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**Effort is the Key to Success - There is no Shortcut**

Statistics Effort is the Key to Success - There is no Shortcut

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Economics Money (and why it is good)

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Psychology Why we think what we think (we think)

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Biology Life

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Anthropology Who?

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History What, Where and When?

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Philosophy Why?

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Engineering How?

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Accounting How much?

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**Statistics Variation Data varies. People are different.**

We have to make decisions on data because no one is perfect

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Why Statistics? Everywhere Applications Needed for college Interesting

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Cartoon from textbook

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**Case Study Robert Martin turned 55 in 1991.**

Worked for Westvaco Corporation Was laid off. He claims it was because of age. Use of statistics to prove.

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**Exploration Informal Gathering of Data**

Open ended examination of data for patterns Use of graphs etc.

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**Data cartoon from Textbook**

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Statistics Introduction

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Data Collection Let’s collect some data Simple graphs

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S_A_I_T_C_ A W Q C T Y Q H U M I T T S S L U M W K

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Sometime every day of your life you will encounter meeting with some sort of data or statistical study.

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Do you agree? Yes No

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What is your class? Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 6

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**How much money do you carry?**

$0-5 $6-10 $11-20 $21-100 More than $100 10

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**How many pairs of shoes do you own?**

1 2-4 5-6 More than 7 pair 10

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Boys # shoes 1 2-4 5-6 More than 7 10

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Girls: # shoes 1 2-4 5-6 More than 7 10

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**How much sleep did you get last night?**

0-4 hours 5-6 7-8 More than 8 hours 10

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**Which do you prefer for dating?**

I can’t yet, I am too young Older dates Younger dates Blind dates 10

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**Are you satisfied with your schedule?**

This will be my best year yet Why did I get put into some of the classes? I’m just here because I am required to be here I’m going to my counselor to change my schedule 10

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**Inference Follows strict rules**

Judges if things you found are what you expect Decide if evidence proves

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Statistics? Statistics is a way of reasoning, along with a collection of tools and methods, designed to help us understand the world. Statistics (plural) are particular calculations made from data. Statistics is about how to think clearly about data.

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Let’s Get started One of the interesting challenges of Statistics is that, unlike some math and science classes, there can be more than one answer.

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**2 right answers? People make mistakes sometimes intentionally**

Some mistakes are unintentional Some mistakes are on purpose to mislead Sometimes the method causes mistakes

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Equation challenge Equations are for expressing a mathematical idea concisely and are not the main point of statistics. In Statistics we think about a problem, find and show results and tell others what you have discovered.

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The W’s Who What (and in what units) When Where Why How

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Exercise Think Identify the W’s Find variables Classify Identify units

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Oscars Ages of Oscar-winning Best Actors and Actresses by Richard Brown and Gretchen Davis gives the ages of actors and actresses at the time they won Oscars. We might use these data to see whether actors and actresses are likely to win Oscars at about the same age or not.

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Weighing Bears Because of the difficulty of weighing a bear in the woods, researchers caught and measured 54 bears, recording their weight, neck size, length, and sex. They hoped to find a way to estimate weight from the other, more easily determined quantities.

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Arby’s Menu A listing posted by the Arby’s restaurant chain gives, for each of the sandwiches it sells, the type of meat in the sandwich; the number of calories, and the serving size in ounces. The data might be used to assess the nutritional value of the different sandwiches.

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Flowers In a study appearing in the journal Science a research team reports that plants in southern England are flowering earlier in the spring. Records of the first flowering dates for 385 species over a period of 47 years indicate that flowering has advanced an average of 15 days per decade, and indication of climate warming according to the authors.

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Fitness Are physically fit people less likely to die of cancer? An article in the May 2002 issue of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise reported results of a study that followed 25,892 men aged 30 to 87 for 10 years. The most physically fit men had a 55% lower risk of death from cancer than the least fit group.

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Schools The State Education Department requires local school districts to keep these records on all studies: age, race or ethnicity, days absent, current grade level, standardized test scores in reading and mathematics, and any disabilities or special educational needs the student may have.

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Cars A survey of autos parked in student and staff lots at a large university recorded the make, country of origin, type of vehicle (car, van SUV, etc.), and age.

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Age and Party The Gallup Poll conducted a representative telephone survey of 1180 American voters during the first quarter of Among the reported results were the voter’s region (Northeast, South, etc.) age, part affiliation, and whether or not the person had voted in the 1998 midterm Congressional election.

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Air Travel The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) monitors airlines for safety and customer service. For each flight the carrier must report the type of aircraft, number of passengers, whether or not the flights departed and arrived on schedule, and any mechanical problems.

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**Materials needed for class**

TI 83 or TI84 Notebook Highlighters Good attitude File Cards

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Assignment In the News Find a newspaper or magazine article in which some data are reported. For the data discussed in the article identify the W’s, name the variables, classify each variable as categorical or quantitative and identify the units. Include a copy of the article with your report.

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Graph Exploration Find five or more different graphs and identify the type you think it is.

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In this chapter, we introduce the ideas of what statistics and data are all about.

In this chapter, we introduce the ideas of what statistics and data are all about.

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