4Part I The TestGiven the totality of the circumstances, the following factors will be considered by the court:Was the officer lawfully placed?Did the officer subjectively believe that the amount of force used was reasonable?Would an objective reasonable person (standing in the officers’ shoes) believe that the level of force used was reasonable?
5Part I Environmental Factors: Location (confined space, isolation)CoverWeatherLightingFootingOther exigent circumstances
6Part I Subject Factors: Age, size, genderNumber of subjectsTraining, experience, fitnessExhaustion, injuriesGoal orientedNature and severity of crimeHistoryMental stateAlcohol, drugsVerbal, non-verbal threat cuesWeapons, proximity to weaponsFleeing, risk of escapeImmediate / imminent threat to police/public/themselvesAudience/peers
7Part I Officer Factors: Age, size, genderNumber of officersTraining, experience, fitnessExhaustion, injuriesPrior knowledge of the subjectDistance from subjectPositionEquipment
8Grips Reasonable Officer Response Training Aid Part II The Standard - Objective ReasonablenessOFFICER PERCEPTIONCooperative Low Level Resister High Level Resister Assaultive G.B.H./DeathLethal OptionsIntermediate Weapons(O.C. spray, C.E.D., baton)Empty Hand - HardOFFICER RESPONSE(distraction techniques, takedowns, punches, kicks)Empty Hand - Soft(pressure points, joint locks)Tactical ConsiderationsTactical Communication SkillsLawful & Professional Presence8
9Reasonable Officer Response Professionalism in PolicingReasonable Officer Response(R.O.R.)Questions and Comments