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Be Safe Ladder Safety. Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 2 Choosing Right Equipment -- Ladder or Scaffold? Will the job take only a short amount of time?Will the.

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Presentation on theme: "Be Safe Ladder Safety. Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 2 Choosing Right Equipment -- Ladder or Scaffold? Will the job take only a short amount of time?Will the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Be Safe Ladder Safety

2 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 2 Choosing Right Equipment -- Ladder or Scaffold? Will the job take only a short amount of time?Will the job take only a short amount of time? Does work require side-to-side movement?Does work require side-to-side movement? Does the work require using tools with both hands?Does the work require using tools with both hands? Ladder Scaffold

3 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 3 Straight LadderStraight Ladder Step LadderStep Ladder Extension LadderExtension Ladder Sectional LadderSectional Ladder Trestle LadderTrestle Ladder Trolley LadderTrolley Ladder Side RollingSide Rolling Masons LadderMasons Ladder Max 30Max 30 Max 20Max 20 Max 60Max 60 Combined lengths of section not longer t han specified for equivalent non-sectional typesCombined lengths of section not longer t han specified for equivalent non-sectional types Max 30Max 30 Max 20Max 20 Max 40Max 40 Types of Ladders

4 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 4 Duty Ratings Type IAA: Special-duty lbs Type IA: Extra heavy-duty lbs Type I: Heavy-duty lbs Type II: Medium-Duty lbs (not recommended at UWM) Type III: Light-Duty lbs (not allowed at UWM)

5 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 5 Load Limits Select a ladder designed to hold the necessary load, including worker and equipmentSelect a ladder designed to hold the necessary load, including worker and equipment Do not assume that a longer ladder has a higher duty rating. There is no relationship between length and duty rating. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) requires that a duty rating sticker be placed on the side of every ladder so users can determine if they have the correct type ladder for each task/job.American National Standards Institute

6 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 6 Advantages/Disadvantages FiberglassFiberglass –Strong, lightweight, electrically non- conductive –More expensive than wood or metal Fiberglass Ladder

7 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 7 MetalMetal –Must not be used when working on or near electrical wires –lightweight Advantages/Disadvantages

8 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 8 Advantages/Disadvantages WoodWood –Heavier than aluminum or fiberglass –Can rot –Electrically non- conductive

9 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 9 Fixed Ladders Prior to ascending or descending a fixed ladder, examine connections to assure that ladder is properly secured Fixed ladders are located in the Fine Arts Complex -- Theatre and Recital Hall

10 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 10 Check for damage prior to using: Make sure feet are not broken or malfunctioning and that the slip- resistant pads are secure. Inspect for cracks, bends & splits on the side rails, rungs & steps. Make sure both rung locks are working properly. Test the rope & pulley. Examine rope for any signs of fraying. Make sure the pulley is operating smoothly. Ensure all bolts and rivets are secure. Make sure ladder is free of foreign materials such as oil & grease. Make sure the spreader braces are secure & working properly. Aluminum or steel ladders should be inspected for rough burrs and sharp edges. Ladder Safety Checklist

11 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 11 Immediately remove ladder from service if inspection finds Broken or missing steps, rungs or cleatsBroken or missing steps, rungs or cleats Broken or damaged side railsBroken or damaged side rails Other faulty equipment such as missing feet, damaged connections, broken rivetsOther faulty equipment such as missing feet, damaged connections, broken rivets

12 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 12 Always place ladders on a stable surfaceAlways place ladders on a stable surface Clear debrisClear debris Level uneven groundLevel uneven ground Ladder Set-Up

13 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 13 Always assure secure footingAlways assure secure footing Keep ladder free from mud, grease and other substances which could cause you to slipKeep ladder free from mud, grease and other substances which could cause you to slip Keep area around ladder free from traffic.Keep area around ladder free from traffic. Ladder Set-Up

14 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 14 Always lock or guard door if ladder blocks doorwayAlways lock or guard door if ladder blocks doorway Ladder Set-Up

15 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 15 Base of straight ladder should be 1 foot away from the surface for every 4 feet to the topBase of straight ladder should be 1 foot away from the surface for every 4 feet to the top(1:4) 1 foot 4 feet Ladder Set-Up

16 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 16 place ladder on boxes, barrels or other unstable surfaces to extend heightDont place ladder on boxes, barrels or other unstable surfaces to extend height Ladder Set-Up

17 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 17 Extension Ladders Always raise extension ladders so that the upper section overlaps and rests on the bottom section.Always raise extension ladders so that the upper section overlaps and rests on the bottom section. The upper section must always overlap on the climbing side of the extension ladder.The upper section must always overlap on the climbing side of the extension ladder.

18 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 18 Extension Ladder Overlap Extension Ladders should have the proper overlap: Three foot overlap for 32-foot ladder Four foot overlap for 32- to 36-foot ladder Five foot overlap for 36- to 48-foot ladder Six foot overlap for 48-foot ladder

19 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 19 Straight Ladder If a straight ladder is used to climb onto an elevated work station, it will extend at least 3 1/2 feet above the working level.If a straight ladder is used to climb onto an elevated work station, it will extend at least 3 1/2 feet above the working level. This ladder is not sufficiently extended

20 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 20 Face the ladder when ascending or descendingFace the ladder when ascending or descending Both hands should be placed on ladder rails, not on rungs, when ascending and descendingBoth hands should be placed on ladder rails, not on rungs, when ascending and descending Maintain 3 point contact at all times -- This means both feet and one hand or one foot and both handsMaintain 3 point contact at all times -- This means both feet and one hand or one foot and both hands Safe Ladder Use

21 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 21 Use extra caution while climbing in windy weatherUse extra caution while climbing in windy weather Safe Ladder Use

22 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 22 Always climb completely past the landing before stepping overAlways climb completely past the landing before stepping over SafeLadder Use Safe Ladder Use

23 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 23 walk a ladder (rocking from side to side to move)Dont walk a ladder (rocking from side to side to move) use a stepladder as a straight ladderDont use a stepladder as a straight ladder SafeLadder Use Safe Ladder Use

24 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 24 carry tools in your hands. (A tool pouch or belt should be used or tools should be hoisted up)Dont carry tools in your hands. (A tool pouch or belt should be used or tools should be hoisted up) overreach to either side or lean too far forward or backwardDont overreach to either side or lean too far forward or backward Safe Ladder Use

25 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 25 use a ladder without locking spreader or other device in placeDont use a ladder without locking spreader or other device in place Safe Ladder Use

26 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 26 climb using bracing on back legs of step ladderDont climb using bracing on back legs of step ladder attempt to straighten or use a bent ladder made of metal or reinforced plastic-- repairs should be made by qualified personnelDont attempt to straighten or use a bent ladder made of metal or reinforced plastic-- repairs should be made by qualified personnel Safe Ladder Use

27 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 27 Dont Climb using two highest steps or top of platform Safe Ladder Use

28 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 28 use a defective ladderDont use a defective ladder block a fire exitDont block a fire exit use a ladder as a platformDont use a ladder as a platform use a ladder by more than one personDont use a ladder by more than one person Safe Ladder Use

29 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 29 use a ladder if you are feeling dizzy, light-headed, are excessively tired, on medication, have recently consumed alcohol or are otherwise temporarily impaired.Dont use a ladder if you are feeling dizzy, light-headed, are excessively tired, on medication, have recently consumed alcohol or are otherwise temporarily impaired. Safe Ladder Use

30 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 30 Always face ladder when ascending, descending and performing workAlways face ladder when ascending, descending and performing work Ascending and Descending

31 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 31 Keep between the side rails when working --your body should be centered on the ladder so your belt buckle is between the side railsKeep between the side rails when working --your body should be centered on the ladder so your belt buckle is between the side rails Safe Ladder Use

32 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 32 Store ladders for easy access and inspection.Store ladders for easy access and inspection. Store vertically if possible. If not possible, store horizontally supporting ladder at several points to avoid saggingStore vertically if possible. If not possible, store horizontally supporting ladder at several points to avoid sagging Protect ladder from heat, weather and corrosive materialsProtect ladder from heat, weather and corrosive materials Ladder Storage

33 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 33 Do not leave ladders where they may create a tripping or fall hazard for othersDo not leave ladders where they may create a tripping or fall hazard for others Ladder Storage

34 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 34 Lift ladder using legs muscles, not backLift ladder using legs muscles, not back Carry holding ladder close to bodyCarry holding ladder close to body Lifting and Carrying

35 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 35 When carrying ladder: Balance center of ladder on your shoulderBalance center of ladder on your shoulder Position so front end of ladder is above your head and back end is near the groundPosition so front end of ladder is above your head and back end is near the ground Lifting and Carrying

36 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 36 When ascending and descending stairs, carry ladder with one hand and hold stair rail with the other hand Lifting and Carrying

37 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 37 Set ladder down when opening and closing doorsSet ladder down when opening and closing doors Take special care when negotiating corners or turning aroundTake special care when negotiating corners or turning around Lifting and Carrying

38 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 38 When it is necessary for two people to carry a ladder, both should be on the same side of ladder and both people should walk in step.When it is necessary for two people to carry a ladder, both should be on the same side of ladder and both people should walk in step. Spikes, hooks or ladder feet should face toward the rear when ladder is being carriedSpikes, hooks or ladder feet should face toward the rear when ladder is being carried Lifting and Carrying

39 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 39 Whats Wrong in this Picture?

40 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 40 Whats Wrong in this Picture? Climb only as high as the 2nd tread from the top on a step ladder and the 3rd rung from the top on a straight ladder.

41 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 41 Whats Wrong in this Picture? Do not sit on the ladder and never sit or stand on the top cap of a step ladder – it is not designed to carry your weight.

42 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 42 Ladder should be opened fully and locking mechanism engaged prior to ascending Whats Wrong in This Picture?

43 Be Safe Ladders in Construction

44 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 44 OSHA Part number 1910 These are just a few of the Federal regulations on ladders Ladders Fixed ladders (Walking Surfaces) Portable wood ladders Portable metal ladders

45 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 45 ANSI Standards ANSI A Safety Requirements for Portable Wood Ladders ANSI A Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders ANSI A Safety Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders

46 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 46 Portable Wood Ladders Materials" (b)(1) (b)(1)(i) All wood parts shall be free from sharp edges and splinters; sound and free from accepted visual inspection from shake, wane, compression failures, decay, or other irregularities. Low density wood shall not be used.

47 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 47 Portable Wood Ladders (c)(2) Portable stepladders. Stepladders longer than 20 feet shall not be supplied. Stepladders as hereinafter specified shall be of three types: Type I– Industrial stepladder, 3 to 12 feet for heavy duty, such as utilities, contractors, and industrial use. Type II– Commercial stepladder, 3 to 12 feet for medium duty, such as painters.and light industrial use. Type III– Household stepladder, 3 to 6 feet for light duty, such as light household use.

48 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 48 Table 1. In-Line Duty Rating & Type Working Loads (pounds) (Wooden and Metal Ladders) Extra Heavy Duty - Type IA 300# Heavy Duty - Type I 250# Medium Duty - Type II225# Light Duty - Type III200# General Requirements (c)(2)(i)

49 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 49 General Requirements (c)(2)(i) (c)(2)(i)(b) A uniform step spacing shall be employed which shall be not more than 12 inches. Steps shall be parallel and level when the ladder is in position for use (c)(2)(i)(c) The minimum width between side rails at the top, inside to inside, shall be not less than 11 ½ inches. From top to bottom, the side rails shall spread at least 1 inch for each foot of length of stepladder.

50 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 50 If this ladder were to be 6 high and 11 ½ between rails at the top then it has to be 17 ½ between the rails at the bottom 6 x 1 = ½ = 17 ½

51 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 51 General Requirements (c)(2)(i) (c)(2)(i)(c) A metal spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections in open positions shall be a component of each stepladder. The spreader shall have all sharp points covered or removed to protect the user. For Type III ladder, the pail shelf and spreader may be combined in one unit (the so-called shelf-lock ladder).

52 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 52 Example of pail shelf and spreader combination so called shelf-lock ladder Metal spreader or locking device

53 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c)(3) "Portable rung ladders." (c)(3)(ii)(a) Single Ladders longer than 30 feet shall not be supplied (c)(3)(iii)(a) Two-section extension ladders longer than 60 feet shall not be supplied. All ladders of this type shall consist of two sections, one to fit within the side rails of the other, and arranged in such a manner that the upper section can be raised and lowered

54 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 54 These are two section ladders

55 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c)(3)(iv) "Sectional ladder." (c)(3)(iv)(a) Assembled combinations of sectional ladders longer longer than lengths specified in this subdivision shall not be used (c)(3)(v)(a) Trestle and Extension Trestle Ladder. Trestle ladders, or extension sections sections or base sections of extension trestle ladders longer than 20 feet shall not be supplied.

56 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 56 This is a Trestle ladder

57 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 57 "Painter's stepladder." (c)(4)(ii)(a) Painters Stepladder. Painters steplad-ders longer than 12 feet shall not be supplied. Masons Ladder. A masons ladder is a special type of single ladder intended for use in heavy construction work. Masons ladders longer than 40 feet shall not be supplied.

58 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 58 #1 Top Rest #2 Pail Shelve #3 Locking Device #4 Rungs/Cleat/Steps #5 Brace #6 Knee Brace #7 Safety Feet

59 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) "Care and use of ladders" (d) (1) – Care. To insure safety and serviceability the following precautions on the care of ladders shall be observed:

60 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) "Care and use of ladders" (d)(1)(i) Ladders shall be maintained in good condition at all times,the joint between the steps and side rails shall be tight, all hardware and fittings attached, and the movable parts shall operate freely without binding or undue play.

61 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) "Care and use of ladders" (d)(1)(x) Ladders shall be inspected frequently and those which have developed defects shall be withdrawn from service for repair or destruction and tagged or marked as Dangerous, Do not Use (d)(1)(xi) Rungs should be kept free of grease and oil.

62 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) "Care and use of ladders" (d)(1)(ii) Metal bearings of locks wheels, pulleys, etc., shall be frequently lubricated (d)(1)(iii) Frayed or badly worn rope shall be replaced (d)(1)(iv) Safety feet and other auxiliary equipment shall be keep in good condition to insure proper performance.

63 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2) The following safety precautions shall be observed in connection with the use of ladders: (d)(2)(I) Portable rung and cleat ladders shall, where possible, be used at such a pitch that the horizontal distance from the top support to the top of the ladder is one-quarter of the working length of the ladder (the length of the ladder between the foot and the top support) The ladder shall be placed as to prevent slipping, or it shall be lashed, or held in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds;

64 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 64

65 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2)(ii) Ladders for which dimensions are specified should not be used by more than one man at a time nor with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such cases, specially designed ladders with larger dimensions of the parts should be procured;

66 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2)(iii) Portable ladders shall be so placed that the side rails have a secure footing. The top rest for portable rung and cleat ladders shall be reasonably rigid and shall have ample strength to support the applied load; (d)(2)(iv) Ladders shall not be placed in front of doors opening toward the ladder unless the door is blocked upon, locked, or guarded.

67 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2)(v) Ladders shall not be placed on boxes, barrels, or other usable bases to obtain additional height; (d)(2)(viii) Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment shall not be used; improvised repairs shall not be made;

68 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 68

69 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 69

70 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 70

71 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2)(ix) Short ladders shall not be spliced together to provide long sections; (d)(2)(x) Ladders made by fastening cleats across a single rail shall not be used; (d)(2)(xii) Tops of the ordinary types of stepladders shall not be used as steps;

72 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(2)(x) Ladders made by fastening cleats across a single rail shall not be used;

73 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 73 Actually you are not supposed to step either on the top shelve or the next lower step.

74 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2)(xiii) On two-section extension ladders the minimum overlap for two sections in use shall be as shown in table 1. Overlap required for two-section extension ladders of various lengths.

75 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 75 Example overlap of two or more sections on an extension ladder.

76 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use Size of ladder Overlap (feet) Up to and including 36 3 Over 36 up to and including 48 4 Over 48 up to and including (d)(2)(xv) No ladder should be used to gain access to a roof unless the top of the ladder shall extend at least 3 feet above the point of support, at eave, gutter, or roofline;

77 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 77

78 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d) (2) Use (d)(2)(xvii) Middle and top sections of sectional or window cleaners ladder should not be used for bottom section unless the user equips them with safety shoes; (d)(2)(xix) The user should equip all portable rung ladders with nonslips bases when there is a hazard of. slipping. Non-slip bases are not intended as a substitute for care in safely placing, lashing, or holding a ladder that is being used upon oily, metal, concrete, or slippery surfaces;

79 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 79 Portable metal ladders Part Number: 1910 Part Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards Subpart: D Subpart Title: Walking-Working Surfaces Standard Number:

80 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 80 Fixed ladders. Part Number: 1910 Part Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards Subpart: D Subpart Title: Walking-Working Surfaces Standard Number:

81 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 81 Portable Metal Ladders (a) Design Requirements (a)(1) Design considerations. All ladders, appurtenances, and fastenings shall be designed to meet the following load requirements: (a)(1)(I) The minimum design live load shall be single concentrated load of 200 lbs.

82 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (a) Design Requirements (a)(1)(ii) The number and position of additional concentrated live-load units of 200 pounds each as determined from anticipated usage of the ladder shall be considered in the design (A)(1)(III). The live loads imposed by persons occupying the ladder shall be considered to be concentrated at such points as will cause the maximum stress in the structural member being considered.

83 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (a) Design Requirements (a)(1)(iv) The weight of the ladder and attached appurtenances together with the live load shall be considered in the design of rails and fastenings (a)(2) Design stresses Design stresses for wood components of ladders shall not exceed those specified in All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of (b)

84 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (a) Design Requirements (a)(2) For fixed ladders consisting of wood side rails and wood rungs or cleats, used at a pitch in the range 75 to 90 degrees, and intended for use by no more than one person per section, single ladders as described in (c )(3)(ii) are acceptable.

85 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b) Specific features – (b)(1) Rungs and Cleats (b)(1)(I) All rungs shall have a minimum diameter of three-fourths inch for metal ladders, except as covered in paragraph (b)(7)(I) of this section and a minimum diameter of 1 1/8 inches for wood ladders.

86 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(1)(ii) The distance between rungs, cleats and steps shall not exceed 12 inches and shall be uniform throughout the length of the ladder (b)(1) (iii) The minimum clear length of rungs or cleats shall be 16 inches.

87 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(1)(iv) Rungs, cleats, and steps shall be free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or projections which may be a hazard (b)(1)(v) The rungs of an individual-rung ladder shall be so designed that the foot cannot slide off the end.

88 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(2) Side rails. Side rails which might be used as a climbing aid shall be of such cross sections as to afford adequate gripping surface without sharp edges, splinters, or burrs.

89 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(3) Fastenings. Fastening shall be an integral part of fixed ladder design (b)(4) Splices. All splices made by whatever means shall meet design requirements as noted in paragraph (a) of this section. All splices and connections shall have smooth transition with original members and with no sharp or extensive projections.

90 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(5) Electrolytic action Adequate means shall be employed to protect dissimilar metals from electrolytic action when such metals are joined (b)(6) Welding All welding shall be in 90accordance with the Code for Welding in Building Construction(AWSD )

91 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 91 Portable Metal Ladders Portable metal ladders shall not be used near electrical conductors nor for electrical arc welding operations. Construction of portable wood cleated ladders up to 30 feet in length (b)(5)

92 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(7)Protection from deterioration Metal ladders and appurtenances shall be painted or otherwise treated to resist corrosion and rusting when location demands. Ladders formed by individual metal rungs imbedded in concrete, which serve as access to pits and to other areas under floors, are frequently located in an atmosphere that causes corrosion and rusting. To increase rung life in such atmosphere, individual metal rungs shall have a minimum diameter of 1 inch shall be painted or otherwise treated to resist corrosion and rusting.

93 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(7)(ii) Wood ladders, when used under conditions were decay may occur, shall be treated with a nonirritating preservative, and the details shall be such as to prevent or minimize the accumulation of water on wood parts.

94 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (b)(7)(iii) When different types materials are used in the construction of a ladder, the materials used shall be so treated as to have no deleterious effect one upon the other.

95 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c ) (1) Clearance Climbing side. On fixed ladders, the perpendicular, distance from the centerline of the rungs to the nearest permanent object on the climbing side of the ladder shall be 36 inches for a pitch of 76 degrees, and 30 inches for a pitch of 90 degrees with minimum clearances for intermediate pitches varying between those two limits in proportion to the slope, except as provided in subparagraph (3) and (5) of this paragraph.

96 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 96 Nearest object 36 for a pitch of 76 degrees

97 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c )(2) Ladders without cages or wells Ladders equipped with cage or basket are excepted from the provisions of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph, but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (1) and (2) of this paragraph, but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph(d)(1)(V) of this section. Fixed ladders in smooth-walled wells are excepted from the provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (d)(1)(vi) of this section.

98 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c ) (3) Ladders with cages or baskets. Ladders equipped with cage or basket are excepted from the provisions of subparagraph (1) and (2) of this paragraph but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (d)(1)(v) of this section. Fixed ladders in smooth-walled wells are excepted from the provisions of subparagraph (1) Of this paragraph, but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (d) (1)(vi) of this section.

99 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 99

100 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c )(4) Clearance in back of ladder. The distance from centerline of rungs, cleats, or steps to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder shall be not less than 7 inches, except that when unavoidable obstructions are encountered, minimum clearances as shown in Fig. D-3 shall be provided.

101 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 101

102 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c )(5) Clearance in back of grab bar The distance from the centerline of the grab bar to the nearest permanent object in back of the grab bars shall be not less than 4 inches. Grab bars shall not protrude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the ladder which they serve.

103 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c )(5) Clearances in back of grab. The distance from the centerline of the grab bar to the nearest permanent object in back of the grab shall be not less than 4 inches. Grab bars shall not protrude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the ladder which they serve.

104 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c )(6) Steps-across distance The step-across distance from the nearest edge of ladder to the nearest edge of equipment or structure shall be not more than 12 inches, or less than 2 ½ inches (fig.D-4

105 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 105

106 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (c )(7) Hatch cover. Counterweighted hatch covers shall open a minimum of 60 degrees from the horizontal. The distance from the centerline of rungs or cleats to the edge of the hatch opening on the climbing side shall be not less than 24 inches for offset wells or 30 inches for straight wells. There shall be no protruding potential hazards within 24 inches for offsets wells or 30 inches for straight wells. There shall be no protruding potential hazards within 24 inches of the centerline of rungs or cleats shall be fitted with deflector plates at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal as indicated in figure D-5. The relationship of a fixed ladder to an acceptable counterweight hatch cover is illustrated in figure D-6.

107 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(1)(iii) Cages shall extend a minimum of 42 inches above the top of the landing, unless other acceptable protection is provided (d)(1)(v) Cages shall extend down the ladder to a point not less than 7 feet nor more than 8 feet above the base of the ladder, with bottom flared not less than 4 inches, or portion of cage opposite ladder, with bottom flared not less than 4 inches, or portion of cage opposite ladder shall be carried to the base.

108 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(1)(v) Cages shall not extend less than 27 nor more than 28 inches from centerline of the rungs of the ladder. Cage shall not be less than 27 inches in width. The inside shall be clear of projections. Vertical bars shall be located at a maximum spacing of 40 degrees around the circumference of the cage; this will give a maximum spacing of approximately 9 ½ inches, center to center.

109 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(1)(Vi) Ladders wells shall have a clear width of at least 15 inches measured each way from centerline of the ladder. Smooth- walled wells shall be a maximum of 27 inches from the centerline of rungs to the well wall on the climbing side of the ladder. Where other obstructions on the climbing side of the ladder. Were other obstructions on the climbing side of the ladder exist, there shall be a minimum of 30 inches from the centerline of the rungs.

110 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(2) Landing platforms. When ladders are used to ascend to heights exceeding 20 feet (except on chimneys), landing platforms shall be provided for each 30 feet of height or fraction thereof, except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety is provided, landing platforms shall be provided for 20 feet of height or fraction thereof. Each ladder section shall be offset from adjacent sections. Where installation conditions ( even for a short, unbroken length ) require that adjacent sections be offset, landing platforms shall be provided at each offset.

111 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(2)(I) Where a man has to step a distance greater than 12 inches from the centerline of the rung of a ladder to the nearest edge of structure or equipment, a landing platform shall be provided. The minimum step-across distance shall be 2 ½ inches.

112 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(2)(ii) All landing platforms shall be equipped with standards railings and toeboards, so arranged as to give safe access to the ladder Platforms shall be not less than 24 inches in width and 30 inches in length.

113 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(2)(iii) One rung of any section of ladder shall be located at the level of the landing laterally served by the ladder. Where access to the ladder is trough the ladder, the same rung spacing as used on the ladder shall be used from the landing platform to the first rung below the landing.

114 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(3) Ladder extensions The side rails of trough or side-step ladder extensions shall extend 3 ½ feet above parapets and landings.For through ladder extensions, the rungs shall be omitted from the extension and shall not have less than 18 nor more than 24 inches clearance between rails. FOR side step or offset fixed ladder section, at landing, the side rails and rungs shall be carried to the next regular rung beyond or above the 3 ½ feet minimum.

115 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(4) Grab bars Gab bars shall be spaced by a continuation of the rung spacing when they are located in the horizontal position. Vertical grab bars shall have the same spacing as the ladder side rails. Grab-bar diameters shall be the equivalent of the round-rung diameters shall be the equivalent of the round-rung diameters.

116 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (d)(5) Ladders safety devices Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank, and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in lieu of cage protection. No landing platform is required in these cases. All ladder safety devices such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments shall meet the design requirements of the ladders which they serve.

117 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (e) Pitch Preferred Pitch The preferred pitch of fixed ladders shall be considered to come in the range of 75 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal.

118 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (e)(2) Substandard pitch Fixed ladders shall be considered as substandard if they are installed within the substandard pitch range of 60 and 75 degrees with the horizontal. Substandard fixed ladders are permitted only where it is found to meet conditions of installation. This Substandard pitch range shall be considered as a critical range to be avoided, if possible.

119 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (e)(3) Scope of coverage in this section This section covers only fixed ladders within the pitch range of 60 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal.

120 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) (f) Maintenance All Ladders shall be maintained in a safe condition. All ladders shall be inspected regularly, with the intervals between inspections being determined by use and exposure

121 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 121 Ladder Safety NEVER stand on the top two (2) rungs of ladders and NEVER stand on the top step or platform of a ladder. NEVER place a ladder against an unstable surface. Make sure that the locking device is fully secured on extension ladders before using them.

122 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 122 Ladder Safety Unless a ladder is designed for additional weight, only one (1) person should be on the ladder. Go up and down a ladder facing the ladder, taking only one (1) step at a time. Hold the side rails with both hands when climbing up or down a ladder. Do not hold on to the rungs when going up or down a ladder.

123 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 123 Ladder Safety NEVER climb a ladder "one-handed" while carrying something in the other hand. Use a hand line to raise or lower large objects, tools, etc. Keep your body centred between the rails of the ladder and NEVER over-reach when working on ladders. Before using a ladder always check your shoe soles and ladder rungs (or steps) to ensure that they are free of any slippery material (grease, oil, paint, snow, ice, etc.).

124 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 124 Ladder Safety Do not attempt to reach too high as you may lose your balance. Do not use step-ladders or straight ladders horizontally for platforms or scaffolds. Transport ladders with the feet to the rear and the top of the ladder higher than anyone in front of you. Wet wood ladders conduct electricity and should not be used when working on, with or around electrical equipment or electrical power sources.

125 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 125 Ladder Safety NEVER "walk" a stepladder while standing on it. NEVER use makeshift items such as a chair, barrel or box, etc., as a substitute ladder. NEVER place a ladder against a window pane or sash. Fasten a board (do not use nails) across the top of the ladder to give a bearing surface at each side of the window. NEVER slide down the side rails of ladders. NEVER use ladders during strong winds or storms except in emergencies, and then only; when they are securely "tied-off".

126 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 126 Common Causes of Ladder Accidents Complacency about danger. Over-reaching. Fatigue. Placing ladders on object, to gain height. Too much haste in climbing or descending. Climbing one-handed carrying something. Ladder Slipping at base or top.

127 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 127 Common Causes of Ladder Accidents Standing at the very top of a short ladder, rather than getting one long enough for the job. Hanging tools from ladder rungs, or leaving tools on the top of the stepladder. Throwing tools to a fellow worker on a ladder. Placing the ladder at an improper angle. Using metal ladders in locations where contact with electric wires is possible. Using worn or damaged ladders. Failure to secure (tie) the ladder in place.

128 Be Safe US&A (v. 2/07) 128


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