3 Low Moisture FoodsLower moisture can eliminate the ability of pathogenic bacteria to multiplyNot a “Potentially Hazardous Food” (Aw >0.85 and pH >4.6) requiring time/temperature control to prevent growth for safetyBut in dry conditions:Bacteria have increased heat resistanceBacteria may survive for very long periods of timeBacteria can transfer and contaminate the product stream
4 Finished Product Testing for Pathogens 5% of Samples Contaminated 1% of Samples ContaminatedProbability of Probability of Probability of Probability ofn Lot Acceptance Lot Rejection Lot Acceptance Lot Rejection< >Source: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Food
5 General Controls for Food Safety in Facilities - Preventive Food Safety Plan – HACCP based – including validated CCPsPrerequisite ProgramsRaw material controlPest controlAllergen controlGlass/physical hazard controlSanitation SOPsWater controlPersonal HygieneEnvironmental contamination control
6 General Controls for Food Safety in Facilities Conditions that Allow Multiplication of Pathogenic BacteriaFoodAcidityTemperatureTimeOxygenMoistureExclusion of Moisture will prevent multiplication of pathogens in the food facility and reduce risk of their spread
7 Water Control Time Microbial Growth Food Water WAR ON WATERTimeMicrobialGrowthFood WaterMinimize presence of water by eliminating , reducing and controlling it wherever possible
8 WAR ON WATER Water Control 1. Determine areas where water is exposed in the facility2. Map the Facility for Presence of Water / Dry Areas3. Understand why water is used4. Determine strategies for eliminating/reducing/controllingNecessary Water StrategyProcessing Reduce/controlWet cleaning/sanitizing Eliminate/reduceUnnecessary Water StrategyCondensation Fix root causeLeaksIngress Fix root causeInternal Fix root causeDrainsBackup Fix root causeLeaks Fix root cause
9 WAR ON WATER Water Control Minimize water usage where possible Reduce frequency of cleaning/sanitizing if appropriateEnhance sanitary design (reduce wet time)Accessible - Cleanable – Sanitizable – Dryable – InspectableSubstitute dry cleaning/dry sanitizing methods for wet methods and validate them (scrape, brush, vacuum, wipe, alcohol-quat)Visibly clean – ATP standard criteria – Allergen test negatives – APC standard criteriaEnhance water controlPipe directly to drainsEstablish dedicated wash roomsFix leaks / backupsTrack water use and water exposure events
10 Environmental Pathogen Control Program HYGIENIC ZONINGPrevent transfer of potentially contaminated materials associated with risk to food product safetyConduct hazard analysisDetermine boundaries for controlHygienic Zones different from Product ZonesEstablish physical controlsEstablish procedural controls
11 Hazard Analysis – Identify Risks LocationLine, process stepPotential contamination typeOrigin of potential contaminationPossible Transfer method(s)Areas that may be affectedProduct stream affectedRisk score
12 Hazard Analysis - Score Risks Severity of contamination typeLikelihood of presenceDetectability of presenceLikelihood that product will be contaminatedDetectability of product contamination
13 Barriers to Sources of Contamination Barriers to outside sourcesPest controlSecurityPhysical barrier to waterPhysical barrier to airPhysical barrier to other materials
18 Hygienic Zones Within the Plant Barriers to contamination by materials, people, and equipmentGMP Support Zones: employee welfare areas, offices, maintenance shop, inner docksGMP Zones- High Sensitivity GMP Zone: exposed to high sensitivity materials- General GMP Zone- High Hygiene GMP Zone: protect post kill product
19 Hygienic Zone Map of Plant Non GMP ZoneNon GMP ZoneGeneral GMP ZoneHigh Hygiene ZoneNon GMP ZoneGMP Support ZoneHigh Sensitivity ZoneGMP Support Zone
20 Physical & Procedural Barriers Between Hygienic Zones GMP Support Zone into General GMP ZoneHandwashing
21 Physical & Procedural Barriers Between Hygienic Zones
22 Physical & Procedural Barriers Between Hygienic Zones GMP Support Zone into General GMP ZoneHandwashingFootwear sanitation
23 Physical & Procedural Barriers Between Hygienic Zones Sanitizer Spray Unit for FootwearSource:23
24 Physical & Procedural Barriers Between Hygienic Zones GMP Support Zone into General GMP ZoneFootwear sanitationHandwashingHairnet/beardnetSafety items: glasses, hearing protectionGMP policies for jewelry, no eating, etcIllness restriction policy
25 Physical & Procedural Barriers between Hygienic Zones High Sensitivity Zones: Contain high sensitivity materialsWalls and doorsLimited accessAir balancingHygienic Entrance Area (HEA) – for peopleHygienic Transfer Area (HTA) – for materials and equipment
26 Example of Hygienic Entrance Area Layout General GMP Hygienic ZoneHigh Sensitivity GMP Hygienic ZoneHand wash sinkShoe SanitizeSuppliesVac Brush BoxBrown SmocksTBenchVMirrorBlue SmocksMirror
29 Physical & Procedural Barriers between Hygienic Zones Vacuum Brush Box for Footwear
30 Physical & Procedural Barriers between Hygienic Zones Protect High Hygiene Zones to reduce contamination riskWalls and doorsLimited accessAir balancingHygienic Entrance Area (HEA)Hygienic Transfer Area (HTA)
35 Hygienic Transfer Area Procedure – into High Hygiene Zone
36 Acceptance of Hygienic Zoning Implementation Safety #1 - committment Communicate risk mitigation Minimize cost Minimize disruption of manufacturing operations Training
37 Footwear Sanitation – Decontamination Efficacy Objectives:Determine amounts of microbial reduction on footwear soles using several decontamination treatments.Determine amounts of microbial transfer to floors following various footwear decontamination treatments.
40 Reductions on Footwear Soles Aqueous QACDry QACIPA/QACIPA/QAC & Dry QACNo TreatmentLog CFU ReductionBurnett, Egland, McKelvey and Cook, Food Protection Trends 33:74-81.
41 IPA/QAC under wet floor conditions Log CFU/sampleSite ‘b’IPA QACNoneSite ‘c’SoleBurnett, Egland, McKelvey and Cook, Food Protection Trends 33:74-81.
42 Footwear Sanitation – Footwear Sanitation Conclusions:Aqueous QAC footbath achieved about 0.5 log reduction under conditions of the study.Nonaqueous IPA-QAC spray achieved > 2.0 log reduction under conditions of the study.Drawback of dry QAC outweighed the benefit.Recommendations:Consider the use of IPA-QAC spray instead of QAC footbath.Four times more effective under brief exposure conditionsReduces water exposure in the facility
43 Footwear Sanitation – Particulate Pickup and Cleanability Objective: To classify and determine the ability of various footwear tread patterns to pick up particulate materials. To evaluate the cleanability of soles having various tread patterns.
46 Footwear Sanitation – Particulate Pickup and Cleanability Conclusions:Footwear tread patterns can be classified for their ability to pick up particles.Soles classified as "A" picked up wheat berries, corn grits and rice kernels much less readily than those classified as "C".The ability to pick up particles correlates directly with difficulty of particle removal by brushing or use of a picking tool.Footwear classified as "C" were much more difficult to clean than those classified as "A".Recommendations:Consider the use of “A” soles for enhanced footwear sanitation. This may have benefit for reducing risks of transfer of potentially contaminated materials within plants, that could pose food safety risk.
47 Summary War on Water Hygienic Zoning Footwear Sanitation Fred Cook, Ph.D.Microbiology FellowMOM Brands