Presentation on theme: "Ali After Siffin: Nahrawan A.S. Hashim, MD From: www.wikipedia.com."— Presentation transcript:
Ali After Siffin: Nahrawan A.S. Hashim, MD From: www.wikipedia.com
Sources of Reference ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Qutaybah, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Madelung, Encyclopaedia of the Holy Prophet and Companions Tabatabaei, Lapidus, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid Dakake Nahj Al-Balagha, Sermon 3 Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard. Cambridge History of Islam. Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press.
In this Slide Show The Kharijis الخوارج Ali Sends an Envoy Alis Argument Kharijis hopeless Demand Danger of the Kharijis Alis Speech Warning the Kharijis The Kharijis Attack Alis Army Following Nahrawan Ibn Muljim before Siffin Ibn Muljim the Assassin Ali, While Wounded Burial
The Kharijis الخوارج Battle of Nahrawan النهروان was a battle: between Ali ibn Abi Talib (the fourth Sunni Caliph and the 1st Shi'a Imam) and the Kharijis الخوارج. After the unsatisfactory conclusion to the Battle of Siffin, Ali returned with his army back to Kufa on the 13th of Safar 37H (30 July 657AD) During the march, a group of 12,000 men kept themselves at a distance from the main part of the army. They came to be known as Kharijis (الخوارج) or the dissenters المارقين
The Vacillating Kharijis The Kharijis were furious at their role in Siffin and its consequences, i.e. the way Siffin was concluded. The Kharijis mean dissenters المارقين. They were the same people who had put down their weapons on Siffin battlefield forcing Ali to halt the battle. Now they put the blame on Ali, accusing him of betraying Islam by agreeing to the truce and should have referred judgment to the Quran alone or continued to fight. They demanded that he repents for this.
On Approaching Kufa When Alis army neared Kufa, the Kharijis camped at a village named Harura حروره. They started saying that all Muslims were equal and nobody could rule over the other. In this way, they denounced both Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiya They said their belief was in "لا حكم إلا لله", meaning, "No Rulership but by Allah alone."
Ali Sends an Envoy Ali sent Sa'sa'a ibn Sauhan and Ziyad ibn Nazr al-Harithi in the company of ibn Abbas towards them. and afterwards Ali himself went to the place of their stay and tried to explain to them that they were misunderstanding the words of "La Hukma Illa Lillahلا حكم إلا لله, and that in accepting the arbitration (peace talks) at Siffin, Ali had not gone against the teachings of the Quran.
Alis Argument Ali pointed out that they themselves were at fault, because they should never have laid down their arms to begin with at Siffin and force him to call back Malik al-Ashtar, who was at the point of securing victory over Muawiya. Ali reminded them that they themselves had pressed for the arbitration and had forced him to appoint Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as their representative. He told them that he found their present behavior very strange, considering their involvement in Siffin. To this they admitted that they had sinned but now they had repented for it and he should do the same.
The Kharijis Await the Arbitration Ali ibn Abi Talib assured them of his firm Faith, and they dispersed after the discussion. The Kharijis, however refused to accept the words of Ali and They awaited the decision of the Arbitration by Amr al- Aas and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari. When finally they learned of the decision, they were enraged and decided to revolt, They set up their headquarters at Nahrawan النهروان, Nahrawan is twelve miles from Baghdad. Some people came from Basra to join these rebels.
Ali Raises a Force to Face Muawiya On the other side, after hearing the verdict of the Arbitration: Ali ibn Abi Talib raised a force for fighting the army of Muawiya Ali wrote to the Kharijis about the verdict passed by the two arbitrators And that verdict was not acceptable to him, that he had therefore decided to fight it And they should support him for crushing the enemy.
Kharijis hopeless Demand But the Kharijis gave him this reply, By having agreed to the Arbitration, in our view you had turned against the Faith. So if you admit that and offer repentance we will think this matter over, and decide what we should do." Ali ibn Abi Talib understood from their reply that their disobedience and misguidance had become very serious. To entertain any kind of hope from them now would be futile. Consequently, ignoring them, he encamped in the valley of al- Nukhaylah With a view to marching towards Syria to fight against Muawiya.
Ali Changes Direction Ali and his force had already started towards Muawiya when he received the news that the Kharijis had butchered the governor of Nahrawan (Abdullah ibn Khabbab) and have killed his slave maid with the child in her womb, and have killed three women of Banu Tayyi and Umm Sinan as-Saydawiyyah. Ali sent to them al-Harith ibn Murrah for investigation but he too was killed by them. When their rebellion reached this stage it was necessary to deal with them.
Danger of the Kharijis There was a danger that the Kharijis might attack Kufa as Ali and his men were marching towards Muawiya, So Ali decided to stop his march and: He changed his course eastward, crossed the river Tigris and approached Nahrawan. On reaching there Ali sent a messenger to the Kharijis Demanding that those people who had murdered innocent Muslims around their camp should be surrendered. The Kharijis replied that they were all equally responsible for killing these sinners.
Al-Ansaari Convinces Some There was some reluctance in the army of Ali to fight the Kharijis, because they had been their companions against Mu'awiya at Siffin. Ali himself did not desire the bloodshed of these misguided fanatics, so he sent Abu Ayyub al-Ansaari with a message of peace. who spoke to them aloud, "Whoever comes under this banner or separates from that party and goes to Kufa or al-Mada'in would get amnesty and he would not be questioned.
The Leftover Kharijis As a result of this Farwah ibn Nawfal said that he did not know why they were at war with Ali to begin with. Saying this he separated from the Kharijis along with five hundred men. Similarly, group after group began to separate and Some of them even joined Alis forces. In the end, only a core of 1,800 die-hards were left (some claim 3000) They were under the command of Abdullah ibn Wahab. These Kharijis swore that they would fight Ali at any cost.
Alis Speech Warning the Kharijis Nahjul Balaaghah - Sermon 36: Warning the people of Nahrawan of their fate: "I am warning you that you will be killed on the bend of this canal and on the level of this low area while you will have no clear excuse before Allah nor any open authority with you. You have come out of your houses and then divine decree entangled you. I had advised you against this arbitration but you rejected my advice like adversaries and opponents till I turned my ideas in the direction of your wishes. You are a group whose heads are devoid of reason and intelligence. Allah's woe be to you! I have not put you in any adversity nor wished you any harm."
The Kharijis Attack Ali Army The Kharijis attacked Ali army with desperation. However, they did not stand a chance against Alis superior army and they were all killed except nine men. These nine managed to flee to Basra and elsewhere, where they spread the fire of their hatred, thus recruting more followers. From Alis army there were only eight casualties, people whom Ali's followers regard as martyrs. The battle took place on the 9th Safar, 38 A.H. Two years later, in 40H, it was the Kharijis who sent out three assassins to kill Ali, Muawiya and Amr ibn al-Aas.
Looking for Someone When the battle was over Ali was looking for someone in a feverish manner, but he couldn't find him. When the battle was over Ali was looking for someone in a feverish manner, but he couldn't find him. People asked for whom he was searching and he answered; Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) told me about this 30 years ago, saying: that among these people there will be a man whose forearm is without bone, will have a hairy round lump on it, and if you pulled at it, it would stretch down to the fingers and if left it will fill again.
They Find him They kept looking and looking for this man and finally they saw his body and his lump was indeed quite large, and it could be pulled down then reduced in size with pressure, as we see in cases of huge hemangioma! Truly it is amazing how accurate it is what Jubra'eel told Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
The Prophets Prediction The Prophet had predicted that Ali would fight the Kharijis with the words: "In truth there will be, among you, one who shall fight over the Interpretation of the Quran just as I fought over its Revelation." Abu Bakr and Omar asked: "Am I he?" The Prophet said: "No, it is the one who is mending the shoes. He had given his shoes to Ali to mend. The Prophet also predicted Alis martyrdom with the words: "This shall be dyed red from this" and he pointed to Alis beard and head respectively.
Following Nahrawan Having disposed of the Kharijis at Nahrawan, Ali left to resume his march to Syria. However, the chiefs of his followers urged him to stop at Kufa to let the men rest before the long and arduous journey and to enable the army to repair its weapons and armor. Ali agreed to this request and camped at al-Nukhaylah نخيله outside Kufa. The soldiers were allowed to leave the camp for a day.
The Dispersion of Alis Fighters On the next day, hardly any of the men returned, and at length, Ali entered Kufa and gave a stern sermon to the people. However, nobody came forward and his call was not heeded Finally, Ali turned away from them in disappointment. The Syrian expedition had to be abandoned, never to be resumed.
The Prophet About Alis end 30 years earlier, the Muhammad said to Ali: The most evil of evildoers is the one who will wet this (beard) with the blood from this (forehead) إنَّ أشقى الأشـقـيين مَن يُخضِّبُ هذه بهذه وأشار إلى لحيته ثم رأسه
Ibn Muljim before Siffin Ibn Kathir writes in Usudu'l-Ghaiba, Vol 4, Pg 25 (and others also have reported) that Ibn Muljim came to Ali, and he recited some verses in praise of Amir al-Mu'minin in the presence of the companions. He said: "You are the true guide, free from all faults and doubts. You are generous and kind and are the son of those lion-hearted and gallant ancestors, who were so distinguished in bravery from the very beginning. O successor of the Prophet! Allah has given you this rank and bestowed upon you that virtue and greatness present in the Holy Quran." Ali replied: "I advise you to love me open-heartedly, even though I know that inside you are just the opposite."
Ibn Muljim, After Nahrawan Ibn Muljim, one of the Kharijis, Along with 2 other Kharijis met in Mecca after Haj to set the plan to kill: Ali Muawiya Ibn Aas These Kharijis were involved in Nahrawan. Two relatives of the would–be wife of Ibn Muljim were killed in Nahrawan by Alis fighters. They planned to avenge Muawiya and Ibn Aas escaped being killed But Ali was the only one killed
Ibn Muljim the Assassin It was the month of Ramadhan, the month of fasting. It was the time of the morning prayer; the Kufa mosque was full of Muslims. One man called Ibn Muljim, pretended to be sleeping, with his face downward. He had hidden a poisonous sword under him. Ali was in Sujood, When as he raised his head, a terrible blow fell upon him giving him a deep wound from Ibn Muljims sword. There was a great commotion in the Kufa mosque. Ibn Muljim started to run but was arrested and brought before Ali. Ali was on the prayer rug drenched in blood and reclining upon his sons.
Alis Assassination Upon being so wounded Ali said: فزت ورب الكعبه I have won by the Lord of the Kaba A lot of commotion ensued Taken home, Ali gave final advice to his son Al-Hasan, and other children Two days later Ali died on Leilatul Qadr 21 st of Ramadhan
Ali, While Wounded: Though severely wounded: Ali ordered his sons not to attack the Kharijis, even though a single member of these Kharijis tried to kill him. Ali said to his son, (Al-Hasan) that if he lives on he will forgive ibn Muljim and free him, however, in the event of his death, ibn Muljim should get one equal hit and not more, regardless if this man dies from that hit or not, just as Ali himself received one hit from him (ibn Muljim). Thus, Al-Hasan fulfilled Qisas قصاص and gave equal hurt to ibn Muljim as he gave it to Ali.
Alis Assassination II Alis last words before he died quoting the Holy Quran were: فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ He with the slightest act of goodness will so be rewarded And he with the slightest act of evil deeds will so be rewarded
Site of Wounding Ali : Kufa Ali wounded while in Sujood, on Leilatul Qadr
Ali Wounded: Mosque of Kufa Ali wounded in this mosque
Burial According to Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid, Ali did not want his grave to be desecrated by his enemies and consequently asked his friends and family to bury him secretly. This secret gravesite was revealed later during the Abbasi Khilaafah by Imam Ja'far al-Saadiq, his descendant and the sixth Shi'a Imam. Most Shi'as accept that Ali is buried at the Tomb of Imam Ali in the Imam Ali Mosque at what is now the city of Najaf, which grew around the mosque and shrine called Masjid Ali.
Non-Muslim Point of View of Ali Thomas Carlyle Dr. Henry Stubbe Washington Irving Edward Gibbon Philip Khuri Hitti Khalil Gibran
Ali: Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) Scottish historian, critic, and sociological writer: As for this young Ali, one cannot but like him. A noble-minded creature, as he shows himself, now and always afterwards; full of affection, of fiery daring. Something chivalrous in him; brave as a lion; yet with a grace, a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. [On Heroes, Hero-Worship, And the Heroic In History, 1841, Lecture 2: The Hero as Prophet. Mahomet: Islam. May 8, 1840)]
Ali: Dr. Henry Stubbe (1632-1676) About Ali: He had a contempt of the world, its glory and pomp, he feared God much, gave many alms, was just in all his actions, humble and affable; of an exceeding quick wit and of an ingenuity that was not common, he was exceedingly learned, not in those sciences that terminate in speculations but those which extend to practice. [An Account of the Rise and Progress of Mohammedanism, 1705, p. 83]
Ali: Washington Irving (1783-1859) "He was of the noblest branch of the noble race of Koreish. He possessed the three qualities most prized by Arabs: courage, eloquence, and munificence. His intrepid spirit had gained him from the Prophet the appellation of The Lion of God, Specimens of his eloquence remain in some verses and sayings preserved among the Arabs; And his munificence was manifested in sharing among others, every Friday, what remained in the treasury. Of his magnanimity, we have given repeated instances; his noble scorn of everything false and mean, and the absence in his conduct of everything like selfish intrigue." [Lives of the Successors of Mahomet, London, 1850, p. 165]
Ali: Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) The British historian Edward Gibbon stated: "The zeal and virtue of Ali were never outstripped by any recent proselyte. He united the qualifications of a poet, a soldier, and a saint; his wisdom still breathes in a collection of moral and religious sayings; and every antagonist, in the combats of the tongue or of the sword, was subdued by his eloquence and valor. From the first hour of his mission to the last rites of his funeral, the apostle was never forsaken by a generous friend, whom he delighted to name: 1. his brother أخي, 2. his vicegerent وخليفتي فيكم, 3. and the faithful Aaron of a second Moses ووصيِّ.".
Ali: Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978) Professor of Semitic Languages at Princeton University: Valiant in battle, wise in counsel, Eloquent in speech, true to his friends, magnanimous to his foes, He became both the paragon of Muslim nobility and chivalry (futuwah فتوه ) And the Solomon of Arabic tradition, around whose name poems, proverbs, sermons and anecdotes innumerable have clustered. [History of the Arabs, London, 1964, p. 183]
Ali: Khalil Gibran خليل جبران View The poet Khalil Gibran said of him: "In my view, Ali was the first Arab to have contact with and converse with the universal soul. He died a martyr of his greatness, He died while prayer was between his two lips. The Arabs did not realize his value until appeared among their Persian neighbors some who knew the difference between gems and gravels."
In Sermon 125, Ali: About the Kharijis Certainly the best man before Allah is he who loves most to act according to the Right (even though it causes him hardship), rather than according to the Wrong, (even though it is to his advantage). So, where are you being misled and from where have you been brought to this state? Be prepared to march to people who have deviated from the Right and do not see it, have been entangled in Wrong-doing and are not corrected. They are aliens to the Book and had turned away from the right path. إِنَّ أَفْضَلَ النَّاسِ عِنْدَ اللهِ مَنْ كَانَ الْعَمَلُ بِالْحَقِّ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِ ـ وَإِنْ نَقَصَهُ وَكَرَثَهُ ـ مِنَ الْبَاطِلِ وَإِنْ جَرَّ إِلَيْهِ فَائِدَةً وَزَادَهُ، فَأَيْنَ يُتَاهُ بِكُمْ؟! وَمِنْ أَيْنَ أُتِيتُمْ؟! اسْتَعِدُّوا لِلْمَسِيرِ إِلَى قَوْم حَيَارَى عَنِ الْحَقِّ لاَ يُبْصِرُونَهُ، وَمُوزَعِينَ بِالْجَوْرِ لاَ يَعْدِلُونَ بِهِ، جُفَاة عَنِ الْكِتَابِ، نُكُب عَنِ الطَّرِيقِ.
In Sermon 110, Ali: About the Quran وَتَعَلَّمُوا الْقرْآن فَإِنَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْحَدِيثِ، وَتَفَقَّهُوا فِيهِ فَإِنَّهُ رَبِيعُ الْقُلُوبِ، وَاسْتَشْفُوا بِنُورِهِ فَإِنَّهُ شِفَاءُ الصُّدُورِ، وَأَحْسِنُوا تِلاَوَتَهُ فَإِنَّهُ أَنْفَعُ الْقَصَصِ. وَإِنَّ الْعَالِمَ الْعَامِلَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمِهِ كَالْجَاهِلِ الْحَائِرِ الَّذِي لاَ يَسْتَفِيقُ مِنْ جَهْلِهِ، بَلِ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيْهِ أَعْظَمُ، وَالْحَسْرَةُ لَهُ أَلْزَمُ، وَهُوَ عَنْدَ اللهِ أَلْوَمُ. Learn the Quran for it is the fairest of discourses; and understand the Quran thoroughly for it is the blossom of the hearts. Seek cure with its light for it is the cure for hearts. Recite it well for it is well nigh the best narration. Certainly, a scholar who acts not according to his knowledge is like the off-headed ignorant who finds no relief from his ignorance, But the plea of Allah is greater on the learned and the grief more incumbent, and before Allah he is more blameworthy.
In Conclusion Ali: and the Kharijis: The Kharijis الخوارج Ali Sends an Envoy Kharijis hopeless Demand Danger of the Kharijis Alis Speech Warning the Kharijis The Kharijis Attack Ali Army Following Nahrawan Ibn Muljim before Siffin Ibn Muljim the Assassin Ali, While Wounded
Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ