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Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 13 The Chu Sisters: Love, Memories, and the City Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD of Comparative Literature.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 13 The Chu Sisters: Love, Memories, and the City Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD of Comparative Literature."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 13 The Chu Sisters: Love, Memories, and the City Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD of Comparative Literature. Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 TaiwanAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan 1

2 Chu Tien-wen (1956~) 2 Wikipedia Rico Shen

3 About Chu Tien-wen 3 Education In 1956, she was born in Taipei to Chu Hsi-ning and Liu Mu-sha [ ], a famous translator. Like Chen Ying-chen, she is a graduate of the Department of English, Tamkang University.

4 4 The theme of her early works In the early stage of literary career, her works repetitively focus on innocent youthfulness and the process of growing up, which is usually painstaking. Therefore, many of her best known works, like The Story of Hsiao-pi [ ] (1982) and A Summer at Grandpas [ ] (1984), are with protagonists like school girls and boys or confused adolescents.

5 A City of Hot Summer as a breakthrough For this reason, A City of Hot Summer [ ] (1986) has been considered by many as one of Chu Tien-wens pathbreakers which opened up a new world, the world of the adults, for her. 5

6 Chu Tien-wen as a Screenwriter Besides being a short story writer, a novelist, and an essayist, Chus greatest achievements come from her screenplays. She is a regular collaborator of director Hou Hsiao- hsien (1947-), a pioneer and master in Taiwans New Cinema period. 6

7 A City of Sadness [ ] (1989), her collaboration with Hou, was awarded with Leone dOro of the Venice Film Festival. The film was release in 1989, just two years away from the lift of the Martial Law, so it is among the pathbreakers of the films which try to deal with the theme of the 228 Incident. 7

8 Besides, Good Men, Good Women [ ] (1995), a film based on a story during the period of white terror and one of their most important collaborations, has earned Chu Tien-wen an Award for Best Screenplay in the 32 nd Golden Horse Film Festival. 8

9 A City of Hot Summer (first published in 1986 in China Times) Chiayi – the Death Yeh – the Escape, the relationship between Lu and Yeh Panchiao – the Reality Chiayi – the Funeral Yen-yi – the Memory, and Characterization Yeh – the Reality: He realizes that he is a very, very shameless man. (p.37) 9 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

10 The DeathsWhat do they mean? The Death of Chien Ah-shui The Death of the second brother-in-law The Elevator Scene The Bathroom Scene 10

11 The Elevator Scene In the elevator, Lu suddenly was afraid that he might drop dead. Didnt the second brother cease to exist in an instant? (p ) 11 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

12 The Bathroom Scene He always sits on the toilet to read the Emerald Weekly, then takes a shower, watching the water turning hot by going through the lit heater and flowing out from the shower head. Like his suspicion that hell drop dead in the elevator, he always wonders if hell be electrocuted someday. (p. 16) 12 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

13 The story opens with an episode about Lu Tsung- chihs first brother-in-law, who was mentally disabled (which probably had something to do with the death of his fellow serviceman, Chien Ah-shui), and how his second brother-in-law was killed by the first (p.1-4). It might be strange to start with this seemingly irrelevant episode. It is not until page 11 that the meaning of the episode is revealed, and it becomes clear through a careful reading of the following passage, which is used to describe Lus ride on the elevator up to Yehs apartment: 13 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

14 The ride is very short, but also very long. When its short, he arrives in the wink of time when hes barely startled by his ruddy, drunk face. Whens its long, he can think over his whole life up to this very moment, with all kinds of people and things. At this moment, he is even thinking, what will he do if the elevator suddenly falls apart and drops to the ground? (p.12) 14 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

15 What he did not expect is that flashing into his mind are still Teh-mei and the kids. Moreover, the gentle yet bitter face of motrher-in-law also appears instantaneously. Suddenly hes afraid that hell drop dead in the elevator. Didnt the second younger brother cease to exist in an instant? (p.12) 15 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

16 Lu also suspected whether he would be electrocuted by the water heater in Yehs apartment. The implication behind these two trivialities, I think, can be roughly defined as some kind of pre-midlife crisis. When a man is no longer young, he inevitably starts to think about death, or the possibility of a sudden death. 16

17 How does the story relate to the city? The title of this story is also interesting. Besides the fact that the Lu family lived in Panchiao and Yeh in Sungchiang Street, does the story have anything to do with Taipei? 17

18 The Bleakness of the City Image After Lu gave Yeh five-thousand dollars for her birthday, he went out of the building and found there was a high rise under construction across the street; the scaffold was covered with a greyish green net. Workers were soldering up high, the flames bursting and falling down, turning into sparks of fire in mid air and then dying out (p.16). 18 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

19 Another Example When Teh-mei was eight-month pregnant, they got married at the city hall. When he walked down the steps outside the city hall, the sky was steely grey, pressing on his eyebrows. The cheap cement ground was his future. He had no future; his life was over.... For a whole month he didnt go home, didnt see Teh-mei. (p ) 19 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

20 In the story, along with the development of the city itself, Lu Tsung-chih also got more involved in a highly commercialized Taipei, in which he was at first an electronics salesperson, and then a man running a cable business on his own. However, city life for a middle-aged middle-class man like Lu had its banality. His life became a routine: running business, meeting his mistress, reading tabloid magazines like the Emerald Weekly and the Mei-hwa Report, and going home to face a wife who was uninterested in sex and two kids who sometimes needed teaching and beating. 20

21 Lus Spousal Relationship In Lus house, theres an extension telephone, so his wife can always overhear the conversations between Lu and his various mistresses, including Yeh. But the narrator made a point that Teh-mei didnt really care as long as Lu could bring enough money home. 21

22 And after Lu won the bid for the electrical cable project, Teh-mei got really excited and that night they had the ritual held once or twice a month, Teh-mei pushed up her gentle body toward him, which she almost never did. Though he didnt exactly shed tears of gratitude, he was truly contended (p. 24). 22 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

23 Teh-mei We can even debate over whether there was still love between Lu and Teh-mei, who did not mind how many women Lu was having affairs with, as long as he brought enough money home. 23 Lu and the Three Women in His Life

24 Yeh What is the agreed relationship between Lu and Yeh? It seems that they are not just a taxi dancer and her regular client, but their relationship ended abruptly after Lu saw Yeh going home with her another client. 24

25 Yen-yi Its so good to have a body, its so good to have a body. Lus ex-girlfriend, Yen-yi, is in a way more significant a character than Yeh. Its important to understand Yen-yis phrase: Its so good to have a body, its so good to have a body (p.31-32), which is also the closing sentence of this story. Lu and Yen-yi made love all the time, which does not necessarily mean that they were both sexually aggressive; rather, it symbolizes their youthfulness and naivety. 25 Source: Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). Chinese pen Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

26 Yenyi vs. Teh-mei and Yeh While Yen-yi is a part of Lus past and his youth, both Yeh and Teh-mei stand for his physical decline and moral decadence. (For example, in the anniversary episode, Lu fell asleep when he was making love with Yeh.) 26

27 27 Chu Tien-hsin (1958~) rypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=126214

28 About Chu Tien-hsin Education and Marriage In 1958, she was born in Kaohsiung. She is the second daughter of Chu Hsi-ning and a graduate of the Department of History, NTU. Her husband, Hsieh Tsai-chun (with the penname Donald [ ]), a renowned literary and cultural critic in Taiwan, also graduated from the same department. 28

29 Chu Tien-hsin as a political activist Chu has been a political activist since the early 1990s. She campaigned for the membership of R.O.C. National Assembly in 1992, for the legislators position of Legislative Yuan in In 2006, after the corruption scandals of President Chen Shui-bian broke out, she joined the million-people campaign to depose Chen. 29

30 The main themes of her works As one of the most perceptive Taiwan writers on urban culture since the 1990s, we can see her attempts to create the dialogue between herself and the socio-political and cultural history of mankind. History, memory, and time are always the majors themes to be explored in her works of fiction. 30

31 Her technique of Intertextuality She always tries to connect her works with world literature and global culture. The Old Capital [ ] (1995), one of her most representative works, is a perfect example in the aspect. For this reason, it is important to read this collection as an intertext of Thomas Manns Death in Venice (1913), Truman Capotes Breakfast at Tiffanys (1958), and Yasunari Kawabatas The Old Capital [Koto in Japanese] (1962). 31

32 In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound (first published in 1991 in China Times) The Features of Military Compounds in Taiwan Alternative name: military dependents village [ ] People from all provinces of Mainland China Divided among the different branches of the armed forces The people living there: for example, the boys were ambitious, though turned out to be criminals and taxi drivers Wholly different from the world outside the villages 32

33 Treasure Hill [ ] 33 Wikipedia Winertai

34 34 Wikipedia Winertai

35 Zhongzhen Village in Hsin-chu City (An air force military compound, and zhongzhen means allegiance.) 35

36 44 South Village [ ] 36 Wikipedia Prattflora

37 37 Wikipedia Prattflora

38 38 Wikipedia Prattflora

39 The Song Stand by Me (1961) Ben E. King (1938~) Did you listen to the music as instructed? 39

40 The Story and the Movie 40 The Story The Body (1982) Stephen King (1947~) Stand by Me (1986) Rob Reiner (1947~)

41 41 All, right, dear reader, thanks for your cooperation. Lets begin. Even if you havent seen the movie, I am sure that you would be fascinated by the tone of the little boy narrating the lyrics. On a long, boring afternoon, he tags behind the big boys as they go on an adventure to a faraway place, because rumor has it that there is a corpse of a man who died of unknown reasons there.(p.242) The Parallel Paragraphs The Original Narrative Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

42 42 The little boy is scared and excited and incredulous, yet he hopes to God that he will not piss in his pants the moment he actually sees what he wants to see. Thus he psyches himself up over and over again, and reminds himself vehemently: Im not afraid, Im not afraid, Im not the least bit afraid, as long as youre on my side, I sure as hell will not shed a single tear!(p.242) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

43 43 The Narrative in Chus Story The sound fades into the distance, as a figure gradually becomes clear on the screen. I dont know how to describe her, a big girl in puberty, or a little woman. Undaunted by the onset of her first menstruation, she is holding her breath-- totally oblivious to the music of the TV advertisement selling Queen Bee Dark Sugar Soap,(p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

44 44 intent only on pulling down the shirt tucked into her skirt, to make sure that her chest in the mirror is as flat as it was in elementary school. Feeling assured, she darts out of her house without glancing at the chewing gum commercial on TV, with sixteen-year-old Jenny Tesng wearing a miniskirt, dancing and singing, My love, my love, Yinglun heart-to- heart chewing gum… (p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

45 Intertextuality 45 The Function? How it works here? Does it work?

46 The Geographical and Political Description She runs to the front gate of the compound. It is a sunny Saturday afternoon, and at the riverbank, ten to twenty boys, ranging from first graders to those who have reached the conscription age, have converged like a flock of birds. At the entrance of the compound, between two tall stone poles (nobody knows their exact function), hangs a red banner, with the words NUMBER X CANDIDATE XXX HAS THE FULL SUPPORT OF THIS COMPOUND. (p.243) 46 Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

47 Set against the bright blue sky, the banner flaps in the wind. It seems as if a banner would be hung there for a few days once every few years. About twenty years later, she will remember that scene in a flood of emotions, and for the first time in her life, vote for a political party different from that represented on the red banner.(p.243) 47 Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

48 The New Party (1993) 48 The New KMT Alliance ( ) Against President Lee Teng-huis political movement of bentuhua ( ; localization) Pro-unification Took 21 seats in the legislators election in 1994 Now influential only inside the pan-blue camp Li Qinghua, Wang Jianxuan, and Zhao Shaokang, the names mentioned in the short story, are among the founders of the party

49 About the Boys from the Military Compounds 49 A so-and-sos big brother joined the mainlanders gang near the airport The female protagonist said her future husband must come from a military compound

50 50 In contrast to the steadfastness of the Taiwanese boys, the boys and girls from the military compounds were restless. The reason? They never really regarded this piece of land as a place in which to take root in their lifetime (p.248) A land where none of your relatives are buried cannot be called home (p.249). Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

51 Where have all the flowers gone? 51 That year, she moved away from the military compound to a new neighborhood at the edge of the city, where a few mainlanders, a lot of Taiwanese, and people from all walks of life converged. Suddenly, all her ties with the flock she identified with were severed; she was like a river that had merged into the ocean. In the years that were still stifling and closed, she started to strum and sing, Where have all the flowers gone? on the guitar. (p.247) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der- wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

52 52 She did not understand then that it was a famous antiwar song that had taken the outside world by storm only five or six years before; she only felt the lyrics touch a chord in her heart. Yes, where have all the boys gone? Where have all the boys from the military compound gone? (p.247) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

53 The Answer Can Be Found Later Chu is among the few earliest writers who started to show their concern and sympathy with those second-generation male Mainlanders. 53 I hear of someone wanting to publish an ad in the paper to seek out her childhood companions or to form a military compound gang, because she does not want to admit that the only buddies she had are those whose names constantly appear in the criminal reports in the papers. (p.261) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

54 54 She could recognize them at a glance, even though the papers scarcely revealed any personal information about them (such as so and so Taisheng, of Shandong descent, residing in Zuoying, Gaoxiong, or Gangshan, or Jiayi City, or Puxin, Yangmei, or Nanshijiao, Zhonghe City, or Liuchangli, Nanjichang… the military compounds from south to north, and east to west). You also dread coming across taxi drivers who speak with a heavy mainland accent, and who start to curse the Guomindang and Democratic Progressive Party as soon as the traffic comes to a halt. (p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

55 55 You look at the strands of white hair on the back of the drivers head, and you can immediately conclude that he belongs to the group of soldiers who, straight out of military school, proudly chose to serve the country, but who had no means of joining the job market after retirement in their thirties or forties…. Otherwise, brothers from the military compound, where have you gone? (p.262) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

56 The Tomb-sweeping Day 56 But this day would always pass by with no special ceremony. When night fell and they went home for dinner, they would find their parents acting strangely. Some would be burning paper money in their backyard, but because they did not know whether or not their relatives back home were alive, (p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

57 57 they could only state ambiguously that the money was burned for ancestors of the X family. Therefore, their expressions were especially complicatedthey dared not express grief; instead, their faces would be marked by memories made all the more lucid and poignant by the passage of time. (p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

58 The Home in the Mainland Became Mythologized, and Then Demythologized 58 During the nights of gatherings before the advent of television, when there wasnt much entertainment, the parents used to tell their children stories about their exodus to Taiwan, and life in their homeland on mainland China.

59 59 Due to a complex set of emotions and the inflation caused by years of retelling, almost everyones parents came from families that owned a lot of land or money (Mao-maos family owned a farm five to six times as large as Taiwan), and every family used to have more than ten maids, a platoon of orderlies, and half a dozen chauffeurs. (p.249) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

60 60 The nuggets of gold discarded by each family during the flight from mainland China also increased with the passage of time. If added all together, the amount would surpass the amount of gold that Yu Hongjun moved to Taiwan for the Guomindang…. With such experiences and such a past, how could they bring themselves to live out their lives on this little island? (p.249) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

61 The Mythology of the Mainland vs. the Down-to-Earth Life of the Taiwanese 61 Later, her classmates would invite her to go to their house every year for the annual bai- bai. She gradually got accustomed to the abundant but unfamiliar dishes, and started to enjoy the open-air opera performances like the other kids, to laugh with them when they laughed, even though she didnt understand the lines. Gradually, she came to understand vaguely why they were always so down to earth. (p.250) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

62 Returning Is an Impossible Dream 62 The mothers, like all other mothers who lived in poverty at that time, were busy making ends meet. All day long they wracked their brains thinking of ways to feed the family with their meager salary. If the mother was from the mainland she would have sold her last piece of jewelry by her tenth year in Taiwan, (p.257) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

63 Returning Is an Impossible Dream 63 and during Chinese New Year of that year she would have gritted her teeth and pulled out the cheungsam or padded jacket from the bottom of the trunk to make new clothes for the children. Without their husbands explanation of the Lei Zhen incident in September or any disclosure of additional military secrets, the mothers knew before anyone that they, like the political leaders in power, would never return to the mainland.(p.257) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

64 Lei Zhen [ ] (1897~1979) 64

65 Lei Zhen (1897~1979) 65 Established Free China in Shanghai in 1949 Used to be a close comrade of Chiang Kai-shek Attacked KMTs dictatorship, which was implemented with the excuse of Fight Back to the Mainland After advocating the idea of an opposition party, he was arrested and sentenced to ten years in the prison in 1960

66 The Mothers 66 The mothers in the air force compound were the most westernized. The mothers from the army compound were conservative and honest. The mothers in the navy compound loved to play mahjong, and many of them were psychotic. The mothers in the military police compound were mostly Taiwanese, and young and sometime still childless.(p.258) The mothers in the military intelligence compound had to live with a widow mentality.(p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press. Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

67 The Marriage of a Mainlander Woman and Taiwanese Man 67 The Mainlander girl had to deal with Taiwanese male chauvinism, and fought with them to defense KMT. But Chu tried to explain why the marriage was possible in the first place. Therefore, when you left home to go to college or to start working, you were naturally attracted by the local boys who were quiet, conservative, and down to earth, in comparison to the boys from your compound. (p.261) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

68 68 Even though some local families were worse off economically than those in the military compound, and the local boys seemed to be far less ambitious than the boys from the compound, who had grandiose visions of China and the world, the sense of stability and the many surprising attitudes of the local boys all opened a new window, bringing in a fresh breeze to your suffocating life. However, many years later, in careful retrospection, you would find out that your sense of suffocation did not come entirely from life in the military compound.(p.261) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

69 What did Chu try to tell? 69 The specificity of military compound villages. How the people from military compounds were unfitted into Taiwan society. How they had a contradictory attitude toward KMT. The relationship between the country and its people.

70 Unfitted into Society 70 Of course, you feel indignant when your local Taiwanese husband diverts toward you the anger he feels after reading in the paper about privileged second-generation mainlanders such as Li Qinghua and James Soong. As you think back on your life, you cannot find a shred of privilege, except for the period of time when Mandarin was promoted and Taiwanese was banned ; (p.262) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

71 71 You were exempt from any form of physical punishment, humiliation, or discrimination (many years later your husband would still fly into a rage at the mention of this), simply because you had no way of offending the taboo. Very soon, in a matter of years, you all had to pay for this policy. A majority of your buddies, who could not make it into government agencies and who didnt go to military school, would be turned down by the managers of private and small companies because they could not speak or understand Taiwanese.(p ) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

72 Contradictory Attitude 72 So you are indignant at being classified as belonging to the privileged group; you also have a difficult time accepting the injustice of being equated with the Guomindang simply because your father is a mainlander. Rather than saying that you grew up drinking the thin and diluted milk of the Guomindang (which is the way your husband puts it when he jeers at you), you actually feel that your relationship with the party is more like that of an estranged couple who should have gotten a divorce long ago.(p.263) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

73 73 Sometimes you hate the party more than your husband hates it, because within you are feelings of betrayal and desertion. Even though you were never formally inducted into the party, you cannot help but jump to its defense when you hear people (who do not bear the political burden of the GMD) attack it vehemently. As you seek out loopholes in your opponents speech,(p.263) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

74 74 you also wish to God that you could spill your guts and criticize the party without feeling guilty. Its not that you dont have the chance to do so. Remember the last time you went home to your mothers alone with your kid? Didnt you criticize the Guomindang at the dinner table while watching the evening new? (p.264) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

75 75 Only because no one (such as your husband) was standing to your left (politically speaking) could you happily play the role of an unburdened oppositionist, resting assured that someone to your right (your father) would always stand up to defend this party that you love and hate, that you should have separated from years ago. (p.264) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

76 How KMT Treated the Mainlanders, Who Later Realized That They Were In-between 76 You might not know that in the still of night when the elderly have trouble sleeping, your fathers also cannot help but admit they wish they were in your shoes. How your father wishes that one day he may be able to be like you and to holler at the top of his lungs, Damn you motherfucker GMD! You tricked us into coming to this island and lied to us for forty years.(p.264) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

77 77 It was only until the moment we returned to the mainland to visit relatives that we found out that in the eyes of our remaining relatives, we were Taiwan citizens. Taiwanese, though on the island where we have lived for forty years we are constantly referred to as You mainlanders. Thus, those who are accustomed to reading their children bedtime stories will find out sooner or later, in Aesops fables, that they resemble the bat who is neither bird nor beast, a being with no identity.(p.264) Source: Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

78 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 2 Wikipedia Rico Shen Tien-wen_Chu.jpg 2012/05/30 visited 9 He realizes that he is a very, very shameless man. Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (p.37) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 11 In the elevator, Lu suddenly was …second brother cease to exist in an instant Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (pp.11-12) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 12 He always sits on the toilet to read …wonders if hell be electrocuted someday. Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (p.16) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 13 The story opens with an episode about …second brother-in-law was killed by the first Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (pp.1-4) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 14 The ride is very short, but also very long. When its …apart and drops to the ground? Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (p.12) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 78

79 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 15 What he did not expect is that flashing into his mind …brother cease to exist in an instant? Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (p.12) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 18 After Lu gave Yeh five- thousand …fire in mid air and then dying out Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (p.16) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 19 When Teh-mei was eight-month …month he didnt go home, didnt see Teh-mei. Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (pp.33-34) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 22 And after Lu won the bid for the …gratitude, he was truly contended Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (p.24) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 25 Lus ex-girlfriend, Yen- yi, is in a …have a body, its so good to have a body Chu Tien-wen. (1988, summer). A City of Hot Summer. Chinese pen (pp.31-32) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 33 Wikipedia Winertai 2012/05/30 visited 79

80 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 34 Wikipedia Winertai 62.JPG 2012/05/30 visited 35 Wikipedia Atinncnu n_Hsinchu_city_Taiwan.jpg 2012/05/30 visited 36 Wikipedia Prattflora 2012/05/30 visited 37 Wikipedia Prattflora diningroom.JPG 2012/05/30 visited 38 Wikipedia Prattflora 2012/05/30 visited 41 All, right, dear reader, thanks for …died of unknown reasons there Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.242) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 80

81 PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 42 The little boy is scared and excited and …as hell will not shed a single tear! Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.242) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 43 The sound fades into the distance, …Queen Bee Dark Sugar Soap Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (pp ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 44 intent only on pulling down the shirt …, Yinglun heart-to-heart chewing gum… Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (pp ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 46 She runs to the front gate of the …SUPPORT OF THIS COMPOUND. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.243) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 47 Set against the …represented on the red banner. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.243) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 50 They never really regarded this piece of …to take root in their lifetime Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.248) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 81

82 PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 50 A land where none of your relatives are buried cannot be called home Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.249) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 51 That year, she moved away from the military …gone? on the guitar. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.247) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 52 She did not understand then that it was …the military compound gone? Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.247) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 53 I hear of someone wanting …criminal reports in the papers. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.261) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 54 She could recognize them at a glance, even …the traffic comes to a halt. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (pp ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 55 You look at the strands of white …compound, where have you gone? Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.262) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 82

83 PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 56 But this day would always pass by with no …their relatives back home were alive, Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (pp ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 57 they could only state ambiguously that the money …poignant by the passage of time. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 59 Due to a complex set of …half a dozen chauffeurs. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.249) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 60 The nuggets of gold discarded …lives on this little island? Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.249) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 61 Later, her classmates would invite …always so down to earth. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.250) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 62 The mothers, like all other mothers …her tenth year in Taiwan, Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.257) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 83

84 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 63 and during Chinese New Year of that …power, would never return to the mainland Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.257) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 64 Wikipedia: Author Unknown 2012/05/30 visited 66 The mothers in the military police …and young and sometime still childless. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.258) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 66 The mothers in the military … to live with a widow mentality Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (pp ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 67 Therefore, when you left home to go to …the boys from your compound. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.261) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 68 Even though some local families were worse …life in the military compound Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.261) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 84

85 PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 70 Of course, you feel indignant …promoted and Taiwanese was banned ; Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.262) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 71 You were exempt from any form of physical …speak or understand Taiwanese. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (pp ) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 72 So you are indignant at being classified as …should have gotten a divorce long ago. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.263) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 73 Sometimes you hate the party more than your …your opponents speech Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.263) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 74 you also wish to God that … while watching the evening new? Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.264) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 75 Only because no one …, should have separated from years ago. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.264) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 85

86 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 76 You might not know that in the still of night when the elderly have …to us for forty years. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.264) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 77 It was only until the moment …who is neither bird nor beast, a being with no identity. Chu Tien-hsin. (2003). In Remembrance of My Buddies from the Military Compound. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. (p.264) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 86


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