Presentation on theme: "BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 2: Phonetics."— Presentation transcript:
BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 2: Phonetics
Who am I? Rebecca Carroll, M.A. Contact options: Stud.IP A / phone All information can be found on my homepage:
Literature Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N. (2006). An Introduction to Language. 8th ed. Wadsworth. Roach, P. (2000). English Phonetics & Phonology – A Practical Course. 3rd ed. Cambridge: CUP. Ladefoged, P. (2006). A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed. Hanke, J. & Intemann, F. (2000). The Interactive Introduction to Linguistics. CD ROM. Version 2.0. München: Hueber. See Handapparat for further introductory books
Any Questions So Far? Organizational Concerning the lecture Concerning this class
Overview: Where are we? Phonetics/ Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Applied Linguistics (Historical Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Textlinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, Computational Linguistics, …) major areas of (theoretical) linguistics
Phonetics – The Art of Articulation What organs are involved when we produce sounds? Airstream mechanisms Phonation Vocal tract Articulators Tongue
Phonetic Description of Sounds Phonation Place of articulation Manner of articulation Lip rounding
Places of Articulation: the Vocal Tract
Places of Articulation: the Tongue
Places of Articulation: Vowels
Places of Articulation: Consonantal Chart
International Phonetics Association
Manners of Articulation Plosive Fricative Nasal Approximant Trill Lateral Flap/ tap
Co-articulation and Other Nuissances A sound can be slightly altered in anticipation of the following sound, so that the articulators have to work less. e.g. Lips of an unrounded vowel (or consonant) can be slightly rounded in anticipation of a labial consonant Vowels preceding a nasal are typically slightly nasalized as well Transcription issues: The length of a vowel is also transcribed /u ː / as in two Usually, you will also find stress marks: primary stress / ˈ / as in /ə ˈ bə ʊ t/ and secondary stress / ˌ / as in / ˌ l ɪ ŋ ˈɡ w ɪ s.t ɪ ks/
Your Turn! Name the articulators/ vocal organs in the figures.
Your turn! Listen to the sounds and write down the phonetic properties referring to Manner of articulation Place of articulation Lip rounding Tongue position (front/ back/ high/ low)
Your turn! Determine the sound of the following sound-descriptions and find an example word which contains that sound. e.g. /b/ as in bat voiced velar plosiveunrounded close-mid front v. voiceless bilabial plosiverounded open back vowel voiced alveolar nasalneutral mid central vowel voiceless labiodental fricativerounded close-mid back v. voiced labio-velar approximantunr. open(-mid) front vowel voiced alvolar lateralrounded open-mid back v. voiceless glottal fricativeunrounded close-mid front v.
(Brief) Description of Articulatory Actions of the Word Ship 1.Starting point: normal breathing (how?) 2.Blade of tongue is raised against in the post-alveolar region of the hard palate; lips are slightly rounded. 3.Lungs are compressed to produce an egressive pulmonic airstream; air escapes through a passage along the center of the tongue causing friction. 4. Vocal fold vibration begins; tongue is lowered and moved to a high front position; lips are rounded. 5. Lips are closed to form a closure in the vocal tract; air is compressed, voicing ceases. 6. Release of compressed air by opening mouth, air escapes. 7. Lung pressure is lowered and the articulators return to normal (breathing position).
Your turn! Try to give the same detailed description for the articulation of (one of) the following words: - this- bee - those- shoes - bang- myth Pay special attention to details such as coarticulation, nasalization, voicing, etc.