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Increasing Learning Opportunities for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Play and Daily Routines Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. & Amy.

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Presentation on theme: "Increasing Learning Opportunities for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Play and Daily Routines Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. & Amy."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Increasing Learning Opportunities for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Play and Daily Routines Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. & Amy Matthews, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University

3 Introductions & Agenda Introductions Agenda: Foundations –Brief introduction to the START project –Brief introduction to core characteristics of young children with ASD Primary Content –Increasing learning opportunities and engagement during daily routines and play activities –Increasing communication opportunities during daily routines and play activities –Increasing imitation skills during daily routines and play activities

4 START Project

5 Thinking Different about Autism Spectrum Disorders, Professional Development, and Statewide Support

6 Purpose of START START serves as a coordinating and supporting entity for schools and regional networks across the state of Michigan to increase access to local training and resources for students with autism spectrum disorder.

7 START Primary Components

8 START Early Intervention Intensive Training Targets preschool age, ECSE classrooms supporting children with ASD Strategies: –Are good for children with a variety of developmental disabilities –Will benefit children 0-3 –Were developed based on review of Evidence-Based practices

9 Autism Spectrum Disorders

10 Michigan Students with an ASD Eligibility Label

11 Autism Spectrum Disorders Numbers of students with ASD are increasing 1 in 150 (CDC) 1 in 91 (Health Resources & Services Administration) Age of diagnosis is earlier –This leads to more and more students with ASD served in birth-3 and preschool-age programs

12 Autism Spectrum Disorders Fastest-growing developmental disability $90 billion annual cost 90% of current costs are in adult services Cost of lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 with early diagnosis and intervention Autism Society of America, 2006

13 DSM-IV Definition Core Deficits of Autism Differences in behavior Differences in socialization Differences in communication

14 Triad of ASD

15 Joint Attention The core symptoms of autism are represented in the triad of impairments. Yet the earliest sign of autism is often manifested as a deficit in joint attention, which has a significant and pervasive impact on all developmental domains.

16 Intervention for Young Children with ASD The Foundations

17 A Model Program for Children with ASD age 0-3 Boulware, et al. (2006): Project DATA for Toddlers Integrated playgroup (5 typical peers, 2 children with ASD, 3 children with other disabilities) 3 hours per week (2, 1.5 hour sessions) Individualized instruction (1:1) 6 hours per week (2 hours 3x/wk) Family support in home or community 2 hours per week by Project DATA staff, 5 by family 16 hours of total intervention

18 Barriers to Implementing this Model? Financial Personnel Philosophical Status quo Other?? Given these issues, what CAN we do?

19 We can provide supported opportunities for learning that lead to better outcomes for children We can increase

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21 What does a Learning Opportunity Look Like? 1. Instruction/activity/ situation is presented to the child 2. Child has an opportunity to respond 3. Child is given feedback –Acknowledgement that response was correct or situation went well –Correction/prompt to help the child give a correct response or improve the situation

22 Engaged Time It may not be possible to provide learning opportunities all the time, but we can increase time engaged. Engaged time: Active involvement in productive activities that lead to learning. Provide pre-teaching, interesting materials, and adult and peer support

23 Reaching Our Ultimate Goals Why do we work so hard to increase learning opportunities? Independence Socialization Preparation for typical school experiences Quality of life

24 Increasing Learning Opportunities & Engagement during Daily Routines and Play Activities

25 Increasing Learning Opportunities & Engagement during Daily Routines & Play Activities Strategies for Daily Routines & Play Activities: Goal Cards (CAMPS) Teach Play Skills- 3 Rs; goal cards Incorporate Child Interests Use Visual Supports (play schedule books, sequencing cards, visual schedule, computer book) Strategies for the Playground or Backyard Preteach Skills Use Visual Supports (schedule, first-then) Interrupt & Redirect

26 Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities & Engagement: Goal Cards Preschool Age: C – Communication goals L – Literacy goals (letters, pre-reading) A – Academic goals (numbers, shapes, colors) M – Motor goals (gross, fine) S – Social goals Birth – 3: C – Communication (verbal, PECS or sign language; choice-making, yes/no) A – Academic/pre-academic (colors, pre-numeracy skills) M – Motor (gross, fine) P – Play (basic toy play skills, e.g., building, imitation, simple pretend play) S – Social (turn-taking; fill-ins, joint attention)

27 Goal Card for Bath Time C: Communication goal –Requests water on/off, duck, pour, yes/no A: Academic/Preacademic goal –Counts or sorts bath toys/objects, Fills in words in songs: this is the way we wash our _____ tummy, points to body parts M: Motor goal –Scoops and pours water P: Play goal –Washes a baby doll S: Social goal –Plays peek-a-boo with caregiver using the washcloth; fills in or participates in game ready, set, ___(go) (then pours water out of a cup or drops a toy in the water to make a splash)

28 Goal Card for Riding in the Car C: Communication goal –Verbalizes or signs for seatbelt on/off, music on/off, window up/down, signs all done before having seat belt removed A: Academic/Preacademic goal –Labels or points to objects in the environment (red car, yellow house, big truck, moon, etc.); points to picture that indicates destination M: Motor goal –Claps hands yeah, were here, uses pointer finger to touch colorforms/window decals on window P: Play goal –Sings songs with caregiver, if youre happy…; looks at book/listens to book on tape; moves or plays with window decals S: Social goal –Waving to people or objects (wave bye-bye to the truck)

29 Goal Card for Putting Shoes On C: Communication goal –Labels shoes, socks, requests help me, signs all done when finished putting shoes on A: Academic/Preacademic goal –Labels or points to colors (wheres the red shoe?); counts how many shoes do you have?; finds item, wheres the BIG shoe M: Motor goal –Pushes foot into shoe; straps velcro; pulls on socks using two hands P: Play goal –Yay, you have your shoes on, lets pretend were ice-skating, lets hop like a bunny, lets tiptoe S: Social goal –Responds to absurdities: e.g., caregiver putting shoe on her head; fills in words: all ____ (done) time to ___(go)

30 Goal Card for Breakfast C: Communication goal –Chooses items (food, bowl, etc.,) either verbally or by pointing A: Academic/Preacademic goal –Sits in a chair for the meal, labels or points to colors/pictures on placemat M: Motor goal –Holds and uses spoon, uses a cup, drinks from straw P: Play goal –Pretends to feed stuffed animal/animal figurine; feeds baby doll S: Social goal –Shares food (hands food to caregiver/sibling when requested); takes turns (my turn/your turn);

31 Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities & Engagement: Identify and Teach Appropriate Play Skills Children with ASD often: –Have play skill deficits –Have a small play repertoire –Engage in stereotyped behavior when given the opportunity to play

32 Identify and Teach Age- Appropriate Play Activities (Examples for children ages 2-3)

33 Basic Play Skill Targets DomainExample Play Activities Early toy play Put together/take apart Put in/ take out Play with blocks and manipulatives Builds/connects Makes pretend objects Play with vehicles One action play with vehicles Plays in a scene with vehicles Play with figures or stuffed animals One action play with figures Plays in a scene with figures Pretend Play Pretends with one object Pretends without props

34 For More Information on Basic Play Skill Targets Teach 2 Play teach2play-series.html teach2play-series.html Smith, M. (2001). Teaching playskills to children with ASD The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS)

35 Blanc et al., 2005 The effects of adult guidance during play were beneficial for children with ASD, children with CI and for typical children, but more particularly for children with autism. Children with autism showed more complex, and higher developmental levels of play when they were supported/ prompted by adults.

36 An Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Approach to Presenting Instruction Request (Stimulus) Response Reaction (Consequence)

37 The 3 Rs are the same as a Learning Opportunity

38 Using the 3 Rs 100% Success is expected A child will be assisted until he is successful Failure is not an option Dont make a request unless you are going to follow through

39 What Does this Look Like with Play Targets? REQUEST: Make the request –Put the cups together –Stack the blocks –Make a train –Fly the airplane –Feed the baby RESPONSE: If the child doesnt respond, or responds incorrectly, prompt the correct response REACTION: Praise and reward the child for the correct response

40 Incorporating an ABA Approach within Classroom Activities McBride & Schwartz (2003)- embedded instructional episodes (Learning Opportunities or Request, Response, Reaction sequences) into ongoing classroom routines and activities –Teachers identified individualized IEP/IFSP goals –Addressed the target goals during classroom activities using an ABA approach

41 Goal cards can also focus on play: Building with Blocks C: Communication goal –Requests block; says uh-oh when blocks fall A: Academic/pre-academic goal –Touch counts blocks (with help); labels colors of blocks M: Motor goal –Coordinates motor movements to build tower P: Play goal –Crashes tower with toy car; imitates tower or model made by caregiver; figurine jumps off of tower S: Social goal –Hands block to caregiver; plays peek-a-boo behind the tower

42 Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities & Engagement: Incorporate Child Interests Braiding the ABA and developmental approaches

43 Developmental Practices DAP Position Statement (NAEYC.org) Pivotal Response Treatment (Koegel et al., 2003) Naturalistic Instruction –Capitalizes on childrens interests; natural consequences –Targets functional skills

44 Developmentally Appropriate Practice National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2009 (naeyc.org) Teaching to enhance development and learning Developmentally appropriate teaching practices provide an optimal balance of adult- guided and child-guided experiences… child- guided experience proceeds primarily along the lines of childrens interests and actions, with strategic teacher support (p. 17).

45 Incorporate Child Interests If youre working with a child who likes Thomas the Tank Engine, how can you teach important skills using Thomas? –Communication - requests Thomas –Academic – sorts engines by color; completes a Thomas puzzle with help –Motor - jumps over Thomas –Play - re-enacts a scene from a Thomas video –Social – tolerates turn-taking with Thomas

46 Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities & Engagement: Use Visual Supports Visual supports can be used to teach early play skills Early learners may not understand symbolic representations in pictures Initially, these students may require additional repetition, prompting and feedback (the 3 Rs) to use the visual supports effectively

47 Identify specific functional play targets for the student; use pictures to cue the activities Visual Supports: Play Schedule Book

48 Play Schedule Book: Where are you going with it?

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50 Visual Supports Play Sequences Create picture schedules of play scenarios with sequenced steps 3-Step Sequencing Cards: Cooking

51 Visual Supports Emerging Dramatic Play

52 Visual Supports: Emerging Dramatic Play Going Fishing Put on hatPut on bootsGet bucket and fishing pole Catch a fish

53 Its Time for a Picnic! Emerging Dramatic Play Computer Book for Going on a Picnic

54 Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities & Engagement: Preteach Skills Preteach play skills that are useful during outdoor play

55 Using Visual Supports on the Playground/ in the Backyard Create appropriate routines; expose the child to new activities; incorporate social opportunities

56 Visual Supports First: SandboxThen: Swing

57 Interrupting and Redirecting Get in the way! –Make the path to the desired item or equipment through you Prompt and reinforce the child for appropriate play

58 SUMMARY Increasing Learning Opportunities & Engagement during Daily Routines & Play Activities Strategies for Daily Routines & Play Activities: Goal Cards (CAMPS) Teach Play Skills- 3 Rs; goal cards Incorporate Child Interests Use Visual Supports (play schedule books, sequencing cards, visual schedule, computer book) Strategies for the Playground or Backyard Preteach Skills Use Visual Supports (schedule, first-then) Interrupt & Redirect

59 Increasing Communication Opportunities during Daily Routines & Play Activities

60 Identify and teach a Functional Communication system Increase motivation for communication (natural and contrived events) Plan for and create communication opportunities (e.g., MITS approach, multiple domains) Prompt and fade support

61 Communication Communication needs to be taught throughout the day, every day, by all adults in all environments Communication should be a TOP priority of 0-3 programming –Decreases problem behaviors –Associated with better prognosis

62 Each Child should have a Functional Communication System The ability to request: Desired items (e.g., Want train) Necessary items (e.g., I need a fork) Assistance (e.g., Help please) Attention (e.g., Watch me!) Actions (e.g., Swing me) Information (e.g., What is it?) Negative reinforcement – removing something unwanted (e.g., Go away, Take a break)

63 What is the Right Communication System? 1. Individualized 2. Total communication 3. Whats better, signing or pictures? 4. Should we use alternative systems or just focus on language development?

64 Using Natural Events to Increase Motivation for Communication When is a child most likely to be hungry? Thirsty? If the child is thirsty, what has become more valuable? What behaviors might the child show? –Good communication behaviors: opening cabinet, going to sink, getting a cup –Poor communication behaviors: screaming, crying This scenario provides us with opportunities to teach requesting (e.g., cup, open cabinet, pour juice, etc.)

65 Using Contrived Events to Increase Motivation for Communication Create a situation that makes something more valuable –Give the child his yogurt without a spoon –Give the child only a small amount of her drink –Before recess, provide the child with only one of his boots –Hand the child a preferred item thats been placed in a clear box that she cant open on her own

66 Other Strategies to Increase Motivation for Communication In sight, but out of reach Begin favorite activity, then pause for communication Missing materials Offer choices Display pictures of preferred items and activities throughout the environment Expectant look Show an interesting but unfamiliar item, prompt the child to ask questions (e.g., What is it?)

67 MITS: Creating Learning Opportunities for Communication Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS) (Charlop-Christy & Carpenter, 2000) –Child initiates request by using adult as tool (child grabs adults arm and attempts to reach to the upper shelf for the cars) –Adult verbally models I want cars and hands child one car –Adult immediately implements two more trials of requesting: adult verbally models I want cars and provides more cars to the child after each appropriate request

68 Increasing Communication Skills Plan for and create communication opportunities Focus on initiation of communication-- requesting is more important than labeling Identify motivating items from multiple domains (not just food)

69 Communication Targets from Multiple Domains Foods/Drinks/Snacks: Chips Pretzels Juice Water Toys with Multiple Pieces: Puzzles Play-doh Train tracks Cars Interactive/Motor Activities: Tickles Swinging Trampoline blanket slide Bouncing on therapy ball Toys Requiring Help: Bubbles Balloons Spinning tops, toys

70 How to Teach Requesting Using Sign Language Begin with the preferred item present First opportunity: Provide a freebie while verbally labeling the item, bubbles! Next opportunity: –Model the sign while verbally labeling the item, bubbles –Then physically prompt the student to sign for the item; label it again, bubbles –Provide the item and label it again, bubbles

71 Teaching Verbal Requesting Again, the first opportunity is a freebie The label is provided, tickle Child receives item/activity immediately upon approximating the word

72 SUMMARY: Increasing Communication Opportunities during Daily Routines & Play Activities Identify and teach a Functional Communication system Increase motivation for communication (natural and contrived events) Plan for and create communication opportunities (e.g., MITS approach, multiple domains) Prompt and fade support

73 Increasing Imitation Skills during Daily Routines and Play Activities

74 Strategies to Increase Imitation Reciprocal imitation Teach imitation using the 3 Rs Observational play with matched toy sets Observational play through video modeling

75 Imitation Due to impairments in joint attention & possibly, due to differences in a region of the brain that holds mirror neurons children with ASD often show deficits in imitation Like other early learner skills, imitation may need to be systematically taught

76 For Children who Show Limited Awareness of Others: Use Reciprocal Imitation Reciprocal imitation involves the adult (or a peer) imitating the actions of the child using matched or similar toys (appropriate play actions, not inappropriate behaviors)

77 Teach Imitation Using the 3Rs Adult: Says Do this and pushes a bus Child: (no response) Adult: physically assists child to push the bus and says This is pushing the bus

78 Learning through Observation Learning observationally, or learning from the environment –Watching peers and/or adults and imitating their behaviors

79 SUMMARY: Increasing Imitation Skills during Daily Routines and Play Activities Strategies to Increase Imitation Reciprocal imitation Teach imitation using the 3 Rs Observational play with matched toy sets Observational play through video modeling

80 THANKS!! Please complete an evaluation form Our Contact Information: Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Amy Matthews, Ph.D.

81 Selected References Blanc, R., Adrien, J., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C. (2005). Dysregulation of pretend play and communication development in children with autism. Autism, 9, Boulware, G., Schwartz, I., Sandall, S & McBride, B. (2006). Project DATA for toddlers: An inclusive approach to very young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26, McBride, B.J. & Schwartz, I.S. (2003). Effects of teaching early interventionists to use discrete trials during ongoing classroom activities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23, 5-17 National Association for the Education of the Young Children (NAEYC, 2009). Developmentally Appropriate Practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth to age 8. Draft Position Statement, adopted 2009.


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