2Appearance & Uniform PRIDE! Hat Shirt Belt Pants Shoes Socks Jacket BallbagBrushIndicatorPRIDE!
3BLUE! WHAT’S THE CALL, "She was safe BY A MILE!" "Want to borrow my glasses?""Hey Blue! That plate has corners ya' know!""Ya' leave your seeing-eye dog at home?""She was out BY A MILE!""This is the worst umpiring I've ever seen.""That pitch was a strike for the other team!""Hey Blue, You're missing a great game here!""You're KILLING US!"BLUE!"Ask someone for help!"
4FIRST IMPRESSIONS ARE ONLY MADE ONE TIME The Pre-GameFIRST IMPRESSIONS ARE ONLY MADE ONE TIME
5POSITIONING BETWEEN INNINGS 3B 1B Alternate P P MANAGER’S MEETING COACHESPLATE UMPIREBASE UMPIRESBETWEEN INNINGS3B1BAlternatePP
6UMPIRE SIGNAL CHART (1) DOUBLE TRAPPED BALL DELAYED DEAD BALL Raise right arm showing two fingers. Verbally call, "Two Bases."TRAPPED BALLExtend arms straight out with palms down. Verbally call, "Safe."DELAYED DEAD BALLExtend left arm straight out with fist closed.INFIELD FLYRaise right arm with fist close. Verbally call, "Infield Fly."FAIR BALLPoint towards fair ground with hand closest to infield. No verbal call.SAFEExtend arms straight out with palms down. Verbally call, "Safe."
7UMPIRE SIGNAL CHART (2) HOLD UP PLAY FOUL TIP FOUR-BASE AWARD (SP) With palm up, raise hand farthest away from pitcher towards batter.FOUL TIPFingers from both hands are touched together chest high in front of body and then a strike signal with no verbal call.FOUR-BASE AWARD (SP)On any fair touched ball going over the fence, raise right hand showing four fingers. Verbally call, "Four Bases."PLAY BALLMotion with either hand to the pitcher. Verbally call, "Play Ball."TIME/DEAD BALRaise both hands with open palms away from the body. Verbally call, "Time" or "Dead Ball."COUNTRaise both arms up, indicate strikes with fingers on right hand and balls with fingers on left hand. Verbally give count.
8Give DEAD BALL signal then verbally call, "Foul Ball" UMPIRE SIGNAL CHART (3)FOUL BALLGive DEAD BALL signal then verbally call, "Foul Ball"HOME RUNRaise right arm. With fist closed move it in a counter-clockwise twirling motion. Verbally call, "Four Bases."STRIKEBring left arm with hand closed to midsection as right arm is extended straight up with hand facing ear. Then pull down at elbow while closing fist. Verbally call, "Strike."OUTWith hand closed, bring left arm to midsection as right arm is extended straight up with hand facing ear. Then pull down at elbow while closing fist. Verbally call, "Out."
13FAST PITCH PLATE Do not set up within the perimeter of the strike zone SET POSITION
14SET POSTION - SLOW PITCH PLATE Hold up pitch until all players are ready.Stay in upright position until height of pitch (6-12 feet) is determinedDo not place hands on knees as this locks you at the same height for every batter. Drop to a level equal to the top of the front shoulder. Be in the set position when the ball crosses the strike zone.
15FAST PITCH PLATE MECHANICS 1. Fast pitch and Slow pitch are alike in many ways. This allows umpires an easy transition from one game to the other. Common areas of mechanics are:a) Stanceb) Slotc) Trackingd) TimingDifference: a) Set positionFast PitchSlow Pitch
16STANCE a) Feet: 1. Shoulder width or slightly further apart. 2. Weight distributed on balls of feet3. Toe to Heel only.4. Scissors, Peaker's and Hooking stances.In all cases be COMFORTABLEb) Slot:1. "Space between the catcher and batter in which your inside ear is on the black portion of the inside part of the plate. This space will never allow the catcher to block you out.2. NEVER set up in the perimeter of the strike zone. You will only lose the pitch and guess all day. This is referred to as being "blocked" out.3. You must have a clear, unobstructed view ofthe plate.
17STANCE (Continued) c) Knees: 1. Bend the knees not at the waist. 2. Drop 3-5 inches into strike zone3. Try to keep back, head and neck as straight as possible.d) Shoulders:1. Keep shoulders as square to the pitcher as possible.2. NEVER have shoulders square down base paths.
18STANCE (Continued) e) Set Position: 1. Eyes at TOP of strike zone. 2. Keep hands inside legs.3. Once you get set NEVER move.4. Go to "set" position when pitch STARTS.5. Set too early- tired body and movement in late innings.6. Set too late- never see pitch as pitch will "explode" when you finally get set. Movement causes you to lose perspective of strike zone and of home plate.7. "Head Height" is very important for consistency. Low head height loses outside and low pitch. High head height loses low pitch on knees.f) Tracking:1. Track only with eyes, nose and SLIGHT head movement.2. Moving body only distorts view of pitch and often moves you over the catcher.3. See the ball from the time it leaves the pitcher's hand until the ball reaches the catcher's glove.
19Difficult Situations a) Blinking with pitch. b) High drop c) Catcher taking inside corner.d) Batter crowding plate.e) Check swings. If you react to catcher, you will miss swing!1. Know mechanics of hitting.a. Did batter break wrist?b. Did bat come in front of body?c. Did bat come through plate area?d. Rolling of wrist - not breaking of wrist.2. Know batting mechanics.a. Batter gets ready.b. Stride - coil - weight on front foot.c. Hips turn as batter turns.d. Snap wrist as he rolls wrist.
20Difficult Situations (Continued) 3. Very hard to stop bat once you get it out in front. You may be able to slow bat down. Coaches now teaching to turn body into pitch.4. Umpire needs to concentrate on ball.a. Was pitch a strike? If yes who cares what batter did.5. Sell call!a. Use proper signal.6. Working slot allows you to see check swings clearly. Tough pitch is the rise ball.7. If you need help, GET THE CALL CORRECT!
21Plate Mechanics 1) Stance a. Feet - Knees - Back - Shoulders 2) Working the Slota. Toe/heel - Scissors - Hooker3) Set Positiona. Timing - Set outside the perimeter - Head heightb. Too close/far - Too wide/deep - Moving on pitch4) Tracking the Balla. Moving head/eyes - moving body on pitch5) Strike Callsa. Vocal - Timing - Mechanics
22Plate Mechanics (Continued) 6) Ball Callsa. Call while down - Location7) Counta. Height - Rotation - How often8) Passed balls/pop flys9) Difficult Situationsa. Hit batterb. Double hitc. Check swing10) Ball Rotation
23COUNT a) Height: 1) Eye level or slightly higher. 2) Slow down when giving count.3) Rotation of hands.4) How often:a. When requested.b. After a delay in game.c. Whenever next pitch creates a change. Recognize the caliber of ball you are umpiring.
24STRIKE ZONE a) Definition: 1) Arm pits and top of knees. 2) Discuss corners of plate3) Dimensions 17 x 8 ½ x 12 = 27"a. Plate 17"b. Ball 4"c. Black 1"
25TIMING & RHYTHM a) Calling pitches: 1) Voice. a. "Ball" call - On a pitch that is a ball, stay in your stance and verbalize, "Ball". There is no signal for a pitch that is a ball. Verbalize a ball so that your voice can be heard in both dugouts. You can sell a ball call with a slight head movement AFTER you call the pitch.b. "Strike" call - There are two theories.1. You can make the call in the down position or2. Make the call in the upright position. Whichever you use, declare loudly "Strike!" so that your voice can be heard in the outfield.c. Always call the pitch after the catcher catches the pitch and a "slight" hesitation is used.d. Difference in voice and timing only creates doubt.
26THE STRIKE CALLSlow pitch (top) and Fast Pitch (bottom) are identical in the mechanics.SET23456SET23456
27MOVEMENT FROM THE PLATE 1) Exitinga. Left of catcher2) Trailing the runnera. Unless the ball takes you elsewhereb. Interference, obstruction, swipe tag, pulled foot, overthrows - blocked ball3) Fair/Foul/Outa. Priorities4) Third base callsa. Two umpire system, runner on 1B only.b. Three umpire system - four umpire system
28MOVEMENT FROM THE PLATE (Continued) 5) Third base callsa. Coming from home plate6) Call at home platea. Returning from third baseb. Ball coming from fair territoryc. Passed ball situations7) "Show me the ball!"
29BASE MECHANICS POSITIONING -Two Umpire System No Runners on Base Runners on Base (Slow/Fast Pitch)SIGNALSOut - Safe - Selling the CallTHE FORCE OUTFour Basic ElementsTwo TheoriesDouble PlayTAG PLAYSPulled FootSwipe TagFind Ball - Show Me
31BASIC POSITIONS NO RUNNERS ON BASE WITH RUNNERS ON BASE Do not lock hands on the knees as shown here.Step with the pitch so you ready to move if the ball is hit!Drop to SET position when the pitchers brings the hands together.
32THE FORCE OUT FOUR BASIC ELEMENTS: 1) Ball 2) Defensive Players Making Play3) Batter-runner4) The BasePROCEDURE:1. Stop Approximately 18 Ft From Base-go to Set Position.2. Let the Throw Turn You Into the Base3. Things to Think About:A) Did Runner Touch the Base?B) Did 1st Baseman Have a Foot on When the Ball Was Caught?C) Was the Ball Juggled?4. Too Close Restricts the Angle, Close the Range of Vision, and May Cause You to Get Caught in the Action.5. Slight Hesitation- Let a Clear and Mental Pitcher to Develop.6. Hesitate Not -a Delay, Means You Are in Control of Yourself- Which Is Convincing.
33THE FORCE OUT (Continued) 7) Once ObservedA. Make HesitationB. Know The OutcomeC. Render The Out Or Safe SignalButton Hook Movement1) Concentrate On Runner (S)2) You Are Not Interfering With Anyone3) Checking For Tag Of The Base Or Player4) Watching For Obstruction/interference5) Glancing To Pick Up The Ball In The Outfield.Rule Of Thumb- Watching The Runner- Glancing To Pick Up The Ball
34FAIR GROUND THEORY321Move inside the diamond, observing the defensive player fielding the ground ball, to a position which is a few steps, (approximately six (6) feet) inside the foul line. Stop as the player fields the ball and let the throw turn you into the play at first base.
35FAIR GROUND THEORY - SWIPE TAG 321FBIf the the throw to first takes the first baseman off the base, move directly toward the foul line, maintaining the foot distance from first.Point to the swipe tag and make a verbal indicating whether the tag was made or missed, hesitate slightly to make sure the ball is not dropped then sell the appropriate call.
36FOUL GROUND THEORYRF21FBStay outside the diamond in foul territory and move 'up' the line to make the call to a position which would be a few steps, (approximately six (6) feet) outside the foul line.Outside position should be used only on balls hit to the first baseman, the second baseman's extreme left or to short right field where the throw is coming to the first baseman from near the foul line.This outside position should be used only when 'absolutely necessary'.
37UMPIRING -- INSIDE OUTUUUUThe four basic field positions for base umpires covering both the two and three umpire systems and the six possible “button-hook” movements.
39You Can't Change the World Overnight High attrition rate in umpiring each year.No set way to handle all players/coaches1) Each handled differently2) What works for me - may not work for you3) Learn to respond - not reactDo what you're there for!How is your attitude?Easy to relate to players But how do you relate as an umpire . .Dedicated umpires learn from mistakes.
40Develop a Feel for the Game Preventive Umpiring UMPIRE TIPSSet the toneStudy Ball PlayersDevelop a Feel for the GamePreventive Umpiring
41WORKING WITH CATCHERS 1) You Are a Team! 2) Understand the Basics of Catching3) Catchers Need to Know What They Can & Cannot Do - Target of Catcher Will Help in FP4) Set Position of Umpire5) Don't Signal Location of Pitch-talk to Catcher6) Wiping Plate7) Umpires Can't Redeem Themselves - Catchers Can8) Strike Zone - Establish Early9) Plate Umpire Sets Tempo of Game
42WORKING WITH CATCHERS (Continued) 10) CATCHER WHO WORKS WITH UMPIRE CREATES RESPECT.a) Set Positionsb) Glove Movementc) Dialogued) Control of pitchers/teammates/ managers
43WORKING WITH PITCHERS 1) TWO THINGS PITCHER WANTS FROM UMPIRE a) Control of gameb) Consistency in strike zone. Strike zone is a strike zone is a strike zone.2) DON'T CHALLENGE OR CONFRONT PITCHER DIRECTLY3) MAKE IT ENJOYABLE
44WORKING WITH COACHES Coach Argues for Three Reasons: 1) He thinks you might have made a mistake.2) To keep his players in the game.3) Because of temporary insanity.For a coach to request an interpretation of the rules should be expected. THE UMPIRE SHOULD HAVE THE ANSWER.Remember:Umpires are tested by coaches.Particularly the newer officials.Veterans have either gained respect OR "DUG THEIR OWN GRAVE".Respect comes from:1) Sound judgment2) Common sense3) Proper attitude4) Disposition, and5) Self controlWhen you take charge - they notice.
45EJECTION-THE LAST RESORT But it is sometimes necessaryA) Some umpires look for ways to eject.B) Some umpires use ejection as a means of game control.C) Some umpires never eject- they are afraid to lose a friend.EJECTION:1) If handled at the right time - game control and good.2) If too quick- chip on shoulder.3) If too late- You are an umpire that can be pushed around.IF YOU EJECT A COACH OR PLAYER- ASK YOURSELF:1) Did I do anything to lead to the ejection?2) Did I challenge the player or coach?3) Did I lose control of myself?4) Did I offer opportunity to the player or coach to keep from his losing control?
46FANS Hear Only What Should be Heard 1) Every crowd will include a heckler2) Many believe it is part of the gameIf Umpire Reacts:1) Crowd will sense evidence of umpire being conscious and will increase jibes and heckling2) Soon crowds and players lose respect of umpireUmpire Should Be:1) DEAF,2) Ignore any and all spectator commentsFans Have Three Characteristics:1) They are ignorant of the rules2) They are highly emotional - highly partisan3) They delight in antagonizing officialsRemember:They are not against you They are against the blue shirt.
47CONFRONTATION Four weapons in the battle to communicate. MIND - FACE - BODY - VOICEYour purpose in game situations is to persuade people.a. Fans, coaches and players don't attack you personally.b. They are upset with what you represent - the blue.
48CONFRONTATION Eight concepts to use with the four weapons 1. ENLIGHTEN - Don't Debate2. EXPLAIN - Don't Argue3. CONVERSE - Don't Make A Speech4. TALK - Don't React Critically5. SPEAK CALMLY - Don't Shout Back6. BE POSITIVE - Don't Be Negative7. BE FRIENDLY - Don't Be Arrogant8. BE CONFIDENT - Don't be meekWhen dealing with people - look them in the eye. Nothing gets across if you're looking at your shoe tips.FROM: "Winning At Confrontation" by Arch Lustberg
49SIX C's 1. Consistency 2. Character 3. Courage 4. Coverage 5. Communication6. ControlBear down at all times . . .The only umpire who can take it easy during a game, is one who buys a ticket and sits in the stands.
50EVALUATING YOUR GAME1) Did I arrive in time to prepare for the assignment?2) Did I hold a pre-game conference with my partner(s)?3) Was my uniform clean and shoes polished?4) If the chief umpire, did my pre-game conference with the managers cover all it should?5) Was I in position to call each play I was responsible for?6) Was I prepared in advance for each play or situation?7) If on the plate, was my strike zone consistent?8) Did I give proper timing to my mechanics?9) Were my mechanics clear and sharp for the player, spectators and my partner(s)?10) Did I go out on appropriate fly ball coverage?
51EVALUATING YOUR GAME (Continued) 11) Did anything unusual occur and did I recognize the violation, calling at once and correctly?12) Was there any occasion during the game where I was fortunate in not having to make a call?13) Did I assist my partner and communicate when they needed it, or when it was required?14) Did I keep my cool and handle all discussions with coaches and/or players when they arose and in a manner I can be proud of?15) Did I uphold, defend or rationalize my improper ruling?16) Was there any particular part of the game I could work on which has not already been mentioned?An umpire should work under the assumption that he is only as good as his next call, and should attempt to make certain that it is a good one!BE THE BEST UMPIRE YOU CAN BE!
53UMPIRE CHECK LIST 1. Be competitive 2. Have your head on straight 3. Don't be a tough guy4. Get into the flow of the game5. Don't bark6. Show confidence7. Forget the fans8. Answer reasonable questions9. Choose your words wisely10. Stay cool11. Be professional12. Bear down at all times13. Be the best you can be