Presentation on theme: "communication, negotiations and cultural background"— Presentation transcript:
1 communication, negotiations and cultural background United Kingdomcommunication, negotiations and cultural backgroundBy Adam Kowol and Edyta SzumiełTopic:communication and negotiation styles in the UK.
2 Presentation outline Cultural background Verbal communication Non-verbal communicationPractical tips for negotiatorsAgenda:communication and negotiation styles in the wider cultural context,characteristic features of verbal and non-verbal communication,miscellaneous hints for those doing business with the British.
3 Dimensions of culture Universalism (versus particularism) Individualism (versus communitarianism)Specificity (versus diffuseness)Status by achievement (versus ascription)Sequential (versus synchronic)In order to give our presentation a clear structure, we have decided to discuss communication and negotiation styles in terms of so-called dimensions of culture.What do we mean by a "dimension"? An aspect of a culture which can be measured relative to other cultures and which groups together a number of phenomena in a society based on statistical relationships.
4 UniversalismUniversalist approach: „What is good and right can be defined and always applies”Implications:contracts are very important, always in writing, „a deal is a deal” (unwilling to renegotiate deals)lawyers are introduced into the process of negotiationpersonal relationship often ignored, negotiators tend to get down to business quicklyrational and professional argumentsuniform procedures imposed by the head officetransparency and consistency
5 IndividualismPeople regard themselves primarily as individuals rather than as part of a groupImplications:more frequent use of "I" forma single representative feels comfortable taking decisionspersonal responsibility, no need to consult with superiorsconsensus is not deemed necessary (no need to convince everyone)the decision-making process is shortrisk: delays in the implementation phase, disparity between decision and implementationduring negotiations the translator is supposed to be neutral
6 SpecificityLow-context culture: not much background information is required for effective communicationImplications:not afraid of losing facedo not take things personallystraightforward communication, open criticismwork and private life are sharply separateddon't mix business with pleasurepersonal questions are not welcomethey get straight to the point (from specific to general)importance of specific, measurable objectivesmeetings have clear structure (timing, agendas)only relevant titles and skills are worth mentioning
7 Achievement-oriented culture You are judged on what you have accomplished: status is not attributed by birth, kinship, connections, gender or ageImplications:the first question is likely to be "What did you study?", not "Where did you study?"academic titles are often considered irrelevant in business environmentimportance of data and technical considerations
8 Time as sequence Time is a series of passing events Implications: importance of schedulespreference for following initial plansit is rude to be even a few minutes latetime is money
9 A commanding social presence Desired qualities of a gentleman:gracegood stylesense of humoureloquencecomposure
10 Other cultural characteristics the British prefer talking over doingform is very importantthey pay more attention to numbers (e.g. financial data) than material productspreoccupied with abstract ideaspublic debates and discussions are out of touch with reality
12 Content Low-context: Topics: concentrate on the subject matter the English are generally open-mindedwelcome topics: the weather, sports, current affairs, British history, culture and popular musicavoid personal questions and topics such as politics or religion
13 British humour Often used to release emotions General features: puns nonsensesmut and innuendoblack humoureccentricitysatire and sarcasmunderstatement and irony
14 Form Do not interrupt anybody Speak in complete sentences Avoid sloppy languagePhrase sentences correctly
15 Non-verbal communication KinesicsOculesicsHapticsProxemicsParalanguageObject communication
16 Kinesics Gestures: Facial expressions: British gestures are restrained excessive gesticulation can come across as aggressive behaviourFacial expressions:emotional displays, positive or negative, are frowned uponthe British "keep a stiff upper lip"facial expressions are kept to a minimum
17 OculesicsProlonged eye-to-eye contact can be interpreted as impolite behaviour
18 Haptics Touching is avoided, only handshake is acceptable Backslapping and hugging are not welcome
19 Proxemics Do not intrude into their personal space Keep your interlocutor at arm’s lengthStand next to each other rather than opposite
20 Paralanguage Definition Talk in a monotone part of nonverbal communicationhow something is said rather than what is saidTalk in a monotoneSpeak in low, measured tones without raising the voice
21 Object communication Clothing conservative dress is the norm a dark suit is recommendedextremely informal clothing is not considered appropriate
22 Practical tips Make appointments a few days in advance Exchange business cardsBe polite and friendly, even under stress"How do you do?" is a greeting, not a questionSmile a lotMake sure you have clean shoes and fingernailsRemember namesDo not overstay your welcome