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Managing Change, Resistance and Conflict

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1 Managing Change, Resistance and Conflict
Consultancy Skills

2 Objectives To understand how to be proactive in managing change and reducing resistance To understand the good and bad sides of conflict 2 2

3 Resistance is to be expected when introducing change
It is in the nature of a project delivering major change to encounter and to have to manage resistance in many forms. Some degree of resistance is normal and expected. The ‘buy-in to Resistance’ journey: Buy-in No Buy-In SUPPORT RESISTANCE Stakeholder mapping and movement Tailored communication and involvement Encountering resistance is not always negative…it can have a positive impact. Although most of us tend to consider resistance negative, it is welcome because: It indicates some shift in the balance of the system – or that you have touched on something of importance to the individual It offers a learning opportunity – and a place to start It means you’ve generated good and new ideas which challenge and break new ground – which can create a paradigm shift People often resist because in the absence of communication, they assume the worst. The key to avoiding and minimising initial resistance is getting the communication and involvement right at the start

4 Managing change requires addressing three dimensions of change
Individuals experience a wide range of emotions when going through change. These emotions range from denial through to calm acceptance over time. The source of these emotions is influenced by three dimensions of change: Rational Why should I change? Is the new model really better? Political Is there a risk for my position? What will my power be tomorrow? Emotional Am I going to be successful? How will I look in the future? ECOC addresses the whole spectrum of emotional reactions to change, from calm to despair and eventually to acceptance. Where people are on this scale will be influenced by the wider context of change Examples of the Wider Context of Change: Environmental Change: Technology Economy Market Forces, competitors, customers Organisation Change: Strategies Structure, hierarchy Practices & policies Processes and procedures Personal Change Role & responsibilities Values & thinking Political, Emotional & Rational drivers for behaviours Addressing the rational of change is only a starting point Understanding and addressing political and emotional dimensions of change is necessary We need to help our clients constantly and consistently see all three perspectives

5 “..we don’t have the resource to do this”
Both support and resistance can come from the same area - it is important to recognise which “..we don’t have the resource to do this” “..quality will suffer” “..this could risk delivery” Some above the surface “..the benefits are enormous” Rational Insightful analysis findings Compelling benefits Robust business case “..the increases agility will really thrill customers” “..satisfaction indices will soar” Political Working red issues Working the influence network Cross functional approach involving all levels Emotional Personal wins for key players Creating champions Mobilising the organisation at all level “..I’ve been waiting for this moment for years” ...and some below Political Resistance to change can be both rational, emotional and/or political. The rational aspects of change are easy to identify and work through. Individuals are able to state their support or objections to the event. Often the emotional and political aspects of change are hidden beneath the surface. The consultant has to understand the political landscape of the organization and identify the possible forms or resistance. The consultant should also be aware of the individual emotional responses which can be deeply held by the individual and not often shared. “..but that will affect my pay!” “ of the organisation makes such good sense ” “ will this affect our relationships with clients?”

6 The emotional cycle of change

7 The Emotional Cycle of Change has five stages
Positive Satisfaction Certainty Level of Optimism Confidence Doubt Notes for facilitator: Explain the curve and highlight the key steps. Very powerful tool to help clients understand why people may react differently to change at different stages of the cycle. For example Harry Gaskell used it with Patricia Hewitt (Secretary of State for Trade and Industry) at the opening meeting with the DTI (it worked well!) Key points to stress: 1.) ECOC is not a perfect cycle! Individuals/teams can regress and repeat stages many times before moving along Individuals/teams can experience this cycle more than once on the same project Individuals will move through the cycle at different times and speeds, it is important to recognise where different members of your team are. (won’t all be at confident stage just because you are!, others may be struggling) 2.) Stages can change on a daily basis! Particular events eg large workshops or when leading up to key milestones can mean people & teams can go through the cycle on a daily basis! 3.) Clients & consultants experience this! ECOC is applicable both to consultants within consultants teams, to the client and joint teams. The only difference is consultants need to find a way to manage themselves and the group through it, as clients often: 1) underestimate the emotional effect of change 2) don’t necessarily know how to address it/manage it 4.) Organisations also experience the ECOC and managing it effectively can result in increased profits – it’s not just a nice to have It is important to note that there is no shortcut when undergoing transformational change. It is not our job to short cut the cycle, but instead to recognise it and apply the appropriate tools to help people through it. Hope Negative Time Knowing where we and others are on the Emotional Cycle can help us to understand the effect change is having.

8 Stage One: Certainty – How to recognise the signs
“This sounds great” “Ideas look great on paper” “They have thought of everything” Positive Certainty Level of Optimism At each step, the group will discuss and analyse based on the agreed example. Stage One: Certainty (also known as ‘Uninformed Optimism’) Honeymoon period - everything is blissful Ideas look great on paper All major obstacles appear to have been anticipated Generally people are happy with the change and what’s going to happen Relate this to chosen example. Eg. Initial announcement of merger – new leadership, changes seem to make sense Or: when buying a house: (House looks great, price is good, mortgage lined up) When learning to drive (“I’m sure I’ll be able to do it, all my friends can”) Negative Time

9 Stage Two: Doubt – How to recognise the signs
“ Guess we didn’t think of that problem..” “This will never work” “Why did I ever get involved in the first place?” Positive Level of Optimism Doubt Stage Two: Doubt (also known as ‘Informed Pessimism) Problems surface Few solutions are obvious It feels like we’ve hit a brick wall Morale drops - “Why did I ever get involved in the first place”? People start to cling to old ways Note: This can be a very rapid decent, and if not carefully managed, results in stressed individuals/teams and project breakdown Relate to chosen examples Eg. Merger – Politics arise, confusion of where you fit in new structure Moving house: survey brings up problems, paperwork (mortgage) process taking a long time Learning to drive: “This isn’t as easy as I thought It would be” – nervousness sets in, how to parallel park! Negative Time

10 Beware of the ‘Valley of Death’ which has claimed the lives of projects and teams alike…
Positive “The valley of death” – Total despair – morale at an all time low. Make or break point Level of Optimism It is not possible to move from certainty to satisfaction without going (however briefly) into the valley of death. The important thing is to recognise it and take action. At this point, action should be taken to ensure continued progress and ultimately – the achievement of the project goal(s). Suggested Actions/Interventions: Strong proactive leadership Visible sponsorship A ‘take-stock’ workshop – identify barriers and enablers ‘Re-mobilisation’ event / re-energise team Provide support (coaching, feedback, resource or just a listening ear often helps). If not…. Projects fail Key people leave (either physically or mentally withdraw from task/project) “I give up” or “its not for me” often heard. Sponsorship disappears Team lose focus / momentum Disenchantment and confusion sets in Success is no long a priority Projects stagnate / are abandoned Use an example to illustrate these points eg. Mergers – people frustrated and leave company. Moving house – someone puts in higher offer! Remember it is when individuals are in the valley of death that they need the most support. The more trust and openness there is in a team or with clients (based on HPT concepts and regular feedback/coaching) the more likely you are to recognise the signs in people and for them to talk openly about how they feel and what support they need. Negative Time

11 Stage Three: Hope – How to recognise the signs
“ We’ve solved a few major issues - things are looking up” “Still a lot of work to do, but I think this could work….” Positive Level of Optimism Hope Stage Three: Hope (also known as ‘Hopeful Realism’) A turning point occurs and rather than being pessimistic, we get on with things and can see light at the end of the tunnel A sense of accomplishment replaces a feeling of pushing against obstacles Problems have not all disappeared but hopes are based on realistic data (what we know) Start to build attachment to new ways of working/systems Relate to chosen example Eg. Merger – Clear organisation structure (that makes sense) is defined, people start to understand what new company will look like and where they will fit in. Moving House – Negotiate price with owner (per survey or higher offer) – agree way forward Learning to drive – understand that just need to practice a lot to overcome difficulties and build confidence Negative Time

12 Stage Four: Confidence – How to recognise the signs
“I really want to see this work..” “This can work” “It’s all coming together..” Positive Level of Optimism Confidence Stage Four: Confidence (also known as ‘Informed Optimism’) Optimism continues to develop A fresh burst of energy appears Some major issues resolved and barriers overcome Confidence soars Relate to chosen example Eg: Merger – seeing benefits of new company, working with new people, can see way forward and benefits for you Moving House – Paperwork all approved, start to make plans for moving, starts to feel real Learning to drive – start to see improvements “I’m finally getting the hang of this” Negative Time

13 Stage Five: Satisfaction – How to recognise the signs
“We’ve done it!” “This has worked better than I expected” Positive Satisfaction Level of Optimism Stage Five: Satisfaction (also known as ‘Rewarding Completion’) We have been successful There is commitment and acceptance of the new The original task/project/change is considered complete A shared sense of accomplishment (nb: it is important to celebrate success as a team before moving on to next task/job in order to close the cycle and allow people to move on to the next challenge) Note: At this stage, the results are often very different to how they were perceived during the ‘Certainty’ stage (relate to chosen example) For example: Learning to drive a car: At the ‘Satisfaction’ stage, it may be that driving is in fact far more difficult than was originally envisaged. Your opinion may have changed from wanting to drive a very large car, to feeling more comfortable in smaller one. Buying a house: At the ‘Satisfaction’ stage, you have exchanged contracts and completed on the sale. You’re delighted! However, you originally envisaged living in a 2 bedroom North London flat near Hampstead, you have actually bought a 1 bedroom flat in Putney, South London! Negative Time It is interesting to note that in stage five the outcome of the project, or experience, is often very different from that originally envisaged in Stage One.

14 = Project team plotting where they are in relation to ECOC
Before managing people through ECOC, first understand where they are on it When to use ECOC Example of a Project Team ‘Temperature Check’ Launch events / project kick-off Mobilisation events Team building TIME Negative Positive Level of Optimism Certainty Doubt Hope Confidence Satisfaction How to use ECOC Ask team to plot where they are on ECOC (temperature check) Develop strategy to address how to move team through the cycle Review the ‘temperature check’ at key stages of a project: Start of new phase Achievement of key milestones / deliverables Key meetings/ Project Checkpoints Now we know what ECOC is and the various stages in it, it’s important to understand the different ways in which it can be used to deliver value. Team Building / Project Launches / End of Phase/ Mobilisation ECOC is a good team building tool to use both with the client and within the consultant team. It’s important that ECOC is not viewed as a one off event, it should be re-visited and re-assessed as the project moves on. This gives individuals/teams confidence that their concerns are being monitored and addressed. Continuous monitoring also measures the effectiveness of interventions applied, which we will discuss next. Hints & Tips ECOC should be a positive experience. Turn risks & issues into positives by using barriers and enablers and other methods to recognise positives as well as areas for improvement. When morale is low, it’s very easy to turn into a moaning session, which serves only to deflate the team further to make sure you link concerns into proactive ways of achieving them Consider the audience – is it appropriate to mix consultant with client teams? Should sessions be separate? Weigh up pros and cons of each approach Create ‘safe’ environment to encourage openness and constructive discussion = Project team plotting where they are in relation to ECOC As a tool, ECOC can be applied both to the internal project team and clients.

15 There are a number of tools / techniques which can be used to help manage people through each stage of ECOC Satisfaction Celebrate achievement Reward and recognition Communication and mobilisation Certainty Communication and mobilisation around the urgent need for change Analysis and Design findings Business Case Positive Confidence Change Management tools Stakeholder mobilisation Communication Level of Optimism Doubt As-is Mapping KPI’s RACI Dynamic leadership Resistance to change toolkits Hope Visioning To-be plans Persistent Leadership Individuals can be managed through ECOC using a variety of techniques and tools, which are proven to deliver tangible results. This is where the true value of ECOC lies. By recognising individual/team emotional reactions to change, they can be managed effectively to produce results and sustain productivity. Hints & Tips Track interventions as deliverables / milestones on master project plan Keep project team informed of progress Encourage feedback on process and interventions Establish and maintain momentum. An ad hoc approach could damage morale further Negative TIME

16 Understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change help predict and manage people’s reactions to change
In summary: We become aware that our own emotional reactions are not unique We can understand the reactions of others in the organisation / project team We can learn to anticipate others reactions and make adjustments as required to our plans: We may need to communicate more frequently and in different ways We will need to encourage and be open to feedback - both rational and emotional We will need to clarify why we are making decisions We will need to give people time to move through the emotional cycle We need to do more stakeholder management and carry out more ‘temperature checks” 3 Key Messages for them to take away Have learnt about the Emotional Cycle of Change Understand the signs Know how to manage By understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change, we greatly increase our chances of making change happen.

17 Dealing with Individual Resistance

18 The way we deal with resistance and conflict is a critical element of our professionalism
The client is NOT always right, but the way you deal with him / her has to be Dealing with resistance an conflict situation is a challenging exercise – which unfortunately we cannot afford to fail at. Our long term relationships with our clients rely on our ability to resolve conflicts in a constructive and positive manner. Doing the wrong thing when trying to resolve conflict is one of the most damageable thing for trust clients have in us. …it requires humility, resolve, and patience. Source: Thamhain and Wilemon.

19 What does resistance look like?
As many as 13 different manifestations of resistance have been identified What does resistance look like? Avoidance of responsibility Flooding with detail One-word answers Impracticality Attacking Compliance Confusion Changing the subject I’m not surprised Silence Time Nit-picking Pressing for solutions Research has shown there are many forms of resistance. The facilitator should go through each form and ask the group for an example. Be sure to share several client examples. Further on in this presentation we will learn techniques to deal with the various forms of resistance People resist by what they say AND by what they do Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 15

20 of Concerns / Visible Resistance
Most resistance often is hidden beneath the surface and requires focused interpretation Indirect Expressions of Concerns / Visible Resistance Real / Underlying Concerns Emotional Political Rational Focusing on the visible part of resistance is not a good idea – it will usually just lead to conflict, about something which is not the real issue. You can be in a situation where someone's underlying concern is perfectly legitimate – and the only sensible thing to do is to acknowledge it and come back with a different solution. Getting someone to do something they fundamentally do not want to do ultimately creates a need for revenge – and ruins long term relationship both at individual level and for CGE&Y! Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern about making a change

Understanding resistance is about getting behind the apparent and into the core Indirect expressions of concerns / Visible resistance Real Underlying Concerns THE VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY In order to deal with resistance effectively, you must understand the core or real underlying concerns. The true concerns are often hidden under various forms of resistance. For example, a client may be telling you he/she doesn’t have enough time to attend training on the new change initiative when in reality he/she is afraid he/she will not understand the model and look stupid in front of his/her peers. To get to the core, you need to tread carefully. You must have “earned the right “ with the client to ask what’s behind his/her resistance. But if you do this correctly, it dramatically increases your level of intimacy and credibility with that client (remind participants of the trust formula Trust = Intimacy x Credibility/Risk). …but tread carefully – too much exploration is rarely appreciated – simply ask “Why is that?” Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 12

22 Why resistance occurs . . . Rational Political Emotional
Losing their job Change in job role Job transfer Knowledge of what future holds and place in the organisation Lack of understanding of where you are going and why Loss of credibility or reputation Interpersonal rejection Embarrassment / loss of self-esteem Fear of the unknown Demotion Threat to familiar contacts: customers, colleagues, managers, group membership… Emotional Political Rational A way to understand the core issues is to understand why resistance occurs. Resistance is nothing more than the fear of change. Does the individual risk losing credibility or reputation? What if they were the owner of the previous strategy that the new change model discredits? Does the individual fear lack of career or financial advancement? Will there be less jobs going forward? Is the individual as risk of losing their job? Are we asking this person to support the change effort in direct conflict with his/her superiors? What will all this mean when the consultants leave? Will leadership support those who were internal change agents or will the ideas be put back on the shelf? You will often here a client say, “I have to still work here after you guys leave.” Will a change in job role, cause embarrassment or loss of self-esteem? Or will there be a job transfer or demotion. With all of these emotional and political aspects going on amidst the change process, you can understand why the consultant spends so much time dealing with resistance. Lack of career or financial advancement Possible damage to relationships with their superiors Territory threat 13

23 “AIR” is a useful technique to manage resistance
Acknowledge What they have said in a genuine way Investigate Identify the main source of the resistance Encourage them to talk more about it – and listen Isolate and work the separate issues Reinforce Reinforce the positive aspects of anything you are proposing Calmly and clearly explain the reasons for change (again!) Look for acceptance If the client is constantly challenging, the AIR technique is useful. First Acknowledge that you have heard what the individual has said. Do so in a genuine, direct manner Identify what you see as the main source of the resistance, ask for their input and listen. Sometimes there are multiple issues which the client can use as a form of resistance by shifting to one from the other. The key is to Investigate the root cause of the conflict or resistance. End the conversation by reinforcing the positive aspects of the change. Look for acceptance of the solution. It should be a win-win solution as you and the client partner to move through the change process.

24 Four steps for dealing with resistance
1 Identify why someone is resisting and whether you need to handle it 2 Acknowledge the resistance 3 Be quiet, listen, let the person respond There are 4 steps for dealing with resistance that you practice in the role plays. 1. First you need to identify the form the résistance is taking and ensure that it is resistance. I’ve seen some consultants dismiss constructive feedback on a change initiative, as being resistance. You should trust what you see and how you hear it, more that what you hear. Look for your own reactions. Are you uneasy, bored or irritated by hearing the same responses over and over? With experience you will be able to see the difference between resistance and feedback. There are “two good faith responses” to remember. 1)The majority of the questions around the project processes and methodologies are just expressions of discomfort – just a way to express the fear of change. 2)The third time the same question is asked, suggest to the individual that what you are really hearing is a reluctance to move forward. 2. Once you have identified the form of resistance, tell the person how it is making you feel. Be sure to be specific, clear and genuine. Use behavioural terms whenever possible and don’t become aggressive. The most important thing to remember is don’t take it personally. The behaviour is not a reflection of you and never counter attack head-on. 3. After you stated the behaviour and how you feel, be quiet and listen. Let the person respond and check for understanding. As the person to be more specific if you don’t understand and gently probe. 4. Finally handle the objection – using the appropriate resistance management approach 4 Handle the Objection 14

25 Identifying resistance: Listen and be aware
Trust what you see and how you hear more than what you hear Ask questions and listen carefully – pick up the ‘cues’ Learn from your own reactions Uneasy Bored Irritated Listen for repetition and telltale phrases Consider underlying reasons for resistance – emotional, political, rational Answer concerns twice, if asked three times, it’s resistance Identify type of stakeholder: what level of priority do they demand? …but do not mistake disagreement or lack of enthusiasm for resistance! 18

26 Acknowledging resistance: Hints for the right words
Describe how you feel in a neutral, non-aggressive way Your perception of how they feel With non challenging words: “What I think I hear you saying is …” Be authentic . . . Encourages person to do the same Be assertive Direct, without putting anyone down Use “I” statements Be descriptive, not evaluative BE: NOT: Let talk more about how you acknowledge resistance: Always describe how you feel and how the individuals behaviour affects you. Be authentic and direct. The individual needs to hear the clear message. Be assertive by using “I” messages. Example: I feel frustrated when you do not attend the weekly project meetings. This way you can be direct without putting the individual down. Don’t get personal and be very aware of your tone of voice and non-verbals. As be sure to use descriptive words not evaluative words. Example: You have been late to work the past 3 days versus You must not care much about this project because you have been late a lot . Be focused, specific, brief and simple. Be aware of any cultural implications when you provide feedback. Avoid being judgemental and don’t stereotype. Descriptive Specific Focused Brief Simple Judgmental Stereotyped Lengthy Complicated 18

27 How to Acknowledge Resistance (continued)
Resistance Forms How to Acknowledge – some examples A. Avoidance of responsibility “You don’t see yourself as part of the problem?” B. Flooding with detail “You’re giving me more than I need. Can you headline it?” C. One-word answers “Say more about that” D. Impracticality “You seem to feel that what we’re discussing is not ‘real world.’ How could we make it more relevant?” E. Attacking “You are really questioning a lot of what I do. You seem angry.” The facilitator may want to cover the example side of the panel and ask the audience to practice by providing examples of the forms of resistance. F. Compliance “You seem agreeable to anything I suggest. I’m having a hard time telling what you’re really feeling.” G. Confusion “We seem to be having difficulty moving ahead. Are you confused about something?” Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 16

28 How to Acknowledge Resistance (continued)
Resistance Forms Acknowledgment Examples H. Changing the subject “The subject keeps shifting. Can we focus on one thing at a time?” I. I’m not surprised “I feel that you expect me to know more about you.” J. Silence “I don’t know how to read your silence.” K. Time “You don’t seem to have the time to work with me. I find it hard to proceed without involvement from you.” L. Nit-picking “We would appear to be getting into a lot of detail.” The facilitator may want to cover the example side of the panel and ask the audience to practice by providing examples of the forms of resistance. M. Pressing for solutions “It’s too early for solution. I’m still trying to find out…” Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 17

29 How to facilitate reduction of resistance?
3 Be quiet, listen, let the person respond Get him / her talking Encourage full expression of the underlying concerns Do not be defensive about your actions 4 Handle the objection Tailor your response with respect to type of stakeholder Explain the reasons for change – use clear arguments Be helpful in going forward “What if we…” “How could I help you fix that?” "What would it take for you to be supportive / come along…" …and escalate if you can’t resolve it 14

30 Dealing with resistance: Do's and Don't
Go into more data collection Re-plan the changes to get a more acceptable response Avoid the individual who is resisting Work only with people who agree Answer the same concern many times Give lots of reasons Get caught up in the details Expect approval, encouragement, support and / or affection Lose your confidence Expect to have all the answers Avoid giving “bad news” Use aggressive language Delay / wait one more day Do: Explain why Explain the benefits Invite and answer questions Set standards and clear targets Inform / involve key managers Recognise and reward efforts Communicate repeatedly Give more feedback than usual to ensure people always know where they stand Allow some time for resistance, but not too much Measure results, step back and take a look at what is going on Keep asking “Is the change working the way we want it to?” Encourage people to think and act creatively Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block

31 As a summary Resistance is to be expected
They are not 'incidents' but are part of the change process There are positive outcomes from dealing with them Understanding the Rational / Political / Emotional dimensions is a key to discovering real underlying issues beyond what people express Being aware of the emotional cycle of change helps us reassure our clients Managing stakeholders is key to secure success of our projects and achieve sustainable change Effectively and constructively dealing with resistance and conflict is essential to building trust and long relationships with our clients There are several methods and techniques to achieve this and gaining experience of them is a critical success factor for interacting with clients

32 Appendix: Resolving Conflict

33 One of the hardest parts of consulting is managing conflicts
The top seven sources of conflict on projects are Schedules: Timing, sequencing, duration, feasibility of schedule for project-related tasks or activities Project priorities: Lack of goals, poorly defined project mission, differing views of task importance, shifting goals Resources: Competition for personnel, materials, equipment, facilities among project members or across teams Technical options: From technical issues, performance specifications, technical trade-offs Administrative procedures: How project will be managed, reporting relationships, interfaces, work design, plans for execution, negotiated work agreements with others Cost objectives: Lack of cost control authority, allocation of funds Personalities: Egos, personality differences, prejudice, stereotyping Projects would be so easy to deliver if we didn’t have to cope with the conflict that resistance engenders. Most of these conflicts can be lessened by ensuring that the both the CGE&Y and client project managers have a detailed expectations exchange at the beginning of the project. Also a mechanism should be designed (I.e OTACE, PIQ) that allows for periodic assessment against the original expectations. Go through each of the conflicts and provide examples as well as solutions. Source: Thamhain and Wilemon.

34 The “Win-Win Matrix” is the background to any conflict
HIGH Win / Lose Win / Win The extent to which I achieve my goals Lose / Lose Lose / Win LOW LOW HIGH Creating a Win – Win situation is the best way to gain credibility through conflict resolution Any other outcome damages our credibility or our clients' trust in us. Remember that getting someone to do something they fundamentally do not want to do ultimately creates a need for revenge The extent to which I allow the other person to achieve their goals Always seek to attain a position of ‘win-win’

35 In situations of conflict you can use 3 different styles
TOUGH BATTLER Fighting, powerful, commanding Pressing for results, threatening, repetition Confident, persuasive, forceful The three “pure” styles of influence LOGICAL THINKER FRIENDLY HELPER Helpful, sympathetic, polite Encouraging, compromising, concerned, friendly Trusting, optimistic, caring, supportive Logical, knowledgeable, clarifying ideas Facts, quoting rules, practical Orderly, fair, thorough For conflict resolution to be successful it is important to think about how you are going to influence the other party. There are basically 3 influencing styles and you probably need to use a bit of the 3 – in a deliberate manner – to gain resolution. The specific mix required in each situation should be based on your preferred style and the other party's response. A key to adopting the appropriate style is to understand both your style as well as the style of others. It is very important to understand where others are coming from. Using Socio-Types helps you identify how you are most likely to influence – and what effect it will have on the other party. The facilitator can remind participants about each of the types and ask the group how they see themselves using these styles in resolving conflict. The facilitator can also go through the Socio-Types and talk about how each type might deal with conflict and react to the outcome You may need to exercise all three styles to resolve conflict

36 The “DESC” script is useful to resolve conflicts
Describe what you want, how you see the situation objectively, and factually Express your feelings about the situation and why you feel that way Specify the action you think should be taken and why Consequences both positive and negative, of doing or not doing what you are suggesting DESC is one assertiveness tool you may want to use in conflict situations. First Describe what you want and how you see the situation in specific, clear, behavioural terms. You then Express yours feelings about the situation and how you feel. Using “I” statements are helpful here. Specify the action you think should be taken. Again its important to be specific, clear and behavioural. After specifying the actions, discuss the Consequences both positive and negative of doing or not doing what you are suggesting. As you use this technique, always be aware of your tone of voice and non-verbal mannerisms. The next panel will give us an example of DESC.

37 An example of the “DESC” script
Describe I’ve studied your inventory control system team and it is not adequate to meet the increased demands on your business Express I think this is worrying Specify My view is that unless you invest in a new inventory control system you will not fix it Consequences The benefit of this will be that you will cut the amount of inventory you have to hold and there will be fewer stock-outs on the line. If you don’t fix it, you are going to find it hard to meet your new quality targets The facilitator should be prepared with other project examples and can also ask the group to provide some examples.

38 You can refine strategies to deal with conflict constructively
“Do it my way” “Let’s make a deal” “Let’s work together” Involved DOMINATE BARGAIN COLLABORATE You problem-solve together to reach a win-win resolution You direct, impose, control or resist You trade, take turns, or split the difference “Try it, you’ll like it” “Agree to disagree” “It’s yours to do” SMOOTH COEXIST RELEASE YOUR INTERACTION You accentuate similarities and downplay differences You pursue differences independently You release control within agreed-on limits “Wait” “Let’s be fair” “I’ll go along” MAINTAIN DECIDE BY RULE YIELD Another way to determine what strategy to use is to determine your level of interaction versus your viewpoint. There are a variety of strategy available depending on the outcome desired and attitude of the players. (If there is time the facilitator may want to go through each strategy and provide client examples.) The key is to plan your strategy - do not just let it happen Neutral Objective rules determine how differences will be handled You postpone confronting differences You give in, adapt, or agree Firm Flexible YOUR VIEWPOINT Source: Managing Conflict and Disagreement Constructively - H S Kindler, The 1995 Annual, Pfeiffer & Co

39 Tips – Working with challenging clients
Remember people are more likely to change if they can help plan it Explain the change and its consequences to all those affected Put yourself in the shoes of those affected when planning change Explain the benefits of change in simple terms Always maintain the self-esteem of people affected Avoid creating win-lose situations if possible Look for ways to turn negative concerns into positive opportunities Generate as few surprises as possible Lead by example Recognise support and success Admit mistakes and learn from failures The facilitator can review the top tips and provide client examples. Explain that we are now going to role play and begin using the techniques we shared in this presentation.

40 There are 8 critical success factors for managing change through people
The Change Wheel Behaviour & Culture Gaps Addressed Shared Vision & Strategy People Processes Updated Leaders Engaged & Aligned Aligned Processes & Organisation Stakeholders Prepared & Mobilised Upgraded Skills & Competencies High Performing Project Team

41 What successful change management looks like
Compelling vision developed Vision understood by all levels Clarity on how the transformation programme fits into the portfolio of strategic initiatives Clear business output & milestones agreed & communicated Cultural requirements to sustain desired change formalised Current culture reviewed and gaps identified Actions taken to close the gap All key leadership levels communicating the vision Leaders clear about their roles & accountabilities Leaders demonstrating commitment through actions & behaviours People & performance management processes adapted to enable change People development processes aligned to vision & strategy Behaviour & Culture Gaps Addressed Shared Vision & Strategy People Processes Updated Leaders Engaged & Aligned New processes agreed & understood at all levels Organisational change opportunities & implications agreed Actions taken to align organisation Aligned Processes & Organisation Stakeholders Prepared & Mobilised Stakeholders clearly identified Stakeholders fully involved in the project and listened to Little resistance being demonstrated Upgraded Skills & Competencies High Performing Project Team Clear delivery plan agreed Strong team-working & communication across team Common ways of working understood & demonstrated New skills, knowledge and behavioural requirements clearly identified Capability gap addressed through appropriate training for individuals

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