3 Hazard Recognition How is it done for Pesticides? Primary Source: The LABELAlternative SourcesMSDSReference TextsPEL, TLV, NIOSH Pocket Guide
4 Hazard Recognition What is a Pesticide? FIFRA (40 CFR 162.3)“(1) any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest [insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed, other forms of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, except viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms on or in living man or other animals, which the Administrator declares to be a pest], and (2) any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.”
5 Hazard Recognition What is a Pesticide? FIFRA (40 CFR 162.3)“(1) any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest [insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed, other forms of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, except viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms on or in living man or other animals, which the Administrator declares to be a pest], and (2) any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.”
6 Hazard Recognition What is Special about Pesticides? Pesticides are a class of hazardous chemicals that are released into the environment in a controlled fashion to accomplish their particular function.They are also one of the few materials that are intentionally added to our food supply.They are also designed with lethality in mind.
7 Hazard Recognition Factors to Consider ClassificationUse CategoryNomenclatureFormulationLabel InformationPhysical/Chemical Properties
11 Hazard Recognition Use Category General Use Over the counter available for untrained users.Restricted Use Only available for use by certified applicators.
12 Hazard Recognition Nomenclature Active Ingredient (A.I.)The material that does the claimed activityInert IngredientsEverything else.
13 Hazard Recognition Nomenclature “INERTS” Inert ingredients are mixed with the active ingredients. Inerts include carriers, solvents, diluents, surfactants, adjuvants, emulsifying agents, odour masks, stabilizers etc.They are not necessarily physically, biologically or chemically inert.
15 Hazard Recognition Formulations Technical GradeUsually what the formulator starts with,the “pure stuff”.FormulationThe mixture (active & inerts) offered for sale/use.
16 Hazard Recognition Formulations Most “finished” tank mixes are primarilyWATER
17 Hazard Recognition Formulations Aerosols: Liquid A.I. in a compatible solventBait: A.I. mixed with an attractantDust: A.I. in/on a fine dry particulate.Emulsifiable Concentrate: A.I. mixed with emulsifier in an organic solvent.
18 Hazard Recognition Formulations Flowable: A.I. in a “batter” that can form aqueous suspensions.Granular: A.I. in/on large dry particulate.Microencapsulated: A.I. embedded in microcapsules, released by diffusion.
19 Hazard Recognition Formulations Slow Release: A.I. embedded in matrix, released by diffusion/surface contact.Soluble Powder: A.I. powder that is water soluble.Wettable Powder: A.I. finely ground, will stay in suspension with agitation.ULV: A.I. undiluted, 2 liter or less per acre.
20 Hazard Recognition Label Information Labels provide essential safety information. All USEPA approved labels must provide a minimum set of specific information.
22 Hazard Recognition Label Information: Signal Words Category I: DANGER/POISONVery toxic materialPOLD: Taste to a teaspoonPossibly corrosive to eyes or skinUsually Restricted Use
23 Hazard Recognition Label Information: Signal Words Category II: WARNINGModerately toxic materialPOLD: Teaspoon to ouncePossibly severely irritating to eyes or skin
24 Hazard Recognition Label Information: Signal Words Category III: caution“Slightly” toxic materialPOLD: Greater than one ounceSomewhat irritating to eyesSlight irritation to skin
25 Hazard Recognition Label: Precautionary Statement Location of human hazard information and appropriate PPE to be worn when handling this material.May also contain information on environmental hazards and specific physical and chemical hazards(fire, explosive, volatility, etc.)
27 Hazard Recognition Label: Storage and Disposal Information on proper storage (temperature extremes, not near food, feed or incompatibles) and disposal residue and used containers.
28 Hazard Recognition Label: Contents/Formulation How much does/did the container hold?What are its physical characteristics?What percentage A.I.? Inerts?
29 Hazard Recognition Label: Directions/Re-Entry Information for the mixer/loader, applicator, grower, farm workers and any other persons who may use or come in contact with the material and/or its residues.Includes target pest, allowed crop uses, special restrictions, WPS information, reentry intervals, days to harvest, etc.
30 Pesticide Usage Top 10 in California, by Pounds (2003) Sulfur 52,183,392Petroleum oil, UNC17,447,935Metam-sodium14,815,687Methyl bromide7,384,3981,3-dichloropropene7,009,034Mineral oil6,280,443Glyphosate5,630,143Chloropicrin4,927,125Copper sulfate4,121,065Sulfuryl fluoride3,112,077
31 Pesticide Usage Top 10 in California, by Acres (2003) 5,808,675 Sulfur Alpha-(para-nonylphenyl)-omega-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene)5,808,675Sulfur5,463,694Isopropyl alcohol3,690,357Glyphosate3,656,891Oxyfluorfen1,589,893Chlorpyrifos1,478,761Paraquat1,416,234Copper Hydroxide1,158,281Alpha-alkylaryl-omega-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene)975,189Diuron843,154
32 Pesticide Usage Top 10 in California, by Applications (2003) Sulfur 134,201Alpha-(para-nonylphenyl)-omega-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene)129,147Glyphosate121,546Isopropyl alcohol93,997Oxyfluorfen45,139Permethrin44,929Copper Hydroxide40,567Imidacloprid40,234Maneb40,185Chlorpyrifos38,666
33 Pesticide UsageAbout 70% of California pesticide use is non- agricultural, including:Business and institutional useHome and garden useHalf of the pesticides sold are chlorine-based products used for water treatment (pools, domestic water supplies, cooling/cleaning baths etc.)
35 PPE Program Requirements Selection for pesticide users is based onLABEL
36 PPE Glove Category Selection Key Based on USEPA Label Codes Chemical ClassRecommended By CDPRAWater and Dry materials1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8BKetones1,2CAlcohols1,2,3,4,7,8,DAcetatesEAliphatic Hydrocarbons1,3,4,8FAromatic Hydrocarbons1,2,3,8GBenzenes1,8HHalo-hydrocarbons1:Laminate 2:Butyl 3:Nitrile 4:Neoprene 5:Natural 6:Polyethylene 7:PVC 8:VitonAll but Laminate and Polyethylene must be 14 mils or thicker
37 PPE Pesticide Illness/Injury, By Type 96-99 PISP Data (WH&S) No NonOcc/Drift/StrucRes
38 PPE Selection of PPE MSDS/Label Review How does agricultural pesticide users PPE compare to HAZWOPER/HAZMAT requirements?
39 PPE Comparison of Protection Low HazardHAZMATLevel DCoverallsBoots/ShoesEye ProtectionHard HatGloves*AGRICULTURALCautionWork ClothingBoots/ShoesGloves*Eye Protection*
40 PPE Comparison of Protection Moderate HazardHAZMATLevel CCR ClothingCR Boots/ShoesHard HatCR GlovesFF RespiratorAGRICULTURALWarningWork ClothingBoots/ShoesCR GlovesRespiratorSou’western*Eye Protection*
41 PPE Comparison of Protection High HazardHAZMATLevel BCR ClothingCR Boots/ShoesHard HatCR GlovesSCBAAGRICULTURALDangerCR/Work ClothingCR Boots/ShoesCR GlovesRespiratorSou’western/BCEye ProtectionSCBA for Fumigants
42 PPE Comparison of Protection Extreme HazardHAZMATLevel AEncapsulating SuitCR Boots/ShoesCR GlovesSCBAAGRICULTURALNo way.
43 Additional Information Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th Ed. (USEPA Doc# 735-R98-003)Farm Chemicals Handbook, Meister Publishing Co.Occupational Safety and Health guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (NIOSH Doc# )The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides-How To Comply (USEPA Doc#735-B )
44 Additional Information Agrochemical and Pesticide Safety Handbook; Waxman, CRC Press LLC (ISBN# )Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals, Vol. 5, Pesticides; Mackay et al., Lewis Publishers (ISBN# )Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals, Vol. 3, Pesticides; Howard, Lewis Publishers (ISBN# )The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides; UC Davis State IPM, Publication 3324 (ISBN# )