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Introduction to Physical Science Mrs. Stratton Scientific Method Metric System Lab Introduction Bubble Lab Using Grad. Cyl. Metric Research Prefix / Suffix Graphing Uncert, of Meas. Build a Scale Pre-Assessment

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Convert the following measurements: m = _____ cm ml = _____ L 3. 5 kg = _____ mg mm= _____ m Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word: 5. A(n) ____ is the equipment in the lab used to find mass. 6. A(n)____ is a proposed solution to a scientific problem. 7. A(n)____ is the factor being tested in an experiment. 8. The ____axis on a graph represents the dependant variable. MAIN

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Lab Safety 1. Safety goggles 2. Shoes 3. Conduct only assigned experiments 4. eyewash 5. emergency shower, 6. No gum, food, drink 7. Wash your hands...

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Lab Safety 8. Read all of the directions 9. Notify your teacher about spills or breakage 10. Report all accidents 11. Pin or tie back long hair 12. Add acids to water 13. Test tube mouth away from people when heating. 14. Leave you work area clean

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Common Lab Tools - Glassware BEAKER GRADUATED CYLINDER FLASK TEST TUBE

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Common Lab Tools ELECTRONIC BALANCE 3-BEAM BALANCE BUNSEN BURNER HOT PLATE

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Scientific Method A. Terminology 1. Observation 2. Inference 3. Question 4. Hypothesis 5. Prediction 6. Test

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Scientific Method B. Example 1. observation 2. question 3. hypothesis 4. prediction 5. test

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Scientific Method C. Theory vs. Law 1. Theory 2. Law

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Scientific Method D. Variables and Experiments 1. Variable A. Dependant variable B. Independent variable C. Control 2. Data A. Qualitative B. Quantitative MAIN

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Bubbles Inquiry Lab Adapted from Section 1.3 Mini-lab: Addison-Wesley Chemistry, Hypothesis: Bubble making can be affected by adding chemicals to a bubble blowing mixture. Prediction:

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Bubbles Inquiry Lab Procedure: Write a procedure that will allow you to test the hypothesis. Be sure to have replicates of your experimental design (example, use five cups for each treatment). Procedures should be given to the teacher for critique and changed if needed. Possible Materials: plastic cups, graduated cylinders, measuring scoops, water, de-chlorinated water, dish detergent, sugar, salt, vinegar, oil, straws, spoons

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Bubbles Inquiry Lab Observations: Make a Table in which to record your observations. Every groups table will be different because it depends on your procedure.

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Bubbles Lab Conclusions: 1. Did you observe any differences in your containers? 2. Propose a more specific hypothesis based on bubble making and design an experiment to test your hypothesis. For this experiment, find a way to collect quantitative data. 3. Turn procedures in to the teacher then make changes as needed. MAIN

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Graphing Rules 2 types of graphs: line graphs: continuous data bar graphs: non-continuous data Graphs have a horizontal axis (X)-independent variable Graphs have a vertical axis (Y) - dependant variable Clearly label both axes Mark off units for each axis and list units Title the graph at the top (describe the subject of the graph) If you plot more than one line on the graph, use distinctive marks or color to identify each line and add a legend MAIN Graphing PracticeGraphing Review

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Graphing Practice 1. What is the mass of 10 mL of liquid A? 2. What is the Volume of 10 g of Liquid A?

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Graphing Practice 3. Which liquid has the greatest mass for 10 mL of volume? 4. Which of the liquids has a density of 1 g per 1 mL? MAIN

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Graphing Review 1-7 Review and Reinforcement© Prentice Hall: Physical Science 1991 On a sheet of graph paper, plot the data in the following table. Make sure to label the axes. You should have a line for each liquid.. Temperature (C) time heated (seconds) waterethyl alcohol

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Graphing Review Use the graph to answer each of the following questions. 1. Which variable, time or temperature, is the independent variable on this graph? Explain. 2. At time 35 s, what is the temperature of (a) the water and (b) the ethyl alcohol? 3. How long must the water be heated to raise its temperature to (a) 19.3°C? to (b) 20.0°C?

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Graphing Review (cont) Use the graph to answer each of the following questions. 4. If the water and the alcohol continue to be heated simultaneously, will they ever reach the same temperature?' Explain your answer in terms of the trend you see on the graph. 5. Does the temperature of the ethyl alcohol increase at a steady rate as it is heated? Use examples from the graph. MAIN

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Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques Prediction: Materials: Station 1:meter stick Station 2:metric ruler, regular object Station 3:graduated cylinder, beaker with liquid Station 4:balance, small pebble Station 5: graduated cylinder, beaker of water, irregular object Station 6:thermometer, beaker with ice and water, paper towel

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Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques Observations: Record your measurements in table form. Put class data on the board. Station Measurement

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Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques Conclusions: Do all the class measurements have the same value for each station? Why? Which station had the most similar measurements? Why were they so similar? Which station had the most varied measurements? Why were they so different? MAIN

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Scientific Measurement 1. Metric System length volume mass 2. Conversions milli- centi- deci- kilo-

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Scientific Measurement Practice: meters = cm millimeters = cm milligrams = g 4. 2 liters = ml

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METRIC CONVERSIONS 25 m = ____ cm 25 m = ____ km 15 cm = ____ mm 15 cm = ____ dm

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METRIC CONVERSIONS 25 m = ____ cm 25 m = ____ km 15 cm = ____ mm 15 cm = ____ dm 2500 cm km 150 mm dm

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Scientific Measurement - Assignment Ancient units of measurement Find five ancient units of measurement and give their modern equivalents List sources

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Homework m = _____ km m = _____ mm 3. 5 km = ______ m 4. 5 km = ______ cm 5. 8 dm = ______ km mm = _____ cm cm = ____ m MAIN

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Homework m = _____ km m = _____ mm 3. 5 km = ______ m 4. 5 km = ______ cm 5. 8 dm = ______ km mm = _____ cm cm = ____ m 0.1 km 100,000 mm 5,000 m 500,000 cm 0.08 km 4 cm 20 m MAIN

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Build a Scale MEASUREMENT OF MASS esme/PSAM/PSAM/psamdoc.pdf

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CHALLENGE to build a spring balance to find the unknown mass of an object.

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Materials 3 ounce paper cup, four paper clips large elastic rubber band metric ruler 2 metal washers, toothpick

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Procedure 1. Write a procedure to complete the challenge. Turn in procedure to your teacher and make changes as needed. 2. Design a results table for the data you will collect. 3. Graph your data.

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Conclusion Mass (in pennies) of Unknown Object A Mass (in pennies) of Unknown Object B MAIN

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Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder Prediction: Materials: red, blue, and yellow water test tube stand water 50-ml graduated cylinder 3 small beakers 6 test tubes

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Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder Procedure: 1. Design a procedure as you use the materials given to make six test tubes with colors in the following order: Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, Purple. Each tube should contain the exact same amount of liquid. 2. As you make your colors, record exact measurements so another group can replicate your results. 3. The teacher will photograph your results.

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Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder Procedure (cont): 3. Trade procedures with another group, follow their procedure and have the teacher photograph your tubes when you finish. 4. Compare the pictures from your procedure when you followed it and when another group followed it..

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Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder Observations: Describe differences and similarities between the two sets. Conclusion: Give possible reasons for any discrepancies and list ways to improve your procedure writing to make replication work better. MAIN

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METRIC RESEARCH Instructions: Use the internet or other reference material to find the following measurements. List your sources. 1. Length of a football field in meters 2. Length of the Golden Gate Bridge in meters 3. Distance to the sun in kilometers 4. Distance light travels in one year, which is called a light-year, in kilometers

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METRIC RESEARCH (cont) 5. Average mass of a mouse in grams 6. Mass of Wright brothers plane in kilograms 7. Hottest Temperature ever recorded on the earth in degrees Celsius 8. Coldest Temperature ever recorded on the earth in degrees Celsius MAIN

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Complete these Measurements in centimeters Your height Your arm length Book height Desk top length Desk top width Construct a table for these measurements

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Measurement Table mmcmmKm Height Arm Book Desk L Desk W

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Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity PrefixMeaning Anti-Against Atmo-Vapor Chromo-Color Con-Together Di-Double Endo-Within Exo-Outside Hetero-Different Homo-Same Hydro-Water 1.Select three science words that have a prefix listed on the chart

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Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity PrefixMeaning In-Inside Inter-Between Iso-Equal Macro-Large Micro-Small Photo-Light Sub-Under Syn-Together Tele-Distant Trans-Across 2.Select three more science words that have a prefix listed on this chart

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Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity SuffixMeaning -ationThe act of -escentBecoming -graphyDescription of -logyStudy of -meterDevice for measuring -scopeInstrument for seeing -sphereRound -stasisStationary condition -thermHeat -vergeTurn 3.Select three science words that have a suffix listed on this chart

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Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity 4. Write a paragraph using the nine words you have chosen. Be prepared to read your paragraph aloud. MAIN

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