Presentation on theme: "Sarah Muir Brittany Woods Mary Stanton Shavonne Ross Riham Said."— Presentation transcript:
Sarah Muir Brittany Woods Mary Stanton Shavonne Ross Riham Said
When planning for effective instruction it is important that you take the correct steps in order to ensure that your students receive academic success. It is important that an instructor builds an approach versus diving into the lesson. When instructing students it is important that you include all components of teaching as well as learning that is gained from experience in an instructional setting.
What are your students like? Do they have special needs that should be addressed during instruction? What should your students be able to demonstrate or do after you teach your lesson? What do you need to do in your instructional environment to get everything ready for the lesson? What strategies will you use to get ready for the lesson? What should you have your students do to ensure that they learn the shills and content that is given to them in the lesson? What technology do you need during the lesson? How will know that your instruction was effective or successful?
After answering, reflecting, and critically thinking about those questions, an instructor should have a certain framework or process that should help them create effective instruction. Successful teachers answer these questions before planning any lesson. Planning a lesson can seem overwhelming initially but with practice and repetition it becomes a natural process. When you are able to effectively plan for instruction you are ready to actually plan you lesson.
There are three phases that help you design you lesson. This planning system is also known as The D-P-A phase. The D-P-A phase is a comprehensive three part system that is designed to help maximize the quality of teaching plans. THE D-P-A system includes three planning processes which are: The Design Phase The Plan Phase The Act Phase
The Design Phase is the First Phase when planning an effective lesson. This phase articulates the steps that you should take to ensure that you deliver what is intended. Teachers typically use a template and design system to envision their lesson and organize their ideas.
The Plan Phase is the Second Phase when planning a lesson. In this phase teachers typically break the design phase down into daily lesson plans. A design is typically too large to fit into one lesson. The instructor decides which components of the design should be used each day during the lesson.
The Act Phase is the last phase when planning an effective lesson. During this phase, the instructor makes all the finishing touches for the lesson. Materials, videos, or technology is requested if needed. Typically a to-do list is helpful when you are in the act phase of planning your lesson so that the lesson can go smoothly without incident.
DID is a flexible system for designing instruction. Every step of the model is crucial to the process and must be considered carefully. Example: Architectural Process A number of instructional design systems models are available for educators to follow.
The most pervasive and influential instructional design systems model originally developed by Robert Gagne. He was the first to promote and develop steps that provide a logical systematic foundation for designing instruction. Gagnes model and the others that were developed for foundation for todays instructional design system.
The DID model differs primarily in its emphasis on a dynamic design. (Represent the capability for continuous adjustment and change) Must be flexible to embrace and use data provided by ongoing feedback from learners. The DID model is built around a continuous internal and external feedback loop, to ensure that each step of the process is functioning at its maximum effectiveness.
Internal feedback loops occurs within each step of the process. External feedback loops are built between all steps of process. Formative feedback occurs during an event or process. -The DID model includes a formative feedback loop during every step of the process so that feedback can be gathered and midcourse corrections can be made.
Summative feedback is returned at the end of a process. -In the DID model, the summative feedback loop can return information to help revise each step of the process once the entire process is completed. -Since the formative feedback is continuous throughout all steps of the process, the summative feedback loop serves as a final check once all steps are completed. -The feedback loops of the DID model encourage you to create a dynamic instructional process that remains responsive even as you are actively engaged in planning and implementing the instruction.
You must first have a clear picture of those for whom the instruction is being created. You must begin by carefully reviewing the characteristics of your learners. Questions that lead to carefully examination of your learners are: 1. What are their developmental stages, both physically and cognitively? 2. What in their cultural or language backgrounds may affect how instruction is received? 3. What are their incoming skills and knowledge base relative to the intended instruction? Once the questions are answered they will establish a clear picture of the learners for whom you are designing instruction.
The more accurate the more likely the instruction will be appropriate and successful. The more information you gather, whether its formal or informal, the more likely it is that your instruction will be targeted correctly to put the needs of your students. As the design process continues new information may come up, always remember to stay flexible and ready to alter each of the components of the process.
Objectives are statements of what will be achieved as a result of the instruction you are designing. Performance objectives are objectives that specify what the learner will be able to do when the instructional event ends. Performance objectives typically include a stem plus three key components: -Targeted student performance -A descriptive of the method for assessing the intended performance -Criterion for measuring success Example: The student will be able to identify latitude and longitude lines on a map with 100% accuracy. The student will be able to: Stem Identify latitude and longitude lines: Target Performance On a map: Measurement conditions With 100% accuracy: Criterion for success
Another role of performance objectives is to ensure that the teaching and learning experience includes a full range of cognitive levels. Recalling simple facts to higher-end critical thinking. Benjamin Bloom Developed one of the most prominent methods for categorizing differences in thinking skills. Blooms taxonomy describes levels of cognition. A taxonomy is a system of levels to better organize a concept. The levels of thinking do not interfere with the knowledge outcome of the objectives. They help you identify the level of thinking desired from the learner with regard to that knowledge.
Blooms Taxonomy and Action Verbs Evaluation: Assess, weigh, consider, judge Synthesis: Combine, design, develop, invent Analysis: Analyze, examine, subdivide, research Application: Apply, solve, classify, discover Comprehension: Explain, match, restate, illustrate Knowledge: Identify, name, describe, state Monitoring the effectiveness of the objectives to have written is an important internal formative feedback mechanism in the DID model.
Learning environment includes all conditions circumstances, and influences that affects the learning development. Learning environments includes the space and facilities in which instruction occurs. -The classroom or learning space -The student furniture and its arrangement in the instructional space -The teaching facilities built into the classroom are all elements to be consistent with the students learning styles and the educators teaching style.
Rita and Kenneth Dunn have done years of research to match physical environment to individual learning styles changes to: -Lighting -Seating -Other physical accommodations in the classroom can reduce distraction to the learning process by providing a sensory environment. Example: Well-lit reading areas, sections in the classroom for groups, providing informal seating, individual study areas. Observation of the impact of the space on students as they engage in learning activities and on students performance is an important feedback tool that will help you continually monitor and adjust the learning environment.
Learning Environment Rubric pg.58 The learning environment rubric will assist you in maintaining the level of awareness necessary to implement the steps of DID process with maximum benefit to the learner. Teachers who do not apply instruction design principles and who do not carry these through to sound lesson plans often find the learning environment turning chaotic and frustrating to both learner and teacher.
Teaching strategies are the methods you will use to assist your student in achieving the objectives. Learning strategies are the techniques and activities that you will require your students to engage in to master the content. The combination of planned teaching and learning strategies are sometimes referred to as Pedagogy. Pedagogy can be defined as the principles and methods of instruction. One way of thinking about teaching and learning strategies is to consider them components of a pedagogical cycle. Pedagogical cycle is a sequence of methods that promote effective instruction.
Steps of the Pedagogical Cycle Culminating review Provide a preorganizer Use motivators Build bridges to prior knowledge Share objectives Introduce new knowledge Reinforce knowledge Provide practice experience
Methods are the actions and activities that a teacher uses to communicate a concept. The methods you select should: -Address the needs and learning styles of your students -Offer alternative ways of explaining and exploring the information presented -Keep your learners active and engaged in learning The right method or combination of methods is one of the keys to achieving the lesson objectives. Media are technologies that support methods. Examples: Lectures may be the method, but the overhead transparencies used by the teacher are the media support. The appropriate use of technology can add excitement and interest to many methods, but the key to its use is its role as a support to teaching methodology.
Support technologies enhance teaching and learning strategies. Knowing what a technology can do in support of instruction, how to use it, and when it is appropriately used are the main focus of the course. Sample of Support Technologies Audio Visual Digital Cassette tapes Video tapes Webcasts Radio Video discs Internet resources Talking books Slide projector Computer hardware
Summative evaluation is a final review of the entire process. Building this final evaluation step into the process ensures that a continuous improvement process will be in place and that the design will undergo positive revision with each use. If you find that your design did not work as effectively as you intended, this step of the design process can suggest other follow-up strategies.
The DID Model Creates blueprint for the teaching-learning process Helps you ask critical questions Improves quality of the educational experience Important first step in planning instruction
The DID Model Helps you see the BIG picture Allows for an effective instructional experience DID Model is the foundation For lesson plans – narrow the focus to specific topics
Lesson Plans describe what will happen on a DAILY basis Specify instructional events that fill in and flesh out your instructional design Lesson plans give a day-to-day snapshot of classroom instruction
Describe how you will prepare the students for the lesson. Consider the following questions when completing step 1: Have any of the characteristics previously recognized changed? Do any assumptions about learners need to be corrected? What techniques will you use to gauge entry skills?
State the instructional design objective addressed by the lesson. Consider the following questions when completing step 2: Which of the designs objectives does this lesson relate to? How, if at all, does this lesson relate to the other design objectives?
Your lesson plan should include each of the following sections Prepare the classroom Summarize your plan using pedagogical cycle Identify required technologies and materials Check for success Consider the following questions when completing step 3: What needs to be done in the classroom to get it ready? What relevant standards are being addressed by this lesson? What must be accomplished for each step of the lesson? Have all components of the pedagogical cycle been addressed? How will each be accomplished? What materials, media, and technologies are needed and how will they be used? What needs to be done to implement the intended assessments?
Describe the steps you have to take in the classroom to prepare it for implementing the lesson.
List materials that need to be created, gathered or copied. List alternative activities in case of unexpected circumstances
Reminders that you might want to say Personal cues
Identify technologies used to help implement the lesson
List what is needed to use to accomplish the feedback planned
List what is needed to do a follow-up for a successful lesson To reinforce it To improve it
All components of the planning process, provide planning tools for effective teaching and learning. The following steps will help you effectively plan your teaching and your students learning experiences.
Instructional Design is the component of the process that helps you think strategically about the teaching and learning experience. It offers you, through the DID model, a way to plan for and articulate every essential ingredient in the instructional unit you are planning. Instructional Design paints the big-picture of instruction and results in a complete and precise blueprint of what should happen and how.
Creating a lesson plan moves the planning process from a systems model to a mainstream, day to day lesson plan. The lesson plan that results from this, narrow the focus of planning to a specific objective or topic. Using the lesson plan template, you are able to clearly know what you need to do to successfully complete each days lesson.
Action planning is the final step in the three part planning process. The action plan makes clear, everything you need to do as a teacher to make learning happen in the classroom. Through this step, you review the lesson plan and stop to create your lesson plan to-do list. By completing instructional action planner, you complete the planning phase and are ready to implement what you have planned.
Technology enhanced instruction and learning must be well thought out, with the appropriate technology used for what you are teaching. Technology must be used as a support to your teaching, and tool, and must not distract from what you are actually teaching, but enhance it. A general rule of thumb suggests that a technology included in a lesson should make it possible for something that was done before to be done better, and make it possible for something that couldn't be done before to happen. Careful instructional planning helps avoid instructional errors and maximize the effectiveness of our teaching time and our students learning time.