Presentation on theme: "The critical paper Critical thinking process culminates in articulation Outline follows a format May reverse order of presentation of –Supporting reasons."— Presentation transcript:
The critical paper Critical thinking process culminates in articulation Outline follows a format May reverse order of presentation of –Supporting reasons –Objections and rebuttals
The introduction Arouse readers interest Consider audience Provide adequate background Lead naturally to thesis
Clarifying claims Anywhere questions of understanding or relevance can be anticipated Restate claim in different language –In other words … –If/then statement Examples or illustrations Appropriate definitions
Developing arguments Each paragraph or reason needs –Main point –Clarification –Support –Summary or transition to next point Topic sentence for each reason –Like a thesis for the reason Logical order of –Reasons for a position –Examples and illustrations Guide the reader by using –Transitional phrases –Sequence indicators
Alternatives and objections Visualize a formal debate on the issue Deal with each objection mentioned in your thesis statement. –Summarize the objection as succinctly as possible. –Put yourself in the opponents shoes Explain the objection as he or she would do Give a fair and objective statement of the most important reasons why he or she believes the objection is a good one. For each argument given to support the objection, –Recognize the relevance or worth of the objection –Address the weaknesses of the argument –Summarize your response to the objection as succinctly as possible.
The conclusion Summarize the entire paper. End with the main idea of the paper. Reflect not only the content of the discussion but also its flavor.
Editing and revision The introduction and the thesis –Will the reader continue? The arguments (for and against) –Good reasoning? –Enlightening examples? –Relevant and convincing evidence? –Clear organization? Mechanical correctness –Sloppiness here may bias the reader. Unity of entire paper –Ideally, the reader should be able to read the introduction and thesis statement and then the conclusion and (without reading the rest of the paper) have a fair grasp of the main arguments that were discussed in the paper. –The body of the paper is meat on the bones of the thesis and summary. Writing as a recursive process Get some distance. Be an editor, not the writer.