Presentation on theme: "The Islamic Message and Planning Methodology Comparative Views of Planning and the Islamic Message by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Ahlul-Bayt (a.s.) Akram."— Presentation transcript:
The Islamic Message and Planning Methodology Comparative Views of Planning and the Islamic Message by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Ahlul-Bayt (a.s.) Akram Al-Attar April 7, 2007
Planning Methodology and the Islamic Message by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Ahlul-Bayt (a.s.) Outline of the Presentation Introduction: Background, Interest, Objectives Research Question: Is the Islamic Message by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Ahlul-Bayt (a.s.) Based on Scientific Planning Methodology? What is Planning? Definition, Characteristics, Theory, Principals. Parallels between the Islamic Message and Scientific Planning -Mecca Period. -Medina Period. -Back to Mecca. Conclusion The Islamic Message by Ahlul-Bayt (a.s.)– Part Two
Definition of Planning: Planning is setting a course of action to achieve certain goals (or solve problems), -Defined by concerned parties/stakeholders, & -Implemented Within a period of time. Ernest Alexander (1992) Defines planning as: The Deliberate social or organizational activity of developing an optimal strategy of future action to achieve a desired set of goals, for solving novel problems in complex contexts, and attended by the power and intention to commit resources and to act as necessary to implement the chosen strategy.
Definition of Planning: Ernest Alexander (1992) Defines planning as: The Deliberate social or organizational activity of developing an optimal strategy of future action to achieve a desired set of goals, for solving novel problems in complex contexts, and attended by the power and intention to commit resources and to act as necessary to implement the chosen strategy. Kaiser et al (1995) describes land use planning as: a turbulent activity due to the complexity and dynamism of its social, physical, institutional, and policy environments. No single theory of planning for urban change adequately describes the full range and complexity of land use planning practice.
Planning is a Decision Making Process Rational Decision Making Process 1. Design/Synthesis – Designing Alternative Solutions/Plans 2. Analysis - Defining Goals, Problems, Stakeholders, Time, etc. 3. Evaluation – Comparative Analysis of Alternatives & Selection 4. Implementation – Executing the Chosen Strategy/Plan 5. Monitoring – Checking Performance Over Time
Physical/ Functional Component Economic Component Environmental Legal Component Social Component Political Component Main Problem-Components of Planning Context Time
Problem Context & Pre-design Synthesis Evaluation of Alternatives & Plan Selection Monitoring of Implemented Alternative Plan Design Synthesis of Plan Alternatives Implement ation of Selected Alternative Plan Economic Social Physical Political Ecological Physical Economic Social Political E E Process Evaluation Evaluation Feedback E Figure 4.2: Multidisciplinary Integrated Planning Process (For Each Package of the Reuse and Redevelopment of Blighted Industrial Sites) Note: Planning Process stages and evaluation are adapted from (Alexander, 1992; Baer, 1997; Kaiser et al, 1995; Lichfield, 1975) EEvaluation E E E E E View of Integrated Planning
Site Remediation Plan/ Planning Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Implementation Monitoring 2.Physical-Functional Planning & Design Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Implementation Monitoring 3.Project Financial & Marketing Planning Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Implementation Monitoring 4. Social Equity Planning Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Implementation Monitoring 5. Stakeholders Organizational Planning Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Implementation Monitoring Overall Integrative Planning Package Planning-Decision Making Stages Exhibit 4: Multiple Planning Sub-Processes Constituting the Integrative Planning Process This Exhibit does not represent the following: timing or phasing of each sub-process or package, distribution of implementation package responsibility among stakeholders Planning Sub-Processes Integration View of Integrated Planning
Macro-level Planning Vision Overview Process and Problem Context 1. Problem Context 2. Design of Alternatives 3. Evaluation 4. Implementation 5. Monitoring Planning Process for each Package (Rational Decision Making) Package A: Project Initiation & Site Restoration Stage-1: Defining Project Initiator Stage-2: Site Cleanup and Preparation (Including site remediation plan) Package B: Site Reuse & Redevelopment Stage-3: Package Marketing Stage-4: Site Reuse & Redevelopment (Including site planning & design) Micro-Level Planning ( Interrelated Package & Stage Levels) Figure 4.1: General Conceptual Planning Framework for the Reuse & Redevelopment of Blighted Industrial Sites View of Integrated Planning
Rational Comprehensive Planning Model (Scientific/Expert-driven) 1950s & 1960s Physical/Economic Development Planning (e.g., Land Use Planning) Social Planning (1960s) Disjointed Incremental Model (Lindblom) Cybernetics (Context) Advocacy Planning Participatory/Transactive Planning (Friedmann) Radical Planning Socio-Political Context Equity Planning Mixed Scanning Model (Etzioni) Community-based Planning Environmental & Resource Planning (1970s) Environmental Planning Ecological Planning Ecosystem Planning Ecosystem Sciences Watershed Planning Multi-disciplinary Integrated Planning Stakeholders Collaboration/Partnership Community-based Approaches Sustainable Development Ecosystem-based Approaches EIA Collaborative/Communicative Planning (Innes) Ecological Context Figure 3.1 Evolution of Planning Paradigms (Figure is based on information from the following sources: Alexander, 1992; Briassoulis, 1989; Etzioni 1973; Friedmann, 1987, 1995; Innes, 1995, 1996, 1999; Krumholz & Forester 1990; Lindblom 1973; McHarg, 1969; Margerum, 1997; Nelson & Serafin,1996; Slocombe, 1993) View of Integrated Planning
Some Characteristics of the Planning Process #1 A decision making process to achieve goals Decisions can have positive or negative multiplier effect/impact. Planning goes through phases - interim goals/objectives A process that goes through stages. Planning includes multiple interactive components Planning is an incremental and adaptive process Evolutionary process Planning is an optimization process Balanced trade-offs
Some Characteristics of the Planning Process #2 Planning is a process set at multiple levels Space: Micro-Macro Function: Single Component – Multiple Component Time: Short Term – Long Term Holistically: Earth and Heaven Planning for sustainability Planning is a collaborative process Planning is a consensus building process Planning is a mediation process
Parallels between The Islamic Message Through Prophet Muhammad and Scientific Planning Methodology Planning Goals & Context Will of Almighty Allah to Establish the New Message of his Religion Islam to save people and guide them to the right path Islam is the ultimate chain link of Heavenly messages. The message was revealed by Archangel Gibreel to Muhammad. Muhammad delivers the Message to his people and humanity in general Quran is the word of Allah and the constitution/plan for humanity Quran is the most reliable source (Haykal, 1935). ALLAH Archangel Gibreel Muhammad Humanity People
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology - Mecca Why Muhammad Was the Chosen Messenger? Muhammad is called Al-Amin - The Trustworthy Muhammad Worshiped Allah only (no Idols) like Prophet Ibrahim Being illiterate makes the Message/Quran a Miracle Muhammad is only a Messenger. The task was to deliver the message of Almighty to his people and humanity in general. And Verily, you [O Muhammad] are of a great moral character. (68 Al-Kalam,4) We have not sent thee but as a universal [messenger] to men, giving them glad tidings, and warning them [against sin], but most men understand not. In essence the task for Mohammad was Implementation Planning
LINEAGE QUSAYY (400 C.E.) Abd Manaf (430 C.E.) Abd al Muttalib (497 C.E.) Abd al DarAbd al Uzza Hashim (464 C.E.) Abd Shams al MuttalibNawfalAsad Khuwayllid Abdullah (545 C.E.) Muhammad (570 C.E.) al Abbasal Awwam al Zubayr Khadijah HamzahAbu Lahab Abu Talibal Harith Umayyah Harb Abu Sufian Uqayl Ali Jafar Fatima Al HassanAl Hussayn Muawiyah Yazid Source: Haykal, 1935 with Addition
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology Problem Context Political Local Conflict and Power Struggle Regional Power Struggle Global Power/Intervention? Distance Barrier Social/Religious Tribal structure Tribal Beliefs, Values and Habits Economic Base Hajj Al-Kaba (Prophet Ibrahim & Ismail Construction). Trade/Commerce. Environmental Desert Landscape Mountains Surrounding Mecca (Ghar Hiraa & Jabal Noor). Scarce Water (Zamzam) Physical/Functional Towns are apart with long time/distance travel (by Camel)
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology Mecca: Main Events of Early Life and Character Building He was born as an Orphan His Mother also died when he was 6 years old Five years of childhood in al- badiya. Traveled with his uncle on a trade trip at age 12. Meeting the Christian Priest Buhaira who saw spiritual signs of Prophethood on Muhammad. Al-Fujjar war and the League of Fudhul at the age of 15. Tough conditions but tender surrounding at childhood. Learning experience from real life responsibility at early age. Lessons from the unjustified war. Conflict resolution. Agreement among parties Building Consensus Building peace Securing rights of the weak and oppressed.
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology Mecca: Main Events before and up to Revelation On a second trade trip to Syria. Muhammad (Age 25) marries Khadija Rebuilding Al-Kaba and resolution for placing the black stone (Age 25) Contemplating at Hiraa during the month of Ramadan. Muhammad was seeking spiritual reality, the truth of God, the creator of the universe. He did not worship the Idols Learning more from real world responsibility. Planning attributes of black stone resolution:. Vision for a solution A synthesizer A collaborative approach. Fairness to all. Contemplation was a source of inspiration and broad planning vision for reality and existence
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology Mecca: Revelation at Age 40 – The Message in Secret During contemplation period at Hiraa in the month of Ramadan, Archangel Gibreel revealed to Muhammad for the first time the word of Allah Almighty. Muhammad becomes the Prophet. His wife Khadija became the first Muslim. His cousin Ali, who was living with them, became the first male Muslim at age 10. Then his servant Zaid Ibn Haritha, then Abu Bakr Al-Siddeeq, then Bilal Al- Habashi became Muslims. The Islamic Message was in Secret within the family and the clan and stayed like that for three years. Read in the name of your Lord who has created [all that exists]. He has created man from a clot [ apiece of coagulated blood]. Read! And your Lord is the most generous. Who has taught [the writing] by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not. (Quran 96, 1-5) O you [Mohammad] the mantled one! Arise and warn! And glorify your Lord [Allah]! And purify your garments! And … (Quran 74: 1-5) Planning Attributes:. Keeping the message in secret to gain time for increasing the number of new Muslims and to be stronger.
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology: Mecca: Islamic Message in the Open Archangel Gibreel revealed to Muhammad the command of the Almighty to have the Islamic message declared in the open. Muhammad called his relatives for Islam. In the beginning no one responded except Ali. Muhammad Calling Tribes for Islam but Quraish threatening and persecuting new Muslims. Mushrikeen (disbelievers) boycotted Prophet Muhammad, Banu Hashim, and Banu Al-Mut'talib. The Prophet was steadfast to continue on the Message. Even if they put the sun on my right and the moon on my left …. Warn your nearest kinsmen, and lower your wings (in kindness) to those believes who follow you. Then Declare what are commanded and turn away from the Mushrikeen. (Quran, Al-Hijr 15: 94). Planning Strategy: Islamic Education Incremental Planning Gaining time to increase new Muslim converts. Calling people for Islam during Hajj period. Due to difficult conditions, the Prophet recommended to his companions to leave and go to Abyssinia.
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology: Mecca: Planning to Emigrate from Mecca Islam was spreading despite aggressive fight against Muslims. Year of Sorrow (Loss of Abu Talib & Khadija). Attempt to seek to Ta'if but was disappointed. Israa and Mi'raaj (Age 50) The first pledge of Aqaba (Age 51) The second pledge of Aqaba (Age 52) The Plot to Murder the Prophet. Ali sleeps in his bed The escape to Mt Thaur and then to Yathrib/Medina (Age 53) Glory be to him who by night took his servant from the Masjid Al-Haram to Masjid Al-Aqsa whose precincts we did blessed to show him some of his signs ….. (Al Israa 17: 1) Israa & Mi'raaj was Allahs reward for Muhammad to show him his signs and to strengthen him in carrying through his Message. The essence of Islam Spreading has been the truth inevitably penetrating into human conscience. This is a slow process given established social/tribal and psychological patterns. In essence, it is a matter of time and that was a primary factor.
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology: Mecca: Planning for Migration (Hijrah to Medina) – Pledge of Aqaba The first pledge of Aqaba (Age 51) A group from Aus and Khazraj tribes met the Prophet, embracing Islam, and pledged the following: The second pledge of Aqaba (Age 52) Another Delegation from Aus and Khazraj meeting the Prophet and to convince him to come to Medina. The Prophet made the decision to leave Mecca and make the Headquarters of Islam in Medina. Start of Al-Hijri Calendar and about ¾ of Quran was revealed. The First Pledge of Aqaba: We will worship only Allah. We will not commit adultery or fornication. We will not steal. We will not kill our children. We will not bring false charges. We will obey Muhammad in all that is good. (Dr. Hashim,1991) Planning Lessons: Incremental/Evolutionary Planning. Reaching Agreements/ alliance to establish a strong base. Patience & Perseverance in seeking the truth. (Time).
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology: Medina: The First Years Consolidating the position of Muslims: Building the first mosque in Islam in Qubaa. Status of Muslim-Brotherhood between Muhaajiroon and Ansaar. Treaty with Jewish Tribes Battle of Badr. Treatment of Prisoners of War. Revelation called for release of prisoners of war. This was a learning lesson for Mushrikeen to know Islam and its humane Principles. Planning Lessons: Importance of Mosque location in Planning an Islamic City. Muslim-brotherhood is an integrated social-political-economic resolution. Agreements, Treaties and alliances to establish a peaceful environment and a strong base. Success at Badr Revelation allowed Muslims to fight back the first aggressors (Mushrikeen). The Angels were fighting on the Muslim side. (Quran)
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology: Medina: The First Years Battle of Uhod: Success bouncing from one side to the other. The Battle of Al-Khandaq: Al-Hudaibiya Treaty: Muslim determination to perform Omrah. Fear of the Disbelievers led to the treaty. March to Khaybar: Planning Lessons: Uhod To follow directions of the Leader, the Prophet. Perseverance. Al-Khandaq Good vision for an idea. Sense of determination. Al-Hudaibiya Long term vision. Time on the Muslim side A win-win approach even though broken by the disbelievers. Quran calls it success and it turned out to be.
Parallels between The Islamic Message and Scientific Planning Methodology Medina and Return to Mecca Letters to Rulers of the World. Islam as a Universal Message. It will continue so. Muslims perform Omrah: Quraish Breaks the Treaty: Muslims Entering Mecca and destroying the Idols. Farewell Hajj and Khutba: The Prophet (pbuh) dies: Planning Lessons: This Day, I have perfected to you your faith, and completed my blessings upon you, and I have chosen for you as your Religion.
Conclusion Islamic Unity & Freedom: Submission to the One God. Two Level Planning: at Heaven and on Earth. Planning in the context of the Creator-Human (Creation relationship). Planning with a clear Vision Incremental Planning in the context of Complexity and Uncertainty. Planning for Sustainability Planning for short term life and for long term hereafter Ultimately it is Planning with Allah in Our Hearts and Minds