolling friction, and fluid friction. At least 3 paragraphs At least 3 sentences per paragraph.

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**Newton’s Laws of Motion**

8.3 & 8.4

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**Newton’s First Law: inertia**

Which is easier? Pushing a car from start to moving or keeping it moving? Starting your bicycle moving or keeping it moving?

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**Newton’s First Law: inertia**

An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Inertia is the tendency of an object to maintain the same motion.

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**Newton’s Second Law: Force**

The unbalanced force acting on an object equals the objects mass times its acceleration F = mass * acceleration (F=m*a) The harder you push, the faster it accelerates It takes more force to move a larger mass than a smaller mass. Which would you rather try to stop (-acceleration) a freight train moving slowly or a baseball moving 100mph?

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Free-Fall and Weight Free-fall – when the only force acting on an object is gravity Free-fall acceleration near the earth’s surface is constant – 9.8 m/s2 After 1st second it is moving 9.8 m/s After 2nd second it is moving 19.6 m/s After 3rd second it is moving 28.4 m/s Etc. Weight is Free-fall acceleration times mass Weight is a force (mass * acceleration)

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**Weight and Mass Mass is the amount of matter in an object**

It doesn’t change, no matter where you go. Weight is mass times acceleration due to gravity. It changes depending upon gravity On the moon, your mass is the same as on earth, but 1/6th of the weight

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Terminal Velocity Terminal velocity is when air resistance (friction due to air) exactly balances the weight. A sky-diver will eventually reach terminal velocity and not fall any faster About 320 km/h (200 mi/h)

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Newton’s Third Law For every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force They are on different objects When you kick a ball: Your foot applies a force to the ball The ball also applies a force to your foot. Applications: Rockets Jet-skis Ram-jet engines

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