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Shaping and Operant Response. Shaping What is shaping – Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until organism exhibits.

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Presentation on theme: "Shaping and Operant Response. Shaping What is shaping – Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until organism exhibits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shaping and Operant Response

2 Shaping What is shaping – Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until organism exhibits target behavior Differential reinforcement = reinforcing one particular behavior but not all others. – Touching nose to red end of stick = reward – Any other behavior not get reward Successive approximations: – Break behavior into individual components or building blocks – Reinforcer each step or block until organism can complete all steps/blocks in order = target behavior

3 Shaping Must train or teach an operant response in lab setting: magazine training – Train animal to come to feeder – Really is classical conditioning – Click of feeder predicts food – No response (other than approach) required Shaping – Using successive approximations of the final response – Break up a response into its components or pieces – E.g., tying a shoe: how many steps? – Train so that put the steps together until have the fluid final response

4 Methods vs. Principles Methods: – Behaviors to be shaped or developed – Sequence of steps used to develop them Principles – Theory – Rules governing how, when, why particular behaviors are reinforced – Equally as important to understanding shaping as method!!!!!!!!

5 Methods vs. Principles Methods: – Behaviors to be shaped or developed – Sequence of steps used to develop them Principles – Theory – Rules governing how, when, why particular behaviors are reinforced – Equally as important to understanding shaping as method!!!!!!!!

6 Ten Laws of Shaping Raise criteria in small increments Train only one aspect of any particular behavior at a time During shaping, put current level of response onto variable schedule before adding/raising criteria When introducing new criterion, temporarily relax older ones Stay ahead of your subject Dont change trainers in midstream! If one shaping procedure not working, find another Dont interrupt a training session gratuitously- that is punishment If behavior deteriorates, take a step back (go back to kindergarten) End each session with success (even if must go back to earlier behavioral step)

7 Raise Criteria in small increments Define target behavior and Identify starting behavior – Target behavior = final behavior – Starting behavior = beginning of final behavior Choose shaping steps (this is critical) – Each step must be closer approximation than last – Make steps discriminable, but not too big – This is the hard part! Be careful of ratio strain – Too big a jump in behavioral criteria – Too big a jump in partial reinforcement What are steps to tying your shoes?

8 Train one behavior at time Focus on ONE aspect at a time – Remember the dolphin example: direction of splash vs. size of splash = TWO different criteria – Be consistent Can train more than one behavior, just in separate sessions with clear S+ to differentiate – Two partners: one works on 1 behavior, other works on other behavior

9 Establish behavior before changing criteria During shaping, put current level of response onto variable schedule before adding/raising criteria Use continuous reinforcement at first to establish behavior When meet criteria (e.g., 10 trials in a row correct), then move to partial reinforcement – Every other behavior – Then every third – Then every 5 th – Then randomly every 7 th or 8 th Again, be VERY careful of ratio strain. – If lose the behavior, GO BACK – Set criteria Must perform 20 trials at set reinforcer schedule before move to next Tedious, but necessary Makes sure the behavior is set before moving on, otherwise send confusing messages.

10 When introducing new criterion, temporarily relax older ones Dont be surprised that your dog may forget what was doing when introduce new task If taught to sit and now working on down, just focus on down and not sit! Once the new behavior is established, go back and chain up – That is, put the behaviors together – Puppy pushups!!!!

11 Stay ahead of your (DOG)! Know the steps, dont make it up on the fly What do you want the dog to do next? – The dog may surprise you and learn faster than you originally planned. – The step may be too small and needs to be combined with the next step – The dog outwits you (and he or she will!)- what is your plan B? Shaping Breakthroughs or ah-has – Sometimes the organism Gets it – Behaviors come together in fluid sequence without further shaping – GO WITH IT!

12 If one shaping procedure not working, Find another! Dont give up too soon- give it 5-10 tries Try different variations of your procedure: – Different reinforcers: pets, treats, back rubs, etc. Change ONE THING AT A TIME – Only way to evaluate if it is working – Write down what you tried – Again, give it several trials, then switch to new strategy

13 Dont change trainers in midstream! Each trainer should train 1 behavior at a time You each have slightly different ways of training – Dog can tolerate difference in training, IF training for different behaviors – confusing dog if both of you work on SAME behavior until that behavior is fluent, THEN generalize!

14 Dont interrupt a training session gratuitously- that is punishment Pay attention If you stop and start talking to others, read a text, etc., and the dog engages in the behavior- you just missed reinforcing it – This will induce extinction at best – Induce punishment of the desired response at worst

15 If behavior deteriorates, take a step back Dont be afraid to go back to earlier step – Change was too big – Reinforce ratio was too high Re-establish the earlier behavior, then try again Dont let dog Get away with not performing response Sometimes training is 2 steps forward, 1 step backward- SLOW progress Listen to your dog! Watch behaviors and nonverbal signals

16 End each session with success Always end on a reinforcer, even if must go back to earlier behavioral step Ending with a reinforcer teaches dog that must engage in behavior when YOU ask it – Develops that contingency – Otherwise, training extinction – May make sessions aversive Last thing dog will experience = reward

17 Quit while you are ahead After several sessions, you will begin to have a sense of how long your dog will work (session duration) Quit before dog stops working- that way you are establishing contingencies, not the dog Dont start a new shaping criterion at end of a session End the session with some playtime!

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19 But can you REALLY use this with humans? TAGTeach Uses TAGpoints: specific learning goal that the teacher will mark with a tag that highlights success for the learner. – pinpoints the exact moment the tag point is executed correctly – gives immediate and clear feedback to the learner or athlete. – The most common and effective way to mark a correct response is with a short sharp sound made using a handheld clicker or tagger. The Click or Tag becomes a Conditioned Reinforcer – Through association with tangible rewards or result of good feelings that come from success – Can keep track of TAGpoints via a token economy Clarity and Simplicity – Key aspects – tag point defined so that learner does not need to ask why he didnt get a tag if the tag does not come. – The TAGteacher thinks ahead, plans the succession of tag points that will be required to shape the skill and works on them one at time. – As the learner becomes proficient with each piece, the entire skill naturally comes together. Immediate Feedback – allows the learner to form a mental picture of the movement or position in association with the tag sound. – Some scientists think that the click sound is processed by the amygdala, a primitive part of the brain that controls emotion and fight or flight responses. – This bypasses the complex processing of speech and allows for immediate processing and action. – This may explain the rapid acquisition of skills and excellent retention rates that occur in high level competitive gymnasts taught with TAGteach. Many Applications Peer Tagging: Peers can teach one another

20 Examples of TAGteach in action High jump: Nlt4 High jump: Nlt4 Golf: Golf: Academic Task:


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