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The Boot? Taking care of your patients toes in and out of primary care Erica V. Eshoo, NP Department of Orthopaedics SFGH.

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Presentation on theme: "The Boot? Taking care of your patients toes in and out of primary care Erica V. Eshoo, NP Department of Orthopaedics SFGH."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Boot? Taking care of your patients toes in and out of primary care Erica V. Eshoo, NP Department of Orthopaedics SFGH

2 1MMPg

3 ObjectivesTopics Recognizing and treating foot conditions your own setting When to refer to the foot folk Expanding your own practice Diabetic Foot Care Examination Recommendations Ulceration Infections Other tootsie issues Elective surgeries

4 Case Study #1 61 year old uncontrolled DM Female stepped on metal rake 2 weeks ago, seen in ED and treated with Septra and Cipro x 1 week Has what looks like abscess, swelling, erythema, pain 3+ pitting edema left forefoot with erythema and increased temperature. Yellow opaque exudate visible under the skin in the fourth interspace, and appears to be tracking plantar medially to the second interspace. Puncture wound visible under the 5th met head area. WBC 13.4 with a left shift, ESR 92, CRP 51, Glucose 244 X-ray: no evidence of osteomyelitis or Foreign Body Admission and I&D of left 4 th interspace. IV antibiotics after culture sent: Vancomycin Discharged with PO Agumentin and woundcare


6 Diabetic Foot Care Diabetic Foot Levels (1,2,3) Examination Vascular: discoloration, edema, claudication Neurological: burning, tingling, numbness, balance Dermatologic: calluses, scaling, dryness, reddened areas, thick nails Musculoskeletal: foot deformity, flexibility, weakness Care Nails and Skincare Corns, calluses, fungus, elongated nails, ulcerations Shoe gear What are they wearing? How is it affecting their feet?

7 Risk Factors for Ulceration/Amputation (1) Peripheral sensory neuropathy: #1 cause of ulceration Structural foot deformity Improperly fitting shoes History prior ulceration/amputation Prolonged elevated pressures Obesity Smoking Lower extremity edema Uncontrolled hyperglycemia Vision Chronic Renal Disease Limited joint mobility Poor blood flow

8 When to refer to the specialist Diabetic with only neuropathy: PCP management Diabetic with neuropathy, history of OR current ulceration, foot deformities, nail anomalies, poor vision, poor circulation: HAND THEM OVER !




12 How to help out the foot folk Suspected infection… Open wound: tissue quality Skin color: cellulitis, purulence, fluctuance Edema Vital Sings/abnormal labs Severity Send to ED and/or call ortho consult 719-2475 call podiatry for advise/urgency of scheduling E-Referral if non-acute Order: Plain films, MRI NOT NECESSARY CBC with diff, Sed Rate, CRP, Complex Metabolic Panel

13 Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy AKA Charcot Causes: Peripheral neuropathy Unrecognized trauma Inflammation Characteristics: Joint dislocation Pathological fractures Collapse of the foot and ankle Often misdiagnosed for acute cellulitis or sprain Chronic Charcot can cause rocker bottom deformity- ARF ulceration d/t biomechanical abnormality ACUTE CHARCOT REQUIRES PROMPT REFERRAL


15 Peripheral Vascular Disease Blood flow is IMPARATIVE to wound healing No blood flow…send em to gen surg/vascular High risk for gangrene and limb loss Diminished blood flow Moderate risk for gangrene Super slow healing of ulcerations Venous Stasis Ulcers / Arterial Ulcers Treatment Unna Boot Compression Stockings Vascular Consult CT angiogram with bilateral leg runoffs/ ABIs



18 Case Study #2 30 yr old IDDM with h/o ulceration, charcot, has current ulceration Medically compromised: obesity, HD, anemia, peripheral vascular disease Comes to clinic with 2 large plantar ulcers, malodorous, recent multiple hospitalizations, cellulitis, on oral abx. Labs: HIGH ESR, CRP Wounds probes to bone, unable to debride deeply d/t pain.


20 Case study #2 Return to wound clinic 2 days later with necrotic fourth toe. Refuse admit here, wishes to go to another hospital Aortogram (patent vessels) and debridement of ulcer and amputation of 4th toe Wound Vac and IV abx ordered Left AMA, ordered IV abx at dialysis and orals Malfunction wound vac, return to SFGH with deep wound with tendon exposed


22 Case #2 No admit. Will restart wound vac, abx regimen is approved Labs are trending down Albumin is too low so Wound Vac company denies request. Needs to get supplements at Dialysis, wound vac vs packed woundcare Needs e-referral for HAH for wound vac changes-denies due to ambulatory status Now what?


24 Ulcer Treatment Guidelines (2) Debridment of necrotic tissue Surgical, Mechanical, Autolytic, Enzymatic Pressure Reduction Healing sandals, contact casting, offloading Wound care Dressings, Hygiene Infection Control Cover MRSA if no culture taken, r/o osteomyelitis (xray vs MRI)?? Vascular Palpable pulses Medical management Good glycemic control Good blood pressure management Renal status Reduce the risk of recurrence Regular podiatric care Education Protective footwear

25 Admission vs Outpatient? An admission is determined by Extent of cellulitis Vital Sign abnormality, abnormal labs Lymphangiitis Soft tissue necrosis, fluctuance, odor, gangrene, risk of osteomyelitis I&D, boney excision, extent of infection: limb loss risk? Less threatening Superficial to full thickness, no bone involved Medically stable Mild erythema, warmth, edema In office sharps debridement, boney excision

26 Infection….what are we treating? In our practice we treat a Diabetic with a non-identified bacteria with a broad spectrum antibiotic that will cover for osteomyelitis and MRSA Septra DS Clindamycin Once a specimen is obtained we then will change the treatment plan if necessary Frequent office visits Helpful if PCP is involved with medical management with co- morbidities: renal, cardiac, endocrine….









35 Wound Care- Where? 4C: frequent dressing changes under the watchful eyes of Trish McCarthy and Ardene Ballonado NPs and the staff Can the patient do it? Back to Podiatry weekly/ q 2 weeks for sharps debridments and reassessments until closure

36 Assistive Shoes/Braces-O&P!! Total Contact Cast Indicated for offloading planter digit, planter metatarsal, medial metatarsal, lateral metatarsal, charcot midfoot and heel wounds. Removable Cast Walker/ Walking Boots Charcot Restraint Orthotic Walker (CROW) boot Indicated for offloading planter digit, planter metatarsal, medial metatarsal, lateral metatarsal, charcot midfoot,and heel wounds. Bledso Boot Indicated for limiting mobility of the foot/ankle Wedge Shoes Darco Wedge Shoe Indicated for offloading planter digit, planter metatarsal, medial metatarsal, and lateral metatarsal wounds. Darco Reverse Wedge Shoe Indicated for offloading heel wounds. Multipodus Splint / Boot Indicated for offloading heel and ankle wounds. Surgical Shoes or Shoes with Pressure Relief Insoles Post op shoe Indicated for offloading dorsal digit wounds. Plastizote Healing Shoe Indicated for offloading the dorsal digit, planter digit, planter metatarsal, medial metatarsal, lateral metatarsal, and heel wounds.

37 Hierarchy of appropriate footwear for persons with diabetes (in order of degree of specialization and cost) Level 1: Quality walking or tennis shoes: Usually the most affordable and best- looking option; some shoe manufacturers offer extra-large toe boxes and extra- wide sizes to accommodate a wide range of foot shapes Level 2: Off-the-shelf diabetic shoes with cushioned plantar insertsSimilar to the above but provide additional room for inserts Level 3: Custom prescriptions added to off-the-shelf diabetic shoesCan include rocker bottom soles, lifts, cutouts, wedges, or metatarsal bars to accommodate deformities and provide for off-loading Level 4: Customized molded diabetic shoesIndividually molded to accommodate deformities; often unsightly in appearance Level 5: Charcot restraint orthotic walkers (CROW boots)Injection-molded clamshell-type ìspace bootsî that accommodate extreme deformities and instabilities and have approximately 11-inch-thick rocker bottom soles ultimate in protective diabetic footwear

38 Is that a wart? Form of HPV called Verucca Plantaris Appears with tiny hemerrhages Skin striae go around plantar warts If not a wart, the skin striae go right through Painful to squeeze test, unlike calluses that are painful to direct pressure Treatment: Mediplast 40% patches, change daily, skin get macerated and wart sloughs off Freezing Surgical Curettage


40 Plantar Fasciitis Inflammation and swelling in the thick tissue of the heel WORSE in the morning! Conservative treatment ICE Stretch Shoes at all times NSAIDS Next Steps Custom orthotics (on site Bledso boot/casting Steroid Injections Last Resort Plantar Fasciotomy Heel Spur resection


42 Nail Fungus Onychomycosis: nail plate is thickened, yellow, or cloudy appearance. The nails can become rough and crumbly, or can separate from the nail bed Risk Factors: fam hx, age, poor health, warm temp Treatment: Debridment Econazole 1% cream, Clotrimazole 1% topical Oral: Lamicil 1 tab po q day x 3 months, Fluconazole 1 tab po q week times 3 months…MUST CHECK LIVER, COST/INSURANCE Onychogryphosis: rams horn nails




46 Elective Surgery Bunions, Hammertoes, Plantar Fasciitis, etc Get WIEGHT-BEARING FILMS! E-Referral to Podiatry If ankle/rear foot complaints (except PF) refer to orthopaedic surgery


48 Masses Ganglions Lipomas Melenoma


50 Sources 1. Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Diabetic Foot Ulcers; Prevention, Diagnosis and Classification. American Family Physician. 1998; March 15. 2. Rivera, Nancy, Diabetic Foot. Advance for Nurse Practitioners. 2009; 7:24-29. 3. Frykberg, R, Armstrong, D, Giurini, J, Edwards, A, Kravette, M, Kravits, S, Ross, C, Stavosky, J, Stuck, R, Vanore, J, Diabetic Foot Disorders, A clinical Practice Guideline. 2000.

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