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TRANSITIVITY. As dead as a dodo Have you ever seen a quagga or a great auk in a zoo? No? Dont be surprised! They are actually extinct animals. Right!

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSITIVITY. As dead as a dodo Have you ever seen a quagga or a great auk in a zoo? No? Dont be surprised! They are actually extinct animals. Right!"— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSITIVITY

2 As dead as a dodo Have you ever seen a quagga or a great auk in a zoo? No? Dont be surprised! They are actually extinct animals. Right! But heres the surprise: did you know that 99 % of all the animals that have lived on earth are extinct? Thats a lot of extinct animals.

3 Analysing processes & circumstances and finding patterns As dead as a dodo [Circumstance: manner: comparison] Have […] seen [you]evera quagga or a great auk in a zoo? Process: mental: perception SenserCircumstance: location: temporal PhenomenonCircumstance: location: spatial Dont besurprised! Process: relational: attributive: intensive [Attribute:]* 1 * 1 Carrier is not expressed because clause is imperative, but it is part of the process. The referent of Carrier is the reader. No ? elliptical clause

4 Theyareactuallyextinct animals CarrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: classifying not experiential Acon Attribute Right! minor clause Butheresthe surprise: not experiential conjunction Circumstance: location: spatial Process: relational: attributive: circumstantial Carrier did … knowyouthat 99 % of all the animals that have lived on earth are extinct? Process: mental: cognition SenserMeta-phenomenon: idea

5 (I)… 99 % of all the animals [[that have lived on earth]] areextinct. Hypo- tactic CarrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive Attribute (II)thathave livedon earth Embed- ded Actorprocess: material: middleCircumstance: location: spatial Thatsa lot of extinct animals. CarrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: classifying Attribute CLAUSES IN THE PREVIOUS CLAUSE CLAUSES IN THE PREVIOUS CLAUSE:

6 Long ago most animals became extinct naturally, because of changes in the weather or because their usual food or habitat disappeared. In recent times, however, most animals have become extinct because of humans. Sometimes people have destroyed a species for its meat, its fur or its feathers. Sometimes, farmers have destroyed a species to protect farm animals or farmland. Sometimes hunters have destroyed a species just for sport.

7 Analysing processes & circumstances and finding patterns Long agomost animals becameextinctnaturally Circumstance: location: temporal CarrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive AttributeCircumstance: manner: quality because of changes in the weather Circumstance: cause: reason Or becausetheir usual food or habitat disappeared. Not experiential: conjunct. actorProcess: material: middle

8 In recent times, however,most animals have become extinctbecause of humans. Circum- stance: location: temporal not experiential Acon CarrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive AttributeCir- cumstance: cause: reason Sometimespeoplehave destroyeda speciesfor its meat, its fur or its feathers. not experiential; Amod ActorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: cause: purpose

9 Sometimes,farmershave destroyeda species not experiential; Amod ActorProcess: material: effective Goal to protectfarm animals or farmland. Process: material: effectiveGoal Sometimeshuntershave destroyed a speciesjust for sport. not experiential; Amod ActorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: cause: purpose

10 THE DODO

11 The dodo, which lived in the island of Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, built its nests on the ground and couldnt fly. European sailors first arrived on the island in They killed dodos for their meat. They also brought dogs, cats and rats to Mauritius. These animals destroyed the dodos nests, eggs and chicks. Soon there werent many dodos left. Some dodos were sent to animal collectors in Europe. The collectors didnt breed these birds, however. They just put them on show in cages. The dodo became extinct more than 300 years ago, in 1681.

12 Analysing processes & circumstances and finding patterns The dodo, which…, builtits nestson the ground ActorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: location: spatial WhichlivedIn the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean actorProcess: material: middleCircumstance: location: spatial

13 European sailors firstarrivedon the island in ActorCircumstan ce: temporal: location Process: material: middle Circumstan ce: location: spatial Circumstan ce: location: temporal and (the dodo)couldnt fly. Not Experiential: conjunction (omitted) ActorProcess: material: middle Theykilleddodosfor their meat. ActorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: cause: purpose

14 Theyalsobroughtdogs, cats and rats to Mauritius. Actornot experiential: Acon Process: material: effective GoalCircumstance: location: spatial These animals destroyedthe dodos nests, eggs and chicks. ActorProcess: material: effectiveGoal Soonthere werentmany dodos left. not experiential: AconProcess: existentialExistent Some dodos were sentto animal collectorsin Europe. GoalProcess: material: effective: giving type Beneficiary: recipient Circumstance: location: spatial

15 The collectorsdidnt breedthese birds,however. ActorProcess: material: effective Goalnot experiential: Acon Theyjustputthemon showin cages. ActorCircumstance: manner: quality Process: material: effective goalCircumstance: location: spatial Circum- stance: location: spatial The dodoBecameextinctMore than 300 years ago, in 1681 CarrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive AttributeCircumstance: location: temporal

16 THE QUAGGA

17 The quagga lived in S. Africa. It was a kind of zebra. The front half of its body was striped brown and white. The back half of its body was plain brown. Like other zebras, quaggas lived in grasslands. In the 19th c. hunters killed many quaggas for their meat and for their skins. During the same period, farmers took large parts of the quaggas grassland habitat and turned them into farmland. Some people tried to domesticate the quagga, but with little success. The last wild quagga was killed by hunters in The last quagga in the world died in Amsterdam zoo in 1883.

18 Analysing processes & circumstances and finding patterns The quagga livedin S. Africa. actor Process: material: middleCircumstance: location: spatial itwasA kind of zebra carrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: classifying attribute The front half of its body wasStriped brown and white carrier Process: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive attribute The back half of its body wasplain brown carrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive Attribute

19 Like other zebras,quaggaslivedin grasslands. Circumstance: manner: comparison ActorProcess: material: middle Circumstance: location: spatial In the 19th c.hunterskilledmany quaggasfor their meat and for their skins Circumstance: location: temporal ActorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: cause: purpose During the same period, farmerstooklarge parts of the quaggas grassland habitat Circumstance: location: temporal ActorProcess: material: effective Goal

20 and (farmers)TurnedthemInto farmland Not experiential: conjunction actorProcess: material: effective goalCircumstance: role: product Some peopletried to domesticatethe quagga, Actorcomplex VG; Process: material: effective Goal But (They domesticated them)with little success. Not experiential: conjunction EllipticalCircumstance: manner: quality

21 The last quagga in the world diedIn Amsterdam zoo 1883 actorProcess: material: middle Circumstance: location: spatial Circumstance: location: temporal The last wild quagga Was killedby huntersIn 1878 GoalProcess: material: effective/passive Agent as Circumstance Circumstance: location: temporal

22 THE PASSENGER PIGEON

23 The passenger pigeon lived in North America. A hundred and fifty years ago there were thousands of millions of passenger pigeons. American Indians killed them for food, but they didnt hunt young birds or they didnt kill more than they needed. They treated the passenger pigeon like the buffalo, with respect. White Americans hunted the birds for sport. They sometimes killed hundreds of thousands in a day. The feathers were used to make pillows and the meat was cheaper than chicken. Soon there werent many passenger pigeons left. In 1900 a boy shot the last wild bird. In 1914 the last passenger pigeon bird died in Cincinnati Zoo.

24 The passenger pigeonlivedin North America. ActorProcess: material: middle Circumstance: location: spatial Analysing processes & circumstances and finding patterns A hundred and fifty years ago there werethousands of millions of passenger pigeons. Circumstance: location: temporal Process: existentialExistent American Indians killedthemFor food, actorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: cause: purpose

25 Buttheydidnt huntyoung birds Not experiential: conjunction ActorProcess: material: effective goal ortheydidnt killmore than they needed not experiential; conjunction actorProcess: material: effective goal Theytreatedthe passenger pigeon like the buffalowith respect. ActorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: manner: comparison Circumstance: manner: quality

26 White Americans huntedthe birdsfor sport actorProcess: material: effective GoalCircumstance: cause: purpose Theysometimeskilledhundreds of thousands in a day. actornot experiential; conjunction Process: material: effective goalCircumstance: location: temporal The featherswere usedto makepillows RangeProcess: material: middle w/range Process: material: effective Goal

27 andThe meatwascheaper than chicken. Not experiential: conjunction carrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive attribute Soonthere werentmany passenger pigeons left. not experiential; AconProcess: existentialExistent

28 In 1914the last passenger pigeon bird diedin Cincinnati Zoo. Circumstance: location: temporal actorProcess: material: middle Circumstance: location: spatial In 1900a boyshotthe last wild bird. Circumstance: location: temporal ActorProcess: material: effective goal

29 Animals like the dodo, the quagga and the passenger pigeon have disappeared forever. Today other animals are in danger of following them. The Spanish lynx and the black-headed uakari are endangered species because people have destroyed large areas of their natural habitat. Slow-moving Caribbean manatees are endangered because humans have turned the sea in which they live into a leisure area. Speed boats have already killed many of them, and fishing lines have seriously injured others. Shouldnt we stop these animals from becoming extinct too before its too late?

30 The Spanish lynx

31 The black-headed uakari

32 The Slow- moving Caribbean manatee

33 Animals like the dodo, the quagga and the passenger pigeon have disappearedfor ever ActorProcess: material: middle Circumstance: extent: temporal Todayother animals arein danger of following them. Circumstance: location: temporal carrierProcess: relational: attributive: circumstantial Attribute/Cir- cumstance of location: spatial The Spanish lynx and the black-headed uakari areendangered species carrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: classifying attribute

34 becausepeoplehave destroyed large areas of their natural habitat. … not experiential; conjunction actorProcess: material: effective goal Slow-moving Caribbean manatees areendangered carrierProcess: relational: attributive: intensive: descriptive attribute becausehumanshave turnedthe sea in which they lived into a leisure area. not experiential; conjunction actorsProcess: material: effective goalCircum- stance: role: product

35 Speed boatshave […] killed[already]many of them, actorProcess: material: effective Circumstance: location: temporal goal andfishing linesHave [...] injuredothers[seriously] Not experiential; conjunction ActorProcess: material: effective goalCircumstan ce: manner: quality in whichtheylived Circumstance: location: spatial actorProcess: material: middle clause embedded in the previous clause clause embedded in the previous clause:

36 beforeitstoo late? Not experiential: conjunction carrierProcess: relational: attributive: circumstantial Attribute frombecominginstincttoo Textual elem. Process: relational: attributive: intensive AttributeInterp. element Shouldnt [...] stop [we]these animals Process: material actorgoal

37 Commenting on processes in : As dead as a dodo The processes that prevail are in order of decreasing frequency: material effective attributive intensive classifying/ descriptive/ circumstantial material middle existential material middle w/ range (only one) mental perception (one) mental cognition (one)

38 The uses the different processes are put to are: material effective: representing actions by human beings that have extended to certain species of animals and have affected them negatively. When those actions are negated, they represent actions that have not been so destructive (as in the section on American Indians) attributive intensive :classifying/ descriptive/ circumstantial: classifying and describing animals that no longer exist so the reader can picture them in his/her mind

39 The uses the different processes are put to are: material middle: representing actions of animals that do not extend to other entities and affect them (couldnt fly) or actions that set the context to whats to be said (arrived) or actions/ happenings that are the result/consequence of effective actions (died) existential : to represent non-existence as consequence of effective actions, i.e. actions affecting animals. mental (perception, cognition): to engage readers interest by having him, in combination with questions, reflect upon perceptions and knowledge related to topic to be dealt with

40 Note that all material effective processes, which are by far the most frequent one, are associated with human beings as Actor participants, sometimes as a generic class, sometimes as a more specific member of the class = white man; Europeans; a boy, sometimes represented indirectly by something that he typically uses (Speedboat, fishing lines). This clearly reflects the authors view that human beings are to be held as responsible for the extinction of animals and signals his purpose of showing/ demonstrating/providing plenty of conclusive evidence of this.

41 The Circumstances prevailing are the following: Circumstances of location: spatial Circumstances of location: temporal Circumstances of cause: purpose The uses they seem to be put to in the text are suggested below :

42 Circumstances of location: spatial representing the location, mainly of animals unknown to us because now extinct. Circumstances of location: temporal : organizing sections of the text chronologically to represent the history/evolution of the problem.

43 Circumstances of cause: purpose They are usually associated with effective material processes and represent the purposes behind the human actions that affected animals. Many of these purposes, interestingly enough, are not worthy or such that they can justify the actions, except again in the case of the American Indians. In conclusion, apart from helping organize the text, circumstances, especially those of cause: purpose, help drive home/ effectively convey the authors point of random destruction of the animal world by humans


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