Presentation on theme: "Module 1 Lesson 3. Clinical Difference Between Autism and Asperger Syndrome DSM-IV-TR Description of Asperger Syndrome Characteristics of Students with."— Presentation transcript:
Clinical Difference Between Autism and Asperger Syndrome DSM-IV-TR Description of Asperger Syndrome Characteristics of Students with Asperger Syndrome
The DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome: Includes the same social interaction and behavioral domains as autism (see next slide) Does not include the communication domain as autism does Indicates that the child has no significant language delay by three years Indicates that the child has no significant delay in cognitive development or the development of self-help skills
According to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV- TR (APA, 2000), an individual with Asperger Syndrome will have at least two of the following characteristics: Impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors such as eye contact, facial expressions, body posture, and social gestures Difficulty establishing developmentally appropriate peer relationships Failure to spontaneously seek opportunities to interact with other people Poor social or emotional reciprocity
According to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV- TR (APA, 2000), an individual with Asperger Syndrome will have at least one of the following characteristics: Marked preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in focus or intensity Inflexible adherence to nonfunctional routines or rituals Stereotyped and repetitive motor movements Persistent preoccupation with objects or parts of objects
The DSM-IV-TR does not provide a description of the characteristics of AS that most directly relate to school performance (Myles, 2005) Thus, the next several slides will discuss communication, social and behavioral, cognitive, sensory, and motor characteristics
While students with AS they are highly verbal, their conversations are often one- sided The term little professor has been used to describe how students with AS speak (Myles and Simpson, 2003) Often do not understand non-verbal cues such as facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice, and physical proximity Have difficulty understanding the thoughts, feelings, and perspectives of others (referred to as deficits in theory of mind)
Children with Asperger Syndrome typically want to interact with others despite their deficits in social interaction skills Individuals with AS may experience anxiety and depression (Barnhill, 2001)
Can become easily stressed (Myles and Adreon, 2001) May have difficulty with Transitioning Putting something away for later that isnt finished Completing academic assignments that are difficult and/or they do not understand the purpose May have tantrums and/or shut down when stressed, anxious, frustrated, angry, etc.
Typically have average to above-average IQ Often times, their high verbal skills mask the comprehension deficits that some students with AS may have (Griswold, Barnhill, Myles, Hagiwara, & Simpson, 2002) Difficulty understanding… abstract concepts figurative language (metaphors, idioms) Difficulty with executive functioning The brains ability to plan and carry out steps to complete a task (Romanowski Bash & Kirby, 2001)
Students with AS often have poor fine and gross motor skills and coordination and balance problems which may result in difficulty with things such as Handwriting Physical games Art Tying shoes (Myles, Cook, Miller, Rinner, & Robbins, 2000)
Similar to students with autism, students with AS are often over-sensitive or under- sensitive to certain sensory stimuli Ex. Hypersensitivity to fluorescent lights, certain textures of clothing, noise The reactions of students with AS to sensory stimuli have been shown to be even more negative than students with autism (Myles et al., 2004) With sensory overload resulting in tantrums and other disruptive behaviors
Considering the characteristics of students with Asperger Syndrome presented throughout this module, answer the following question: What should school-based programming for students with Asperger Syndrome entail in order to meet their diverse needs (communication, social interaction, behavioral, emotional, cognitive/academic, sensory, motor)? (you may choose to address the pre-K, elementary, middle, or high school level, or address pre-K-12 in general)
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Barnhill, G. P. (2001). Social attribution and depression in adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 46-53. Griswold, D. E., Barnhill, G. P., Myles, B. S., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R. L. (2002). Asperger Syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17, 94-102. Myles, B. S. (2005). Children and youth with Asperger Syndrome: Strategies for success in inclusive classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Myles, B. S., & Adreon, D. (2001). Asperger Syndrome and adolescence: Practical solutions for school success. Shawnee, Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Myles, B. S., Cook, K. T., Miller, N. E., Rinner, L., & Robbins., L. (2000). Asperger Syndrome and sensory issues: Practical solutions for making sense of the world. Shawnee, Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Myles, B. S., Hagiwara, R., Dunn, W., Rinner, L., Reese, M., Huggins, A., et al. (2004). Sensory issues in children with Asperger Syndrome and autism. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 283-290. Myles, B. S., & Simpson, R. L. (2003). Asperger Syndrome: A guide for educators and parents (2 nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Romanowski Bash, P., & Kirby, B. L. (2001). The OASIS guide to Asperger Syndrome: Advice, support, insight, and inspiration. New York: Crown Publishers
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