Presentation on theme: "Managing Change, Resistance and Conflict Consultancy Skills."— Presentation transcript:
Managing Change, Resistance and Conflict Consultancy Skills
Objectives To understand how to be proactive in managing change and reducing resistance To understand the good and bad sides of conflict
Resistance is to be expected when introducing change It is in the nature of a project delivering major change to encounter and to have to manage resistance in many forms. Some degree of resistance is normal and expected. The buy-in to Resistance journey: Stakeholder mapping and movement Tailored communication and involvement Buy-in No Buy-In SUPPORT RESISTANCE People often resist because in the absence of communication, they assume the worst. The key to avoiding and minimising initial resistance is getting the communication and involvement right at the start
Managing change requires addressing three dimensions of change Individuals experience a wide range of emotions when going through change. These emotions range from denial through to calm acceptance over time. The source of these emotions is influenced by three dimensions of change: Emotional Am I going to be successful? How will I look in the future? Rational Why should I change? Is the new model really better? Political Is there a risk for my position? What will my power be tomorrow? Addressing the rational of change is only a starting point Understanding and addressing political and emotional dimensions of change is necessary We need to help our clients constantly and consistently see all three perspectives
Both support and resistance can come from the same area - it is important to recognise which Political..the benefits are enormous..how will this affect our relationships with clients?..Ive been waiting for this moment for years..but that will affect my pay!..de-layering of the organisation makes such good sense..we dont have the resource to do this..quality will suffer..this could risk delivery..the increases agility will really thrill customers..satisfaction indices will soar Some above the surface...and some below Emotional Personal wins for key players Creating champions Mobilising the organisation at all level Political Working red issues Working the influence network Cross functional approach involving all levels Rational Insightful analysis findings Compelling benefits Robust business case
The emotional cycle of change
The Emotional Cycle of Change has five stages Knowing where we and others are on the Emotional Cycle can help us to understand the effect change is having. Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Certainty Doubt Hope Confidence Satisfaction
Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Stage One: Certainty – How to recognise the signs This sounds great Ideas look great on paper They have thought of everything Certainty
Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Stage Two: Doubt – How to recognise the signs Guess we didnt think of that problem.. This will never work Why did I ever get involved in the first place? Doubt
Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Beware of the Valley of Death which has claimed the lives of projects and teams alike… The valley of death – Total despair – morale at an all time low. Make or break point
Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Stage Three: Hope – How to recognise the signs Hope Weve solved a few major issues - things are looking up Still a lot of work to do, but I think this could work….
Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Stage Four: Confidence – How to recognise the signs Confidence I really want to see this work.. This can work Its all coming together..
Time Negative Positive Level of Optimism Stage Five: Satisfaction – How to recognise the signs It is interesting to note that in stage five the outcome of the project, or experience, is often very different from that originally envisaged in Stage One. Weve done it! This has worked better than I expected Satisfaction
When to use ECOC Before managing people through ECOC, first understand where they are on it TIME Negative Positive Level of Optimism Certainty Doubt Hope Confidence Satisfaction = Project team plotting where they are in relation to ECOC Example of a Project Team Temperature Check How to use ECOC As a tool, ECOC can be applied both to the internal project team and clients. Ask team to plot where they are on ECOC (temperature check) Develop strategy to address how to move team through the cycle Review the temperature check at key stages of a project: Start of new phase Achievement of key milestones / deliverables Key meetings/ Project Checkpoints Ask team to plot where they are on ECOC (temperature check) Develop strategy to address how to move team through the cycle Review the temperature check at key stages of a project: Start of new phase Achievement of key milestones / deliverables Key meetings/ Project Checkpoints Launch events / project kick-off Mobilisation events Team building
There are a number of tools / techniques which can be used to help manage people through each stage of ECOC Satisfaction Celebrate achievement Reward and recognition Communication and mobilisation TIME Certainty Communication and mobilisation around the urgent need for change Analysis and Design findings Business Case Negative Positive Level of Optimism Hope Visioning To-be plans Persistent Leadership Doubt As-is Mapping KPIs RACI Dynamic leadership Resistance to change toolkits Confidence Change Management tools Stakeholder mobilisation Communication
Understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change help predict and manage peoples reactions to change In summary: We become aware that our own emotional reactions are not unique We can understand the reactions of others in the organisation / project team We can learn to anticipate others reactions and make adjustments as required to our plans: –We may need to communicate more frequently and in different ways –We will need to encourage and be open to feedback - both rational and emotional –We will need to clarify why we are making decisions –We will need to give people time to move through the emotional cycle –We need to do more stakeholder management and carry out more temperature checks By understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change, we greatly increase our chances of making change happen.
Dealing with Individual Resistance
Source: Thamhain and Wilemon. The way we deal with resistance and conflict is a critical element of our professionalism …it requires humility, resolve, and patience. The client is NOT always right, but the way you deal with him / her has to be
Source:Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. What does resistance look like? A.Avoidance of responsibility B.Flooding with detail C.One-word answers D.Impracticality E.Attacking F.Compliance G.Confusion H.Changing the subject I.Im not surprised J.Silence K.Time L.Nit-picking M.Pressing for solutions As many as 13 different manifestations of resistance have been identified People resist by what they say AND by what they do
Most resistance often is hidden beneath the surface and requires focused interpretation Real / Underlying Concerns Indirect Expressions of Concerns / Visible Resistance Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern about making a change Emotional Political Rational
Understanding resistance is about getting behind the apparent and into the core Source:Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. Real Underlying Concerns Indirect expressions of concerns / Visible resistance THE VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY …but tread carefully – too much exploration is rarely appreciated – simply ask Why is that?
Why resistance occurs... Lack of career or financial advancement Possible damage to relationships with their superiors Territory threat Emotional Political Rational Losing their job Change in job role Job transfer Knowledge of what future holds and place in the organisation Lack of understanding of where you are going and why Loss of credibility or reputation Interpersonal rejection Embarrassment / loss of self-esteem Fear of the unknown Demotion Threat to familiar contacts: customers, colleagues, managers, group membership…
AIR is a useful technique to manage resistance Acknowledge – What they have said in a genuine way Investigate –Identify the main source of the resistance –Encourage them to talk more about it – and listen –Isolate and work the separate issues Reinforce –Reinforce the positive aspects of anything you are proposing –Calmly and clearly explain the reasons for change (again!) –Look for acceptance
Four steps for dealing with resistance 1 Identify why someone is resisting and whether you need to handle it 2 Acknowledge the resistance 3 Be quiet, listen, let the person respond 4 Handle the Objection
Identifying resistance: Listen and be aware Trust what you see and how you hear more than what you hear Ask questions and listen carefully – pick up the cues Learn from your own reactions –Uneasy –Bored –Irritated Listen for repetition and telltale phrases Consider underlying reasons for resistance – emotional, political, rational Answer concerns twice, if asked three times, its resistance Identify type of stakeholder: what level of priority do they demand? …but do not mistake disagreement or lack of enthusiasm for resistance!
Acknowledging resistance: Hints for the right words Describe how you feel in a neutral, non-aggressive way –Your perception of how they feel –With non challenging words: What I think I hear you saying is … Be authentic –... Encourages person to do the same Be assertive –Direct, without putting anyone down –Use I statements Be descriptive, not evaluative Descriptive Specific Focused Brief Simple Judgmental Stereotyped Lengthy Complicated NOT: BE:
How to Acknowledge Resistance (continued) Source:Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Resistance Forms Avoidance of responsibility Flooding with detail One-word answers Impracticality Attacking Compliance Confusion How to Acknowledge – some examples You dont see yourself as part of the problem? Youre giving me more than I need. Can you headline it? Say more about that You seem to feel that what were discussing is not real world. How could we make it more relevant? You are really questioning a lot of what I do. You seem angry. You seem agreeable to anything I suggest. Im having a hard time telling what youre really feeling. We seem to be having difficulty moving ahead. Are you confused about something?
How to Acknowledge Resistance (continued) Source:Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. H. I. J. L. M. Resistance Forms Changing the subject Im not surprised Silence Nit-picking Pressing for solutions Acknowledgment Examples The subject keeps shifting. Can we focus on one thing at a time? I feel that you expect me to know more about you. I dont know how to read your silence. K. Time You dont seem to have the time to work with me. I find it hard to proceed without involvement from you. We would appear to be getting into a lot of detail. Its too early for solution. Im still trying to find out…
How to facilitate reduction of resistance? 3 Be quiet, listen, let the person respond –Get him / her talking –Encourage full expression of the underlying concerns –Do not be defensive about your actions 4 Handle the objection –Tailor your response with respect to type of stakeholder –Explain the reasons for change – use clear arguments –Be helpful in going forward What if we… How could I help you fix that? "What would it take for you to be supportive / come along…" …and escalate if you cant resolve it
Dealing with resistance: Do's and Don't Do: Explain why Explain the benefits Invite and answer questions Set standards and clear targets Inform / involve key managers Recognise and reward efforts Communicate repeatedly Give more feedback than usual to ensure people always know where they stand Allow some time for resistance, but not too much Measure results, step back and take a look at what is going on Keep asking Is the change working the way we want it to? Encourage people to think and act creatively Don't: Go into more data collection Re-plan the changes to get a more acceptable response Avoid the individual who is resisting Work only with people who agree Answer the same concern many times Give lots of reasons Get caught up in the details Expect approval, encouragement, support and / or affection Lose your confidence Expect to have all the answers Avoid giving bad news Use aggressive language Delay / wait one more day Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block
As a summary Resistance is to be expected –They are not 'incidents' but are part of the change process –There are positive outcomes from dealing with them Understanding the Rational / Political / Emotional dimensions is a key to discovering real underlying issues beyond what people express Being aware of the emotional cycle of change helps us reassure our clients Managing stakeholders is key to secure success of our projects and achieve sustainable change Effectively and constructively dealing with resistance and conflict is essential to building trust and long relationships with our clients There are several methods and techniques to achieve this and gaining experience of them is a critical success factor for interacting with clients
Appendix: Resolving Conflict
One of the hardest parts of consulting is managing conflicts The top seven sources of conflict on projects are Schedules: Timing, sequencing, duration, feasibility of schedule for project-related tasks or activities Project priorities: Lack of goals, poorly defined project mission, differing views of task importance, shifting goals Resources: Competition for personnel, materials, equipment, facilities among project members or across teams Technical options: From technical issues, performance specifications, technical trade-offs Administrative procedures: How project will be managed, reporting relationships, interfaces, work design, plans for execution, negotiated work agreements with others Cost objectives: Lack of cost control authority, allocation of funds Personalities: Egos, personality differences, prejudice, stereotyping Source: Thamhain and Wilemon.
The Win-Win Matrix is the background to any conflict The extent to which I allow the other person to achieve their goals The extent to which I achieve my goals HIGH LOW HIGH Win / Lose Lose / Win Lose / Lose Win / Win Always seek to attain a position of win-win
In situations of conflict you can use 3 different styles Fighting, powerful, commanding Pressing for results, threatening, repetition Confident, persuasive, forceful Logical, knowledgeable, clarifying ideas Facts, quoting rules, practical Orderly, fair, thorough TOUGH BATTLER LOGICAL THINKER FRIENDLY HELPER Helpful, sympathetic, polite Encouraging, compromising, concerned, friendly Trusting, optimistic, caring, supportive You may need to exercise all three styles to resolve conflict The three pure styles of influence
The DESC script is useful to resolve conflicts Describe what you want, how you see the situation objectively, and factually Express your feelings about the situation and why you feel that way Specify the action you think should be taken and why Consequences both positive and negative, of doing or not doing what you are suggesting
An example of the DESC script Describe Ive studied your inventory control system team and it is not adequate to meet the increased demands on your business Express I think this is worrying Specify My view is that unless you invest in a new inventory control system you will not fix it Consequences The benefit of this will be that you will cut the amount of inventory you have to hold and there will be fewer stock-outs on the line. If you dont fix it, you are going to find it hard to meet your new quality targets
You can refine strategies to deal with conflict constructively YOUR VIEWPOINT DECIDE BY RULE DOMINATE SMOOTH MAINTAIN BARGAIN COEXISTRELEASE COLLABORATE YIELD Do it my wayLets make a dealLets work together Try it, youll like itAgree to disagreeIts yours to do WaitLets be fairIll go along You direct, impose, control or resist You trade, take turns, or split the difference You problem-solve together to reach a win-win resolution You accentuate similarities and downplay differences You pursue differences independently YOUR INTERACTION You release control within agreed-on limits You postpone confronting differences Objective rules determine how differences will be handled You give in, adapt, or agree Neutral Involved FirmFlexible Source: Managing Conflict and Disagreement Constructively - H S Kindler, The 1995 Annual, Pfeiffer & Co
Tips – Working with challenging clients Remember people are more likely to change if they can help plan it Explain the change and its consequences to all those affected Put yourself in the shoes of those affected when planning change Explain the benefits of change in simple terms Always maintain the self-esteem of people affected Avoid creating win-lose situations if possible Look for ways to turn negative concerns into positive opportunities Generate as few surprises as possible Lead by example Recognise support and success Admit mistakes and learn from failures
Shared Vision & Strategy Leaders Engaged & Aligned High Performing Project Team Stakeholders Prepared & Mobilised People Processes Updated Aligned Processes & Organisation The Change Wheel There are 8 critical success factors for managing change through people Upgraded Skills & Competencies Behaviour & Culture Gaps Addressed
Shared Vision & Strategy Leaders Engaged & Aligned High Performing Project Team Stakeholders Prepared & Mobilised People Processes Updated Aligned Processes & Organisation Upgraded Skills & Competencies Behaviour & Culture Gaps Addressed What successful change management looks like Compelling vision developed Vision understood by all levels Clarity on how the transformation programme fits into the portfolio of strategic initiatives Clear business output & milestones agreed & communicated People & performance management processes adapted to enable change People development processes aligned to vision & strategy Stakeholders clearly identified Stakeholders fully involved in the project and listened to Little resistance being demonstrated Clear delivery plan agreed Strong team-working & communication across team Common ways of working understood & demonstrated New skills, knowledge and behavioural requirements clearly identified Capability gap addressed through appropriate training for individuals Cultural requirements to sustain desired change formalised Current culture reviewed and gaps identified Actions taken to close the gap All key leadership levels communicating the vision Leaders clear about their roles & accountabilities Leaders demonstrating commitment through actions & behaviours New processes agreed & understood at all levels Organisational change opportunities & implications agreed Actions taken to align organisation