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Trauma Recovery: Wellness for Counselors and Teachers Dr. Vaughn Millner.

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1 Trauma Recovery: Wellness for Counselors and Teachers Dr. Vaughn Millner

2 Objectives As a result of this viewing this presentation, participants will be able to: Identify personal signs of compassion satisfaction and fatigue Identify personal signs of compassion satisfaction and fatigue Examine various components of mental health Examine various components of mental health Begin an individual wellness plan Begin an individual wellness plan

3 Helpers Also Cope with Disaster and Trauma It is essential that as you care for others during disaster recovery, you take care of yourself. How are you Mentally? Mentally? Physically? Physically? Emotionally? Emotionally? Spiritually? Spiritually?

4 Balance Mind Mind Body Body Spirit Spirit

5 Stress at Work (2005 Wellness Councils of America) 40% of individuals say that job is very or extremely stressful 40% of individuals say that job is very or extremely stressful 43% of adults suffer health problems due to stress – about 90 million people 43% of adults suffer health problems due to stress – about 90 million people 75% to 90% of all visits to primary care physicians are stress-related 75% to 90% of all visits to primary care physicians are stress-related

6 GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (Hans Selye) When stress strikes, the following occurs: Alarm Reaction. Prepares the body for flight or fight. Alarm Reaction. Prepares the body for flight or fight. Resistance. Your body releases stress hormones. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and body temperature increase. Resistance. Your body releases stress hormones. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and body temperature increase. Exhaustion. Bodys ability to adapt runs out. Exhaustion. Bodys ability to adapt runs out.

7 Burnout Condition of feeling wasted physically, emotionally, spiritually, interpersonally, and behaviorally (MacClusky and Ingersoll) Condition of feeling wasted physically, emotionally, spiritually, interpersonally, and behaviorally (MacClusky and Ingersoll)

8 Stages of Burnout

9 Three Stages of Burnout (Texas Medical Association) Stress Arousal (persistent irritability, anxiety; high blood pressure; bruxism; insomnia; forgetfulness; heart palpitations; unusual heart rhythm; inability to concentrate; headaches) Stress Arousal (persistent irritability, anxiety; high blood pressure; bruxism; insomnia; forgetfulness; heart palpitations; unusual heart rhythm; inability to concentrate; headaches) Energy Conservation (lateness for work, procrastination; need 3 day weekends; decreased sexual desire; tiredness in mornings; turning work in late; social withdrawal; cynical attitudes; resentfulness; increased caffeine consumption; increased alcohol consumption; apathy) Energy Conservation (lateness for work, procrastination; need 3 day weekends; decreased sexual desire; tiredness in mornings; turning work in late; social withdrawal; cynical attitudes; resentfulness; increased caffeine consumption; increased alcohol consumption; apathy) Exhaustion (chronic sadness or depression; stomach or bowel problems; mental fatigue; headaches; desire to drop out Exhaustion (chronic sadness or depression; stomach or bowel problems; mental fatigue; headaches; desire to drop out

10 Burnout results in: Exhaustion Exhaustion Cynicism Cynicism Tense exchanges with others including students Particularly impacts those in caring professions Tense exchanges with others including students Particularly impacts those in caring professions Low level, chronic fuzziness of caring for others to feeling emotionally numb Low level, chronic fuzziness of caring for others to feeling emotionally numb

11 Compassionate Caring Compassionately caring for others without taking time for self is a recipe for burn-out. Compassionately caring for others without taking time for self is a recipe for burn-out. The higher your level of conscientiousness, the higher the danger of burnout (American Academic of Family Physicians, 1997). The higher your level of conscientiousness, the higher the danger of burnout (American Academic of Family Physicians, 1997).

12 Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) (sometimes called compassion fatigue or vicarious traumatization) Risk related to empathy with anothers traumatic information Risk related to empathy with anothers traumatic information Can result from hearing emotionally shocking material from others over time Can result from hearing emotionally shocking material from others over time Can result in depression, insomnia, loss of intimacy; numbing of feelings Can result in depression, insomnia, loss of intimacy; numbing of feelings

13 Watch for these signs: BEHAVIORAL Clock watching Clock watching Postponing contact with children Postponing contact with children Postponing returning phone calls Postponing returning phone calls Generalizing others (Example: When faced with a few children misbehaving in the classroom, thinking Theyre all the same) Generalizing others (Example: When faced with a few children misbehaving in the classroom, thinking Theyre all the same) Increased use of drugs to control mood/sleep Increased use of drugs to control mood/sleep Marital conflict Marital conflict Absenteeism Absenteeism

14 Watch for these signs: PSYCHOLOGICAL Resistance to going to work every day Resistance to going to work every day Sense of failure Sense of failure Feelings of resentment Feelings of resentment Feelings of discouragement or indifference Feelings of discouragement or indifference Negativism Negativism Self-preoccupation Self-preoccupation Feelings of powerlessness Feelings of powerlessness Rigidity in thinking and resistance to change Rigidity in thinking and resistance to change Anxiety Anxiety Depression Depression Feelings of guilt and blame Feelings of guilt and blame Suppressing emotion Suppressing emotion Suppressing problems Suppressing problems Refusing to handle stress effectively Refusing to handle stress effectively Difficulty in saying no Difficulty in saying no Assuming additional responsibility Assuming additional responsibility Sacrificing personal life for work Sacrificing personal life for work

15 Watch for these signs: PHYSICAL Tired during workday Tired during workday General fatigue General fatigue Exhaustion Exhaustion Sleep problems Sleep problems Frequents colds and/or flu Frequents colds and/or flu Frequent headaches Frequent headaches Frequent gastro-intestinal problems Frequent gastro-intestinal problems Frequent aches and pains Frequent aches and pains Long time to rebound in enthusiasm and energy about work Long time to rebound in enthusiasm and energy about work

16 Helper Traits and Burnout Fragile self-esteem Fragile self-esteem Lacking intimacy in personal life Lacking intimacy in personal life Isolation Isolation Need to rescue others Need to rescue others Need for reassurance about self worth Need for reassurance about self worth Substance abuse Substance abuse

17 Avoiding Compassion Fatigue & Burnout Increase personal capabilities Increase personal capabilities Enhance support systems Enhance support systems

18 Meeting your needs After trauma, the school system will attempt to meet students basic needs, such as providing physiological support and a sense of safety. The school and you also help to provide a sense of belonginess to students. Remember: you have these needs, as well. After trauma, the school system will attempt to meet students basic needs, such as providing physiological support and a sense of safety. The school and you also help to provide a sense of belonginess to students. Remember: you have these needs, as well. Getting your needs met results in you: Getting your needs met results in you: a. Feeling self-determined b. Interpersonally connected c. Feeling competent

19 Assume Personal Responsibility Compassion fatigue can be avoided. Main Optimism Main Optimism Take control over personal well-being. No one will do this for you. Take control over personal well-being. No one will do this for you. Make wise choices through each day. Make wise choices through each day. Take personal action. Do not put off taking care of self. Take personal action. Do not put off taking care of self.

20 Wellness Focus Recognize the signs and symptoms Recognize the signs and symptoms Correct thoughts and attitudes that are hurting you. (Example: Change I cant keep doing this to I can do most things over a brief period of time. I really do care about others.) Correct thoughts and attitudes that are hurting you. (Example: Change I cant keep doing this to I can do most things over a brief period of time. I really do care about others.) Talk to responsive and responsible colleagues Talk to responsive and responsible colleagues Be assertive; set limits; learn to say no Be assertive; set limits; learn to say no

21 Recovery Listen to your body. Listen to your body. Reassess your values. Reassess your values. Pace yourself. Pace yourself. Take care of your body. Take care of your body. Maintain your sense of humor. Maintain your sense of humor.

22 Living with our Values Better to fail at doing the right thing than to succeed at doing the wrong thing Better to fail at doing the right thing than to succeed at doing the wrong thing ~ Guy Kawasaki ~ Guy Kawasaki The key is not to prioritize whats on your schedule, but to schedule your priorities. ~ Stephen Covey

23 Take a Moment Now: Contract With Self What will I do by the end of this week that will help me take better care of myself? What will I do by the end of this week that will help me take better care of myself?______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature __________________________

24 Intention and Persistence Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. ~John Wooden ~John Wooden

25 Cognitive Restructuring Experience is not what happens to you - its how you interpret what happens to you. Experience is not what happens to you - its how you interpret what happens to you. ~Aldous Huxley ~Aldous Huxley

26 Develop a Wellness Philosophy I suggest you express these thoughts to yourself I have all the time I need to accomplish my work. I have all the time I need to accomplish my work. I give myself personal time. I give myself personal time. I provide myself with good nutrition. I provide myself with good nutrition. I exercise myself (body, mind, spirit). I exercise myself (body, mind, spirit). I have fun. I have fun. I spend time with friends and family. I spend time with friends and family. I connect with a higher being. I connect with a higher being. My life has purpose. My life has purpose.

27 Self-Reflection The biggest change we can make is to make a change within ourselves. The biggest change we can make is to make a change within ourselves.

28 Persistence Success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing your enthusiasm. Success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing your enthusiasm. ~Winston Churchill ~Winston Churchill

29 Leisure: Take Time for Yourself As I must repeat once again, the first principle of all action is leisure. (Aristotle, Po., Bk VII,3) As I must repeat once again, the first principle of all action is leisure. (Aristotle, Po., Bk VII,3) Time is of the essence Time is of the essence Now is the time of your life. Now is the time of your life. You are free to choose your thoughts and free to be. Play during free time. You are free to choose your thoughts and free to be. Play during free time.

30 Investing in Life Click below for a reminder to take time for yourself (from

31 Thank you. You have been given a tremendous task. You have children and adolescents in your care who particularly need to feel safe and wanted. They may not know how to express this. Of all the lessons they learn throughout life, the lessons they learn now will be among those not soon forgotten. You have been given a tremendous task. You have children and adolescents in your care who particularly need to feel safe and wanted. They may not know how to express this. Of all the lessons they learn throughout life, the lessons they learn now will be among those not soon forgotten. Thank you so much for being there. Thank you so much for being there.

32 References American Academy of Family Physicians (1997). Balancing act: Are you American Academy of Family Physicians (1997). Balancing act: Are you stressed out? Retrieved February 17, Available at stressed out? Retrieved February 17, Available at Aronson, E., Pines, A. M. (1988). Career burnout: Causes & cures. New Aronson, E., Pines, A. M. (1988). Career burnout: Causes & cures. New York, NY: The Free Press. York, NY: The Free Press. Arthur, N. M. (1990). The assessment of burnout: A review of three Arthur, N. M. (1990). The assessment of burnout: A review of three inventories useful for research and counseling. Journal of inventories useful for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, Counseling and Development, 69, Canfield, J., & Miller, J. (1998). Heart at work: Stories and strategies for Canfield, J., & Miller, J. (1998). Heart at work: Stories and strategies for building self-esteem and re-awakening the soul at work. New York: building self-esteem and re-awakening the soul at work. New York: McGraw Hill. McGraw Hill. Chandler, C., Bodenhamer-Davis, E., Holden, J. M., Everson, T., & Chandler, C., Bodenhamer-Davis, E., Holden, J. M., Everson, T., & Bratton, S. (2001). Enhancing personal wellness in counselor Bratton, S. (2001). Enhancing personal wellness in counselor trainees using biofeedback: An exploratory study. Applied trainees using biofeedback: An exploratory study. Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback, 26(1), 1-7. Psychophysiological Biofeedback, 26(1), 1-7.

33 References Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2003). Issues and ethics in the Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2003). Issues and ethics in the counseling professions (6th ed.). Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole. Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (1999). The relaxation and stress Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (1999). The relaxation and stress reduction workbook (4th. ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. reduction workbook (4th. ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. Figley, C. R. (1995). Compassion fatigue: Toward a new understanding of the Figley, C. R. (1995). Compassion fatigue: Toward a new understanding of the costs of caring. In B. H. Stamm (Ed), Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (pp. 3-28). Lutherville, MD: costs of caring. In B. H. Stamm (Ed), Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (pp. 3-28). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press. Sidran Press. Gladding, S. T. (2000). Counseling: A comprehensive profession (4th ed.). Saddle Gladding, S. T. (2000). Counseling: A comprehensive profession (4th ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kleinke, C. (1998). Coping with lifes challenges (2nd. ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Kleinke, C. (1998). Coping with lifes challenges (2nd. ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Brooks/Cole. LiPuma, R. (2004). A four-step wellness model for self-understanding and total LiPuma, R. (2004). A four-step wellness model for self-understanding and total health-1992 health-1992

34 References MacCluskie, K. C., & Ingersoll, R. E. (2001). Becoming a 21st century MacCluskie, K. C., & Ingersoll, R. E. (2001). Becoming a 21st century agency counselor: Personal and professional explorations. agency counselor: Personal and professional explorations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson. Miller, L. (1998). Our own medicine: Traumatized psychotherapists Miller, L. (1998). Our own medicine: Traumatized psychotherapists and the stresses of doing therapy. Psychotherapy, 35, 137- and the stresses of doing therapy. Psychotherapy, 35, Moore, T. (1992). Care of the soul: A guide for cultivating depth and Moore, T. (1992). Care of the soul: A guide for cultivating depth and sacredness in everyday life. New York: Harper Collins. sacredness in everyday life. New York: Harper Collins. OHalloran, T. M., & Linton, J. M. (2000). Stress on the job: Self-care OHalloran, T. M., & Linton, J. M. (2000). Stress on the job: Self-care resources for counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(4), (4), Pearlman, S. D. (1995). Self-care for trauma therapists: Ameliorating Pearlman, S. D. (1995). Self-care for trauma therapists: Ameliorating vicarious traumatization. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Secondary vicarious traumatization. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (pp ). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press. educators (pp ). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.

35 References Powers, A. S., Myers, J. E., Tingle, L. R., & Power, J. C. (2004). Wellness, perceived stress, mattering, and marital satisfaction Powers, A. S., Myers, J. E., Tingle, L. R., & Power, J. C. (2004). Wellness, perceived stress, mattering, and marital satisfaction among medical residents and their spouses: Implications for education and counseling. The Family Journal, 12(1), Sherman, M. D. (1996). Distress and professional impairment due to Sherman, M. D. (1996). Distress and professional impairment due to mental health problems among psychotherapists. Clinical mental health problems among psychotherapists. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, Psychology Review, 16, Thompson, R. A. (1996). Counseling techniques: Improving relationships Thompson, R. A. (1996). Counseling techniques: Improving relationships with others, ourselves, our families, and our environment. Philadelphia, PA: Accelerated Development. Accelerated Development. Walsh, R. (2000). Asian psychotherapies. In Corsini, R. J. & Wedding, E. Walsh, R. (2000). Asian psychotherapies. In Corsini, R. J. & Wedding, E. (Eds.). Current psychotherapies, pp Itasca, IL: Peacock. Watkins, C. E. (1983). Burnout in counseling practice: Some potential Watkins, C. E. (1983). Burnout in counseling practice: Some potential professional and personal hazards of becoming a counselor. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61,

36 References Well, A. (1998). Health and healing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Well, A. (1998). Health and healing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Wellness Council of America (2005). Stress management at work. Retrieved Wellness Council of America (2005). Stress management at work. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from


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