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Radiation Can Be Fun….!!!! But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it.......

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Can Be Fun….!!!! But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it......."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Radiation Can Be Fun….!!!! But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it

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4 Yet Another Radiation Safety Session Brought to you by your neighborhood radiation safety professionals Dedicated to the Health, Safety and Welfare of our Community

5 Radiation Safety Training Nuclear Medicine Technologists S taff Safety S taff Safety P atient Safety P atient Safety G eneral Safety G eneral Safety

6 Overview Federal & State Regulatory Concerns Federal & State Regulatory Concerns Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure Occupational Sources of Radiation Exposure Occupational Sources of Radiation Exposure Regulatory Exposure Limits Regulatory Exposure Limits Basic Radiation Safety Principles Basic Radiation Safety Principles Biological Effects Biological Effects UCHC Safety Requirements UCHC Safety Requirements

7 Radiation vs. Radioactivity Radiation - Energy in transit in the form of high speed particles and electromagnetic waves. Radiation - Energy in transit in the form of high speed particles and electromagnetic waves. Ionizing Radiation - Radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from their orbits, causing the atom to become charged or ionized. Ionizing Radiation - Radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from their orbits, causing the atom to become charged or ionized. Radioactivity - Spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom and often results in the emission of radiation. This process is referred to as a transformation, a decay or a disintegration of an atom. Radioactivity - Spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom and often results in the emission of radiation. This process is referred to as a transformation, a decay or a disintegration of an atom.

8 Beta Decay

9 Gamma Decay

10 External vs. Internal Radiation Exposure External exposure – x-rays, brachytherapy patients, iodine therapies, dose preparation and administration External exposure – x-rays, brachytherapy patients, iodine therapies, dose preparation and administration Internal deposition – contamination from an iodine patient resulting in an ingestion of radioactive materials Internal deposition – contamination from an iodine patient resulting in an ingestion of radioactive materials

11 § Occupational dose limits for adults. (a)The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under § , to the following dose limits. (1) An annual limit, which is the more limiting of -- (i) The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems (0.05 Sv); or (ii) The sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems (0.5 Sv). (2) The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of the extremities, which are: (i) A lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15 Sv), and (ii) A shallow-dose equivalent of 50 rem (0.5 Sv) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.

12 Radiation Exposure Limits Type of exposure Type of exposure Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) which is the sum of the deep-dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective dose equivalent (for internal exposures) for the whole body Sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye Sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye Eye dose equivalent (lens of the eye) Shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to any extremity Rem Per Year Rem Per Year 5 or 5,000 mrems 50 or 50,000 mrems 15 or 15,000 mrems 50 or 50,000 mrems

13 Radiation Exposure Limits Whole body; Head and trunk; Active blood-forming organs; Lens of eyes, or gonads. Hands and forearms; Feet and ankles. Skin of whole body ( 1,250 mrem) (5.0 rem/yr) (18,750 mrem) (75 rem/yr) (7,500 mrem) (30 rem/yr) Rem Per Calendar Quarter Type of Exposure (State of Connecticut Administrative Regulations Sect ) Fetus 500 mrem Total Gestation (0.5 rem)

14 Basic Radiation Safety Principles T ime D istance S hielding C ontamination Control

15 Inverse Square Law ( 137 Cs 192 Ir) For a point source, the intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. For a point source, the intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. gamma radiation gamma radiation 1 cm 10,000 2 cm 2,500 5 cm cm cm 25

16 Radiation Exposure Monitoring Whole Body Radiation Badge Worn Underneath Pb Apron Collar Radiation Badge Worn Outside Pb Apron At Neck Level BLACK ICONRED ICON Extremity Radiation Badge Worn on Primary Hand Closest to Radiation Source

17 ALARA Investigational Level I

18 Radiopharmaceutical Therapies 131 I 153 Sm 32 P Unsealed Radioactive Liquid or Radioactive Capsule (IV or PO) Unsealed Radioactive Liquid or Radioactive Capsule (IV or PO) Extreme Contamination Concern Extreme Contamination Concern All Body Fluids Will Be Contaminated All Body Fluids Will Be Contaminated

19 Phosphorus-32 Synovectomy

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39 Contaminated areas 9 Contaminated areas 9 Stress lab 2 Stress lab 2 Skin CONTAM, known 3 Skin CONTAM, known 3 Skin CONTAM, unknown 2 Skin CONTAM, unknown 2 Needle stick+CONTAM. 1 Needle stick+CONTAM. 1 Outside staff in dept 2 Outside staff in dept 2 –Plumber and pg doc

40 Within The same week for 131-I Within The same week for 131-I Within 7 days 125-I Within 7 days 125-I MDA about UCI, o.5 NCI MDA about UCI, o.5 NCI MDD, 131-i 0.5 mrem TODE MDD, 131-i 0.5 mrem TODE

41 Thyroid counts Thyroid counts Signatures Signatures Spills Spills Package surveys Package surveys Gloves in hot lab-monitoring Gloves in hot lab-monitoring Access to the department Access to the department Incorrect 99m-TC dose Incorrect 99m-TC dose

42 CONTAMINANTAVERAGE DPM/CM^2DPM/100 CM^2 Beta/Gamma Alpha T.I. = 1 meter from sufrace TRANSPORT INDEXMAX. MR/HR SURFACE LABEL 0 (<= 0.05)< 0.5 mr/hr White I 0.05 to <= to <= 50 mr/hr Yellow -II 1.0 to <= to <= 200 mr/hr Yellow- III > to <= 1000 mr/hrExc. Use!!!

43 Personnel protective equipment required for entry Personnel protective equipment required for entry Gloves Gloves Dosimetry Dosimetry Lab coat Lab coat

44 PPE highly recommended when entering PPE highly recommended when entering PPE required if injecting PPE required if injecting PPE required if assisting PPE required if assisting PPE required if handling any possibly contaminated item PPE required if handling any possibly contaminated item

45 PPE required PPE required Injecting rad mat Injecting rad mat Handling/assisting patients who have been injected Handling/assisting patients who have been injected Handling items that may be contaminated Handling items that may be contaminated

46 A survey of the hands and other body areas with documentation A survey of the hands and other body areas with documentation Suggested very strongly to survey shoes Suggested very strongly to survey shoes Report contamination to RSO Report contamination to RSO This is an NRC requirement This is an NRC requirement

47 What label is required on a package with the following monitoring results ? What label is required on a package with the following monitoring results ? 10 MR/hr surface, 1 1m, wipe test BKG. 285 CPM, gross CPM of MR/hr surface, 1 1m, wipe test BKG. 285 CPM, gross CPM of 1250

48 Background 430 CPM, outside wipe 360 CPM? Background 430 CPM, outside wipe 360 CPM? Background 310 CPM, outside wipe 349 CPM? Background 310 CPM, outside wipe 349 CPM? Background 265 CPM, outside wipe 5500 CPM? Background 265 CPM, outside wipe 5500 CPM?

49 Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Procedures Radionuclides with short half lives (e.G., 99m 6 hrs) Radionuclides with short half lives (e.G., 99m 6 hrs) No significant external radiation exposure hazard to staff or family No significant external radiation exposure hazard to staff or family Contamination precautions and universal precautions should always be followed Contamination precautions and universal precautions should always be followed

50 NRC requires a signed declaration of pregnancy for occupational workers to limit exposures to 500 mrem/9months or 50 mrem in any one month. NRC requires a signed declaration of pregnancy for occupational workers to limit exposures to 500 mrem/9months or 50 mrem in any one month. Pregnancy Declaration

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53 Emergency Procedures Follow radiation patient code procedures. Follow radiation patient code procedures. If the patient should die or require emergency surgery, contact a member of the Radiation Safety Office immediately at X If the patient should die or require emergency surgery, contact a member of the Radiation Safety Office immediately at X Address medical emergency first !! Address medical emergency first !!

54 Radiation Exposures from Consumer Products 1 1 Adapted from NCRP 95

55 Radiation Exposures from Consumer Products 1 Adapted from NCRP 95 2 BEDE = Bronchial Epithelial Dose Equivalent; WB = Whole Body; IDF = Ingestion Dose from Foods BMDE = Bronchial Mucosa Dose Equivalent; CGDE = Corneal Germinal Dose Equivalent; SODE = Selected Organ Dose Equivalent BMDE = Bronchial Mucosa Dose Equivalent; CGDE = Corneal Germinal Dose Equivalent; SODE = Selected Organ Dose Equivalent 1

56 Radiation Exposures From ? Smoking a pack and a half of cigarettes a day will add about 1,300 mrem/year to one's effective dose Flying from New York to San Francisco results in the absorption of an extra 2-3 mrem of cosmic radiation 6-8 from NY to Japan

57 Radiation Exposures From ? For the Skylab astronauts, 2,000 to 8,000 mrem from cosmic radiation

58 Risks which Increase Chance of Death by 1 in 1 million a a B.L. Cohen and I.S. Lee, Catalog of Risks Extended and Updated, Health Physics, Vol. 61, Sept

59 More Risks which Increase Chance of Death by 1 in 1 million a a B.L. Cohen and I.S. Lee, Catalog of Risks Extended and Updated, Health Physics, Vol. 61, Sept

60 Remember !!! Controlling Exposures Minimizes Risk

61 The End


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