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# Introduction to Physical Science

## Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Physical Science"— Presentation transcript:

Introduction to Physical Science
Mrs. Stratton Pre-Assessment Build a Scale Graphing Lab Introduction Using Grad. Cyl. Scientific Method Uncert, of Meas. Metric Research Bubble Lab Metric System Prefix / Suffix

Pre-Assessment Convert the following measurements: 25 m = _____ cm
MAIN Pre-Assessment Convert the following measurements: 25 m = _____ cm 20 ml = _____ L 5 kg = _____ mg 10 mm= _____ m Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word: A(n) ____ is the equipment in the lab used to find mass. A(n)____ is a proposed solution to a scientific problem. A(n)____ is the factor being tested in an experiment. The ____axis on a graph represents the dependant variable.

Lab Safety 1. Safety goggles 2. Shoes
3. Conduct only assigned experiments 4. eyewash 5. emergency shower, 6. No gum, food, drink 7. Wash your hands . . .

Lab Safety 8. Read all of the directions
9. Notify your teacher about spills or breakage 10. Report all accidents 11. Pin or tie back long hair 12. Add acids to water 13. Test tube mouth away from people when heating. 14. Leave you work area clean

Common Lab Tools - Glassware
BEAKER TEST TUBE GRADUATED CYLINDER FLASK

Common Lab Tools 3-BEAM BALANCE ELECTRONIC BALANCE BUNSEN BURNER
HOT PLATE

Scientific Method A. Terminology
Observation Inference Question Hypothesis Prediction Test

Scientific Method B. Example
observation question hypothesis prediction test

Scientific Method C. Theory vs. Law

Scientific Method D. Variables and Experiments
MAIN Scientific Method D. Variables and Experiments Variable Dependant variable Independent variable Control Data Qualitative Quantitative

Bubbles Inquiry Lab Adapted from Section 1
Bubbles Inquiry Lab Adapted from Section 1.3 Mini-lab: Addison-Wesley Chemistry, 2003. Hypothesis: Bubble making can be affected by adding chemicals to a bubble blowing mixture. Prediction:

Bubbles Inquiry Lab Procedure:
Write a procedure that will allow you to test the hypothesis. Be sure to have replicates of your experimental design (example, use five cups for each treatment). Procedures should be given to the teacher for critique and changed if needed. Possible Materials: plastic cups, graduated cylinders, measuring scoops, water, de-chlorinated water, dish detergent, sugar, salt, vinegar, oil, straws, spoons

Bubbles Inquiry Lab Observations:
Make a Table in which to record your observations. Every groups table will be different because it depends on your procedure.

Bubbles Lab Conclusions:
MAIN Bubbles Lab Conclusions: Did you observe any differences in your containers? Propose a more specific hypothesis based on bubble making and design an experiment to test your hypothesis. For this experiment, find a way to collect quantitative data. Turn procedures in to the teacher then make changes as needed.

Graphing Rules 2 types of graphs:
MAIN Graphing Rules 2 types of graphs: line graphs: continuous data bar graphs: non-continuous data Graphs have a horizontal axis (X)-independent variable Graphs have a vertical axis (Y) - dependant variable Clearly label both axes Mark off units for each axis and list units Title the graph at the top (describe the subject of the graph) If you plot more than one line on the graph, use distinctive marks or color to identify each line and add a legend Graphing Practice Graphing Review

Graphing Practice What is the mass of 10 mL of liquid A?
What is the Volume of 10 g of Liquid A?

MAIN Graphing Practice Which liquid has the greatest mass for 10 mL of volume? Which of the liquids has a density of 1 g per 1 mL?

Graphing Review 1-7 Review and Reinforcement
Graphing Review 1-7 Review and Reinforcement © Prentice Hall: Physical Science 1991 Temperature (C) time heated (seconds) water ethyl alcohol 19.0 30 19.2 60 19.5 90 20.0 120 20.5 21.5 150 21.0 22.5 On a sheet of graph paper, plot the data in the following table. Make sure to label the axes. You should have a line for each liquid..

Use the graph to answer each of the following questions.
Graphing Review Use the graph to answer each of the following questions. Which variable, time or temperature, is the independent variable on this graph? Explain. At time 35 s, what is the temperature of (a) the water and (b) the ethyl alcohol? How long must the water be heated to raise its temperature to (a) 19.3°C? to (b) 20.0°C?

Graphing Review (cont)
MAIN Graphing Review (cont) Use the graph to answer each of the following questions. If the water and the alcohol continue to be heated simultaneously, will they ever reach the same temperature?' Explain your answer in terms of the trend you see on the graph. Does the temperature of the ethyl alcohol increase at a steady rate as it is heated? Use examples from the graph.

Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques
Prediction: Materials: Station 1: meter stick Station 2: metric ruler, regular object Station 3: graduated cylinder, beaker with liquid Station 4: balance, small pebble Station 5: graduated cylinder, beaker of water, irregular object Station 6: thermometer, beaker with ice and water, paper towel

Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques
Observations: Record your measurements in table form. Put class data on the board. Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 Measurement

Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques
MAIN Uncertainty of Measuring Techniques Conclusions: Do all the class measurements have the same value for each station? Why? Which station had the most similar measurements? Why were they so similar? Which station had the most varied measurements? Why were they so different?

Scientific Measurement
Metric System length volume mass Conversions milli- centi- deci- kilo-

Scientific Measurement
Practice: 0.5 meters = cm 800 millimeters = cm 50 milligrams = g 2 liters = ml

25 m = ____ cm 25 m = ____ km 15 cm = ____ mm 15 cm = ____ dm
METRIC CONVERSIONS 25 m = ____ cm 25 m = ____ km 15 cm = ____ mm 15 cm = ____ dm

25 m = ____ cm 25 m = ____ km 15 cm = ____ mm 15 cm = ____ dm 2500 cm
METRIC CONVERSIONS 25 m = ____ cm 25 m = ____ km 15 cm = ____ mm 15 cm = ____ dm 2500 cm 0.025 km 150 mm 0.015 dm

Scientific Measurement - Assignment
Ancient units of measurement Find five ancient units of measurement and give their modern equivalents List sources

Homework 100 m = _____ km 100 m = _____ mm 5 km = ______ m
MAIN Homework 100 m = _____ km 100 m = _____ mm 5 km = ______ m 5 km = ______ cm 8 dm = ______ km 40 mm = _____ cm 2000 cm = ____ m

Homework 100 m = _____ km 0.1 km 100 m = _____ mm 100,000 mm
MAIN Homework 100 m = _____ km 100 m = _____ mm 5 km = ______ m 5 km = ______ cm 8 dm = ______ km 40 mm = _____ cm 2000 cm = ____ m 0.1 km 100,000 mm 5,000 m 500,000 cm 0.08 km 4 cm 20 m

Build a Scale MEASUREMENT OF MASS

CHALLENGE to build a spring balance to find the unknown mass of an object.

Materials 3 ounce paper cup, four paper clips
large elastic rubber band metric ruler 2 metal washers, toothpick

Procedure Write a procedure to complete the challenge. Turn in procedure to your teacher and make changes as needed. Design a results table for the data you will collect. Graph your data.

Conclusion Mass (in pennies) of Unknown Object A
MAIN Conclusion Mass (in pennies) of Unknown Object A Mass (in pennies) of Unknown Object B

Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder
Prediction: Materials: red, blue, and yellow water test tube stand water 50-ml graduated cylinder 3 small beakers 6 test tubes

Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder
Procedure: Design a procedure as you use the materials given to make six test tubes with colors in the following order: Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, Purple. Each tube should contain the exact same amount of liquid. As you make your colors, record exact measurements so another group can replicate your results. The teacher will photograph your results.

Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder
Procedure (cont): Trade procedures with another group, follow their procedure and have the teacher photograph your tubes when you finish. Compare the pictures from your procedure when you followed it and when another group followed it..

Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder
MAIN Measuring Liquid Volume with the Graduated Cylinder Observations: Describe differences and similarities between the two sets. Conclusion: Give possible reasons for any discrepancies and list ways to improve your procedure writing to make replication work better.

METRIC RESEARCH Instructions: Use the internet or other reference material to find the following measurements. List your sources. Length of a football field in meters Length of the Golden Gate Bridge in meters Distance to the sun in kilometers Distance light travels in one year, which is called a light-year, in kilometers

METRIC RESEARCH (cont)
MAIN METRIC RESEARCH (cont) Average mass of a mouse in grams Mass of Wright brothers’ plane in kilograms Hottest Temperature ever recorded on the earth in degrees Celsius Coldest Temperature ever recorded on the earth in degrees Celsius

Complete these Measurements in centimeters
Your height Your arm length Book height Desk top length Desk top width Construct a table for these measurements

Measurement Table mm cm m Km Height Arm Book Desk L Desk W

Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity
Meaning Anti- Against Atmo- Vapor Chromo- Color Con- Together Di- Double Endo- Within Exo- Outside Hetero- Different Homo- Same Hydro- Water Select three science words that have a prefix listed on the chart

Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity
Meaning In- Inside Inter- Between Iso- Equal Macro- Large Micro- Small Photo- Light Sub- Under Syn- Together Tele- Distant Trans- Across Select three more science words that have a prefix listed on this chart

Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity
Meaning -ation The act of -escent Becoming -graphy Description of -logy Study of -meter Device for measuring -scope Instrument for seeing -sphere Round -stasis Stationary condition -therm Heat -verge Turn Select three science words that have a suffix listed on this chart

Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity
MAIN Prefixes / Suffixes Adapted from Prentice Hall Chap 1 Activity Write a paragraph using the nine words you have chosen. Be prepared to read your paragraph aloud.

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