Presentation on theme: "BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II"— Presentation transcript:
1 BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 2: Phonetics
2 Who am I? Rebecca Carroll, M.A. Contact options:Stud.IPA / phoneAll information can be found on my homepage:
3 LiteratureFromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N. (2006). An Introduction to Language. 8th ed. Wadsworth.Roach, P. (2000). English Phonetics & Phonology – A Practical Course. 3rd ed. Cambridge: CUP.Ladefoged, P. (2006). A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed.Hanke, J. & Intemann, F. (2000). The Interactive Introduction to Linguistics. CD ROM. Version 2.0. München: Hueber.See Handapparat for further introductory books
4 Any Questions So Far? Organizational Concerning the lecture Concerning this class
5 Overview: Where are we? Phonetics/ Phonology Morphology major areas SyntaxSemanticsPragmaticsApplied Linguistics (Historical Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Textlinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, Computational Linguistics, …)major areasof (theoretical) linguistics
6 Phonetics – The Art of Articulation What organs are involved when we produce sounds?Airstream mechanismsPhonationVocal tractArticulatorsTongue
7 Phonetic Description of Sounds PhonationPlace of articulationManner of articulationLip rounding
12 Places of Articulation: Consonantal Chart InternationalPhoneticsAssociation
13 Manners of Articulation PlosiveFricativeNasalApproximantTrillLateralFlap/ tap
14 Co-articulation and Other Nuissances A sound can be slightly altered in anticipation of the following sound, so that the articulators have to „work less“. e.g.Lips of an unrounded vowel (or consonant) can be slightly rounded in anticipation of a labial consonantVowels preceding a nasal are typically slightly nasalized as wellTranscription issues:The length of a vowel is also transcribed /uː/ as in ‚two‘Usually, you will also find stress marks: primary stress /ˈ/ as in /əˈbəʊt/ and secondary stress /ˌ/ as in /ˌlɪŋˈɡwɪs.tɪks/
15 Name the articulators/ vocal organs in the figures. Your Turn!Name the articulators/ vocal organs in the figures.
16 Your turn!Listen to the sounds and write down the phonetic properties referring toManner of articulationPlace of articulationLip roundingTongue position (front/ back/ high/ low)
17 Your turn!Determine the sound of the following sound-descriptions and find an example word which contains that sound.e.g. /b/ as in batvoiced velar plosive unrounded close-mid front v.voiceless bilabial plosive rounded open back vowelvoiced alveolar nasal neutral mid central vowelvoiceless labiodental fricative rounded close-mid back v.voiced labio-velar approximant unr. open(-mid) front vowelvoiced alvolar lateral rounded open-mid back v.voiceless glottal fricative unrounded close-mid front v.
18 (Brief) Description of Articulatory Actions of the Word „Ship“ Starting point: normal breathing (how?)Blade of tongue is raised against in the post-alveolar region of the hard palate; lips are slightly rounded.Lungs are compressed to produce an egressive pulmonic airstream; air escapes through a passage along the center of the tongue causing friction.4. Vocal fold vibration begins; tongue is lowered and moved to a high front position; lips are rounded.5. Lips are closed to form a closure in the vocal tract; air is compressed, voicing ceases.6. Release of compressed air by opening mouth, air escapes.7. Lung pressure is lowered and the articulators return to normal (breathing position).
19 Your turn!Try to give the same detailed description for the articulation of (one of) the following words:- this - bee- those - shoes- bang - mythPay special attention to details such as coarticulation, nasalization, voicing, etc.