Presentation on theme: "THE HISTORY OF BALLET Dance I and II Mrs. Koontz."— Presentation transcript:
THE HISTORY OF BALLET Dance I and II Mrs. Koontz
WHEN DID BALLET BEGIN? Ballet began in during the Italian Renaissance, in the 15 th Century It was originally a dance interpretation of fencing Ballet was further developed in France and Russia It spread to the French court of Catherine deMedicci Classical ballet was developed under the reign of King Louis XIV Louis the XIV was a ballet dancer in his youth
THE BEGINNING OF PROFESSIONAL BALLET King Louis XIV founded the Royal Academy of Dance in 1661 The Royal Academy of Dance became the Paris Opera Ballet This was the first professional institute for ballet Wanted to show off his shiny shoe buckles by the outward pointing of the toes: became the first five positions
WOMEN IN BALLET All roles were danced by males until 1681 Strength issue: enormous headdresses, full heavy skirt, and weighty corsets were considered too heavy for a womans frame The first female dancer performed professionally in Le Triomphe de l'Amour (Triumph of Love)
TRANSFORMATION OF BALLET Six decades later, a metamorphosis was about to unfold. French choreographer Jean Georges Noverre criticized professional dancers in his book, Lettres sur la danse. He stated that the purpose of ballet was to express feelings. He urged dancers to stop wearing masks, bulky costumes and headdresses. He felt that a dancer's body should be able to express emotions such as anger or joy or love. Noverre developed the ballet d'action, a form of ballet that conveys a story through movement.
WHAT ROLES DO WOMEN PLAY NOW? Over time, dramas and stories that reflected mythology changed to represent romantic themes By the early 1800s women assumed the primary roles in romantic ballets The idea that a dancer could float angelically upon her toes, barely touching the earth, gave women newfound superiority over men. The role of men became that of porters whose purpose was to lift the ballerinas and make it look easy.
ROMANTIC BALLET The Italian choreographer Filippo Taglioni created the first romantic ballet, La Sylphide (1832), for his daughter Marie. She danced the title role of the Sylphide (fairylike being) in a costume that set a new fashion for women dancers. It included a light, white skirt that ended halfway between her knees and ankles. Her arms, neck, and shoulders were bare. Marie Taglioni, with her dreamlike style, became the greatest star of the Paris stage.
MARIUS PETIPA Paris remained the capital of the ballet world during the early 1800's. But many dancers and choreographers who trained and worked there took their technique to cities in other countries. Perhaps the most important of this group was Marius Petipa, who joined the Russian Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg (now the Kirov Ballet). He helped to make St. Petersburg the world centre of ballet. Petipa's specialty was creating spectacular choreography for women. The leading roles in his Sleeping Beauty and Swan Lake, created in the 1890's, are still the parts desired most by ballerinas.
AGNES DE MILLE Moved to London in 1932 to receive Ballet training Became a prominent Ballerina and choreographer Brought ballet technique to musicals and such as Sound of Music and Oklahoma Made influences in artistic dance until her death in 1933
HOW DID BALLET COME TO AMERICA? The Russian influence of George Balanchine brought ballet to America Founded the world famous New York City Ballet Was invited to the United States from Russia by wealthy patrons Balanchine moved towards plot-less ballets- focused on movement in response to music His ballet Jewel, was the first evening length ballet of this type in 1967
MIKHAIL BARYSHNIKOV Toured in Canada in 1974 before coming to United States Joined American Ballet Theater for 5 years Danced with New York City Ballet with George Balachine Returned to ABT in 1980 as dancer and Artistic Director Was not tall and was known for his textbook form and technical excellence
TWYLA THARP American Dancer and Choreographer Added inventive style to traditional ballet Made it interesting to those who do not know about technique Added intelligent humor to ballet Won 3 Emmy awards for her television production Baryshnikov by Tharp in 1985 Began her own dance company in 1988, but merged with ABT Regrouped her company, Twyla Tharp Dance in 1991
TODAYS BALLET SLIPPERS Toe dancing began to develop in the end of 1700s Today's ballet shoes are constructed of thin, flexible leather, the pleats of which are precisely stitched flat to a sueded sole so soft and smooth that the dancer hardly feels anything on their feet at all.
HOW DID BALLET SLIPPERS EVOLVE? Early 1400s Italians held pageants of music and dance- used fashionable shoes, not suitable for dance When ballet came to France (1600s) costumes changed, but still did not have shoes for dance King Louis XIV (late 1600s) wore high heeled shoes with shiny buckle Early 1700s ballet began to change Marie Ann Cupis de Camargo took the heels off her shoes and shortened her skirt
DANCING EN POINTE The ballerina who is traditionally credited with being the first dancer to dance en pointe was the Italian, Marie Taglioni. Taglioni wore satin ballet slippers that had leather soles. Her ballet shoes had to be darned on the sides for strength. But they were not darned on the tip of the shoe. She danced without shoe support, as though barefoot. The blocked pointe shoe with a shanked sole did not evolve until much later.
DANCING EN POINTE Italian ballerinas were dancing in shoes that were harder, stronger and more supportive than those worn by Marie Taglioni. Russian ballerinas had to catch up technically, but could not do so because of their shoes. In time, Russian shoes were made firmer, and eventually grew quite hard and stiff. Even today Russian made pointe shoes are stiffer than other makes.
WHAT IS A POINTE SHOE Satin, leather, paper and paste were, and still are, the primary components of a blocked pointe shoe. Contrary to some people's belief, there is no wood involved in this construction. Pointe shoes are made inside out and turned after the box has been formed which is achieved by building layer upon layer of paper and special paste, the formula to which each manufacturer held sacred. When the heat of a dancer's foot warms the box of the shoe, the special paste then moulds it to the shape of her foot. The foot is supported from underneath the arch by a stiff spine, called a shank. The outer material of a pointe shoe is usually pink satin.