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The Foot Chapter 17.

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Presentation on theme: "The Foot Chapter 17."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Foot Chapter 17

2 Foot Anatomy 26 Bones 7 Tarsal 5 Metatarsal 14 Phalanges 38 Joints
4 Arches

3 Bones of the Foot

4 Bones of the Foot

5 Bones of the Foot

6 Tarsal Bones Talus Calcaneus Navicular Cuboid Cuniforms Medial
Intermediate Lateral

7 Metatarsals & Phalanges

8 Sesamoid Bones 2 (medial and lateral) Under great toe
Functionpulley, increase leverage of tendons that control great toe

9 Joints of the Foot Tibiotalar Talocrural Subtalar Talonavicular
Calcaneocubiod Metarsocunieform Tarsometatarsal Joint Subtalar Joint Midtarsal Joint

10 Joints of the Foot Metatarsophalangeal Joint
Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Distal Interphalangeal Joint

11 Regions of Foot Forefoot Midfoot Hindfoot Metatarsals Phalanges
Navicular Cuboid 3 Cuniforms Hindfoot Calcaneus Talus

12 Regions of the Foot

13 Plantar Fascia Thick white band of fibrous tissue originating from the medial tuberosity of the calcaneus and ending at the proximal heads of the metatarsals Work with ligaments to support arches during weigh bearing and downward forces

14 Foot Arches Functions Support body weigh in an economical fashion
Absorb the shock of weight bearing Provide a space on the plantar aspect of foot for blood vessels, nerves, and muscles

15 Medial Longitudinal Arch
Highest of 3 arches of foot Calcaneus, Talus, Navicular, Cuniforms & 1st three metatarsals Supports— Ligaments: Spring ligament Plantar fascia Tendons: Tibialis posterior Tibialis anterior

16 Lateral Longitudinal Arch
Lower and flatter Calcaneus, Talus, Cuboid, 4th & 5th metatarsals Supports— Ligaments: Short plantar ligament Plantar fascia Tendons: Peroneus longus

17 Transverse Arch Cuniforms, Cuboid, & 5th metatarsal


19 Shoe Wear Patterns Excessive Pronation Excessive Supination
Wear out front of shoe under 2nd metatarsal Excessive Supination Wear out lateral border of shoe Common Misconception Wearing out the back lateral corner of the shoe means you pronate This is normal wear pattern

20 Gait

21 Pulse Posterior Tibial Artery Medial Malleolous Dorsalis Pedis artery
Extensor Tendon Great Toe


23 Foot Movements Dorsiflexion Plantar Flexion Pronation Inversion
Eversion Supination Pronation: combo of PF, eversion, & forefoot abduction Supination: combo of DF, inversion, & adduction

24 Muscles of Foot Intrinsic Muscles Extrinsic Muscles
Relate to specific body part or bone Flexor hallucis longus Flexor hallucis brevis Flexor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum longus Abductor hallucis Abductor digiti minimi Tibialis posterior Muscle outside a body part, organ, or bone Gastrocnemius Gastroc—has long tendons that cross ankle and attach on bones of foot to assist in movement. Talus has no tendon attachment

25 Muscles of the Foot

26 Muscles of the Foot

27 Muscles of the Foot

28 Common Injuries of the Foot

29 Fractures & Stress Fractures
Impair ability to perform competitively NWB More swelling & pain than ligament sprain Point tenderness present Obvious deformity often present Usually occur acutely; result of traumatic episode

30 Jones Fracture Fracture to the diaphysis at the base of the 5th metatarsal Repetitive stress, direct force, or inversion and PF of foot Healing slow; high nonunion rate

31 Retrocalcaneal Bursitis
Swelling of the bursa at the back of the calcaneus under the Achilles tendon S/sxs: Pain in heel Painful to touch Pain worse when rising on toes Red, warm skin over back of heel

32 Plantar Fascia Wide, non-elastic ligamentous tissue that extends from the anterior portion of calcaneus to heads of metatarsals Supplies support to longitudinal arch

33 Plantar Fasciitis Strain/irritation of the plantar fascia Caused by:
Overuse Unsupportive footwear Tight Achilles tendon Running on hard surfaces Chronic irritation Pain, tenderness on bottom of foot near heal (especially in am) Untreated will lead to: Bone imbalance Heel spurs Muscle strains Shin splints Continually strained from running and jumping; basketball, volleyball, cross-country (repeated jumping and landing)

34 Plantar Fasciitis—Treatment
Correct training errors Ice Massage Evaluate shoes & activity level Arch support Heel cup or cushion Goal: to reduce shock and shear forces

35 Arches

36 Pes Planus Flat foot Associated with excessive pronation
Multiple causes: Lack of shoe support Weak muscles Pain & weakness in medial longitudinal arch Calcaneal eversion Navicular bulging Flattening of arch If it ain’t broken don’t fix it! If painful, correct the excessive pronation with orthotic; taping may help; strength training of muscles may help

37 Pes Cavus aka Clawfoot, hollow foot
Associated with excessive supination Shock absorption poor General foot pain and metatarsalgia common Abnormally short Achilles tendon Calluses ball and heel Orthotic with lateral wedge; stretch achilles tendon & plantar fascia

38 Arch Sprains Ligaments stretch, thus fail to hold bones of foot in position When arch weakened, it cannot absorb shock normally Causes: Overuse Overweight Fatigue Training on hard surfaces Non-supportive shoes Shoes in poor condition Tx: RICE; most arch sprains are to lateral arch or inner longitudinal arch

39 Turf Toe Great toe strain
Hyperextension of the first MTP joint of the big toe Treatment: RICE & Support Limit movement Turf toe taping Great toe important for balance, movement, and speed

40 Heel Spur Bony growth on calcaneus Causes painful inflammation
Aggravated by exercise As foot flattens, plantar fascia is stretched & pulled where it attaches to calcaneus calcaneus reacts by forming spur of bony material TX: taping arch or use shoe insert to reduce plantar fascia pull on calcaneus

41 Heel Contusion Irritation of the lateral aspect of the heel
Sudden stop-and-go or sudden change in movement Heel receives, absorbs, and transfers much impact of sports activities (running & jumping) Severe pain in heel; will hurt with WB Calcaneus protected by thick, cornified skin layer and heavy fat pad covering, but even this thick covering cannot always protect against impact of landing or jumping

42 Heel Contusion—Treatment
Cold application before activity Ice & elevation after activity Absorb shock— Heel cups Donut pad

43 Sever’s Disease Traction injury at the apophysis of the calcaneus where the Achilles tendon attaches Young, physically active athletes Comparable to Osgood-Shlatter’s disease (at tibial tubercle of knee) Pain occurs during vigorous activity and does not continue during rest Apophysis-= bone protrusion (bony outgrowth such as a tubercle or tuberosity) Rest, ice, stretching

44 Blisters Occur on any part of body where there is friction
Most common on feet or heels Treatment Goals: Relieve pain Keep from enlarging Avoid infection

45 Blisters—Treatment Wash area thoroughly
Use sterile blade to cut small hole in blister Squeeze out clear fluid Do not remove skin Prevention: Wear work gloves Break in new skin Petroleum jelly/skin lube Adhesive bandage

46 Prevention of Foot Injuries
Selecting appropriate footwear Using shoe orthotic Foot hygiene

47 Rehabilitation of the Foot
Towel pulls TheraBand® Marble pick-up


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