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INTERNATIONAL MARKETING International marketing concepts Original classification –Ethnocentric –Policentric –Regiocentric –Geocentric.

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Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL MARKETING International marketing concepts Original classification –Ethnocentric –Policentric –Regiocentric –Geocentric."— Presentation transcript:

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2 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

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4 International marketing concepts Original classification –Ethnocentric –Policentric –Regiocentric –Geocentric

5 International marketing concepts New classification –Domestic market extension concept –Multi domestic concept –Global marketing concept

6 Companies Domestic companies International companies Multinational companies Transnational companies

7 Can we control anything? Controllable elements Domestic, not controllable elements Foreign, not controllable elements

8 MOTIVATORS Dynamic Management * New management or * management already working for the company Factors * Proactive or * Reactive factors

9 PROACTIVE FACTORS Profit Unique product Unique technology Unique information Excess capacity Economies of scale

10 REACTIVE FACTORS Competitors Overproduction –Safety valve eff. Domestic market is saturated Tax incentives Closeness to the customers

11 OBSTACLES OF INTERNATIONALISATION Internal External Methodological

12 INTERNAL OBSTACLES Lack of competencies (management, marketing, language) Lack of infrastructure Willingness to collaborate and to accept new ideas etc.

13 EXTERNAL OBSTACLES Unforeseeable events coming * from the domestic marketplace (competitors, legal entities, consumers, etc) * from the foreign marketplace (political, legal, cultural, economic, etc.)

14 METHODOLOGICAL OBSTACLES Static analyses Average counting Quantifying everything Rigidity in terms of places

15 Decision point Does it worth? Are the motivators strong enough? Can we overcome the obstacles? IF NOT: Reformulate the goals or Initiate changes inside the company

16 IF YES The company is ready to define its international marketing strategy Including the 1) the macroenvironment 2) the microenvironment and 3) the methodology

17 The macroenvironment Geographical environment Political environment Legal environment Economic environment Technological environment Cultural environment

18 Geographical environment Climate and topography Raw materials Environmental protection Urbanisation - suburbanisation - Reurbanisation Population

19 Political environment Political system Changes of the government Political philosophy Possible problems with respect to the property: - Confiscation - Nationalisation - Expropriation- Domestication

20 How to protect against the political risks? Good selection of the country Good selection of the industry Good selection of the partner Licensing or franchising? Planned domestication

21 Economic environment Globalisation Localisation Interdependency Internationalisation of markets, companies and products Diversification Assortment of products

22 Economic environment Price equalisation Information Partnerships Belongings Infrastructure

23 Technological environment Role of human resource Changes in power R and D costs Innovations Launching the products Partnerships

24 Cultural environment What is culture? Three modes of defining culture: General aspects Enumeration Classification

25 Defining culture by general aspects Something learnt The elements are linked to each other Inherited Cannot be changed revolutionary, only evolutionary

26 Defining culture by general aspects A country is not a culture Stereotypes Changing the culture Having more cultures

27 Defining culture by enumeration Herskovitss enumeration: –Material culture –Social institution –People and the universe –Estetics –Language

28 Defining culture by classification Context of communication –high context cultures –low context cultures explicit message implicit message Hofstedes classification – 4 dimensions

29 Cultural differences in the evedyday life Ideologist - Pragmatic cultures Associative and Abstractive cultures Nature of the people Nature and the people Individualist and Collectivist cultures Active and Passive cultures Time

30 Cultural differences in the evedyday life Place Communication Values Knowledge Beliefs Gifts Food

31 Cultural differences in business Structure of decision making Participants Objectives of the participants

32 Why are we against the other cultures? Cultural racism Cultural resistance Cultural opposition

33 How to integrate this knowledge into the strategy? Congruent strategy Planned strategy Not planned strategy

34 Customs Cultural imperatives Cultural exclusives Cultural adiaphora

35 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COMPANY WITH INTERNATIONAL PLANS MOTIVATORS OBSTACLES INTERNATIONAL MARKET(ING) RESEARCH –MACRO AND MICRO ENVIRONMENT –METHODOLOGY

36 MACRO ENVIRONMENT GEOGRAPHIC POLITICAL LEGAL TECHNOLOGICAL ECONOMIC CULTURAL

37 MICRO ENVIRONMENT COMPANY COMPETITORS CUSTOMERS SUPPLIERS PARTNERS NEW ENTRANTS

38 COMPANY STRATEGY MISSION, VISION COMPREHENSIVE SWOT ANALYSIS CLARIFYING THE GOALS

39 COMPETITORS IDENTIFYING THEM AREA OF OPERATION STRATEGY STRONG AND WEAK POINTS TACTICS

40 CONSUMERS IDENTIFYING THEM PREFERENCES, TASTES DEMAND PRODUCT, PRICE, PROMOTION EXPECTATIONS

41 SUPPLIERS DO THEY SUPPORT OUR IDEA QUALITY QUANTITY CONDITIONS OR WE NEED NEW SUPPLIERS

42 PARTNERS WILL THEY MAINTAIN THE STRONG COLLABORATION CAN THEY FOLLOW US CAN THEY ACCEPT THE NEW CONDITIONS

43 NEW ENTRANTS EASY OR DIFFICULT ENTRY POSSIBLE NEW CONDITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY

44 METHODOLOGY OF INTERNATIONAL MARKET RESEARCH DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MARKET AND MARKETING RESEARCH –DYNAMIC OR STATIC ANALYSIS –QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE INFORMATION –USE OF INFORMATION

45 THE PROCESS OF THE RESEARCH IDENTIFICATION OF THE OBJECTIVE OR THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOURCE OF INFORMATION AND THE TECHNIQUE OF INFORMATION COLLECTION INFORMATION COLLECTION INTERPRETATION OF THE INFO. PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS

46 OBJECTIVE OR PROBLEM CONTINUOUS RESEARCH PERIODIC RESEARCH MICRO ENVIRONMENT MACRO ENVIRONMENT

47 SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND TECHNIQUE OF INFO. COLLECTION

48 PRIMARY INFORMATION OWN OBJECTIVE OR PROBLEM METHODOLOGY DEFINED BY US DATA COLLECTION IS PERFORMED BY OUR FIRM OR EMPLOYEES

49 PRIMARY INFORMATION

50 ASKING PEOPLE WHOM TO ASK? –INDIVIDUALS –ORGANISATIONS –EXPERTS HOW TO ASK? –PERSONALLY –POST –TELEPHONE –COMPUTER –COMBINED

51 ASKING PEOPLE WHAT TO ASK? –OMNIBUS –SPECIALISED QUESTIONNAIRE

52 ASKING PEOPLE PROBLEMS NOT WILLING TO ASK NOT ABLE TO ASK HOW AND WHAT TO ASK HOW TO ORGANISE HOW TO INTERPRET SAMPLING LANGUAGE SKILLS MULTICULTURAL ASKING

53 OBSERVATION OBSERVE CONSUMERS OR USERS PASSIVE PARTICIPATION USED USUALLY TOGETHER WITH OTHER FORMS

54 EXPERIMENTATION LABORATORY CONDITIONS ONE PARAMETER IS CHANGED OTHER VARIABLES ARE KEPT CETERIS PARIBUS EXPENSIVE!

55 SECONDARY INFORMATION DIFFERENT OBJECTIVE OR PROBLEM METHODOLOGY DEFINED BY SOMEONE ELSE DATA COLLECTION PERFORMED BY SOMEONE ELSE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INFORMATION

56 INTERNAL INFORMATION LETTERS ORDERS DOCUMENTS PREPARED BY THE COMPANY CERTIFICATES

57 EXTERNAL INFORMATION

58 SECONDARY INFORMATION PROBLEMS NOMENCLATURE IS DIFFERENT QUALITY OF THE INFORMATION QUALITY OF THE METHODOLOGY

59 MOSAIC INFORMATION IS COLLECTED ADDITIONALLY SIDE INFORMATION IS COLLECTED TO ACTUALISE AND TO COMPLETE THE ALREADY POSSESSED INFORMATION

60 COLLECT INFORMATION

61 INTERPRETATION OF THE INFORMATION ANALYSE THE INFORMATION GAINED INTERPRET THE INFORMATION WORK WITH NUMBERS AND FORMULATE ALTERNATIVES EXPLAINE THE GIVEN ALTERNATIVES

62 PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS DISTRIBUTE THE INFORMATION TO THE USERS EXPLAIN THE ALTERNATIVES CONDUCT A TWO DIRECTION COMMUNICATION HELP THE USERS INTERPRET THE INFO.

63 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COMPANY MOTIVATORS OBSTACLES INTERNATIONAL MARKET(ING) RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION AND TARGETING

64 OBJECTIVE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT INTERNATIONAL MARKETING PLAN ABILITY TO DIFFERENCIATE THE COMPANY FROM THE COMPETITORS POINT TO THE NEED TO CREATE A NEW SEGMENT

65 PROCESS OF INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION IDENTIFICATION OF THE LEVEL OF THE MARKET TO BE SEGMENTED DETERMINATION OF THE VARIABLES USED FOR SEGM. CHOICE OF THE METHOD OF INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION CHECKING THE VALIDITY OF RESULTS

66 IDENTIFICATION OF THE LEVEL OF THE MARKET TO BE SEGMENTED LEVEL OF THE PRODUCT LEVEL OF THE PRODUCT CATEGORY LEVEL OF THE NEED LEVEL OF THE MONEY

67 VARIABLES OF SEGMENTATION VARIABLES THAT DESCRIBE THE OBJECT OF THE SEGMENTATION VARIABLES THAT DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OBJECTS OF THE SEGMENTATION AND THE MARKETING MIX ELEMENTS

68 VARIABLES OF THE OBJECTS DEMOGRAPHIC GEOGRAPHIC POLITICAL LEGAL ECONOMIC CULTURAL PSYCHOGRAPHIC

69 A CULTURE BASED CLUSTERING 17 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE SEGMENTED HOFSTEDE DIMENSIONS INDIVIDUALISM UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE POWER DISTANCE MASCULINITY

70 The 17 European countries Austria - Switzerland Belgium - Portugal France - Denmark The Netherlands - Sweden Spain - Norway Italy - Finland Turkey Greece Germany GB Ireland

71 THE CLUSTERS CLUSTER 1. IND: MED-HIGH UNC: MED POW: SMALL MAS: HIGH AUSTR., GER., SWITZ., ITALY, GB., IRELAND CLUSTER 2. IND: VAR. UNC:STRONG POW:MED MAS: LOW-MED BEL., FR., GREE., PORT., SP., TURKEY

72 THE CLUSTERS CLUSTER 3. IND: HIGH UNC: WEAK, MILD POW: SMALL MAS: LOW DEN., SWEDEN, FIN., NETHER., NORWAY

73 GLOBAL SEGMENTS AGRARIAN HEARTLANDS BLUE COLLAR SELF SUFFICIENCY CAREER FOCUSED MATERIALISTS DE-INDUSTRIAL LEGACY EDUCATED COSMOPOLITANS FARMING TOWN COMMUNITIES GREYS, BLUES SEA, MOUNTAIN HARDENED DEPENDENCY INNER CITY MELTING POINT LOWER INCOME ELDERLY MIDSCALE METRO OFFICE WORKERS NON-PRIVATE RESIDENCES OLD WEALTH SHACK AND SHANTY

74 PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION FOR THE BEER MARKET SPORTIVE MASCULINE TAKES NO RESPONSIBILITY NO CONSERVATISME YOU ONLY GO AROUND ONCE IN LIFETIME

75 VARIABLES FOR RELATIONSHIP OBJECTS AND PRODUCT BUYING SITUATION LOYALTY MOTIVATION USER STATUS USAGE RATE ATTITUDE

76 VARIABLES FOR RELATIONSHIP OBJECTS AND PRICE LOW, MEDIUM OR HIGH PRICE PREFERENCES PRICE SENSITIVITY

77 VARIABLES FOR RELATIONSHIP OBJECTS AND PROMOTION RATIONAL OR EMOTIONAL MESSAGES MEDIA MOTIVATION

78 VARIABLES FOR RELATIONSHIP OBJECTS AND PLACE SHOPPING PLACE PREFERENCES DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL PREFERENCES

79 DO ANY BEST SOLUSTIONS EXIST? NO! IT ALWAYS DEPENDS! BUT WE HAVE CRITERIA! MEASURABILITY ACCESSIBILITY STABILITY IN TIME RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OFFER AND THE VARIABLE ACCEPTABLE SIZE STRICT DIFFERING OF SEGMENTS

80 METHODS OF INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION METHOD THAT ACCEPTS THE EXISTENCE OF NATIONAL BOARDERS INTERMARKETING SEGMENTATION MICROSEGMENTATION

81 METHOD THAT ACCEPTS THE EXISTENCE OF BOARDERS 2-PHASE SEGMENTATION: FIRST THE GROUP(S) OF COUNTRIES IS (ARE) SELECTED SECOND THE GROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS OR ORGANISATIONS ARE SELECETD

82 ADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD SYSTEMATIC IN CASE OF ERROR WE CAN CORRECT EASIER COUNTS WITH THE DIFFERENCES

83 DISADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD SEPARATES COUNTRIES NO POSSIBILITY FOR STAN- DARDISATION NO POSSIBILITY FOR LEARNING COSTS ARE HIGH

84 INTERMARKETING SEGMENTATION REGARDS THE WHOLE WORLD AS ONE MARKET BASED ON (A) WELL SELECTED VARIBLE(S) WE CAN FIND GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE SIMILAR BEHAVIOUR

85 ADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD POSSIBILITY TO TRANSFER KNOWLEDGE COMPARE THE BEHAVIOUR

86 DISADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD DOESNT COUNT WITH THE DIFFERENT BACKGROUND OF THE COUNTRIES ENTIRE REPETING IN CASE OF ERROR COSTS ARE HIGH

87 MICROSEGMENTATION DURING INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION SEGMENTS OF ONE OF FEW PERTICIPANTS ARE CREATED

88 ADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD BETTER FOCUS SPECIALISATION EFFECTIVE MARKETING PLAN

89 DISADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD DANGEROUS APPLICABLE ONLY ON THE MARKET OF ORGANISATIONS

90 IMPLEMENTATION OF INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION ON THE SELECTED LEVEL OF THE MARKET WITH THE SELECTED METHOD ON THE BASIS OF THE SELECTED VARIABLES

91 HOW TO EVALUATE THE OBJECTS ? TWO TECHNIQUES PARALLEL EVALUATION - MATRIX FORMAT SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION

92 CHECKING THE VALIDITY OF THE RESULTS APPLYING MORE THAN ONE STATISTICAL METHOD, EG. –CLUSTER ANALYSIS + SPLIT HALF METHOD REPEATING THE PROCESS PERIODICALLY

93 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COMPANY MOTIVATORS OBSTACLES INTERNATIONAL MARKET(ING) RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION AND TARGETING

94 INTERNATIONAL TARGETING AFTER THE CREATION OF THE SEGMENTS WE SELECT ONE OR MORE SEGMENTS TO WHICH WE WILL PAY ATTENTION

95 INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION AND TARGETING STRATEGIES UNDIFFERENTIATED STRATEGY DIFFERENTIATED STRATEGY CONCENTRATED STRATEGY MULTISEGMENTATION STRATEGY NICHE STRATEGY

96 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COMPANY MOTIVATORS AND OBSTACLES INT. MARKET(ING) RESEARCH INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION MODES OF ENTERING THE INT. MARKETS

97 MODES OF ENTERING FOREIGN MARKETS THE CHOICE DEPENDS ON THE –RISKS –COSTS –CONTROL –PRODUCT/SERVICE –MANAGEMENT –SITUATION - OPPORTUNITIES OR THREATS

98 THE MODES OF ENTRY PRODUCTION IN THE DOMESTIC MARKET SELLING IN THE FOREIGN MARKETS MODES –DIRECT EXPOTRING –INDIRECT EXPORTING PRODUCTION AND SELLING ON FOREIGN MARKETS MODES –LICENCING –CONTRACTUAL MANUFACTURING –FRANCHISING –JOINT VENTURES –FDI

99 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COMPANY MOTIVATORS AND OBSTACLES INT. MARKET(ING) RESEARCH INT. MARKET SEGMENTATION MODES OF ENTRY INT. 4 PS

100 INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT POLICY PLANNING OF THE PRODUCTS (SERVICES) DEVELOPING THE PRODUCTS (SERVICES) MANAGING THE PRODUCTS IN THE FOREIGN MARKETS

101 PLANNING THE OFFER SAME PRODUCTS (SERVICES) - GLOBAL ADOPTED PRODUCTS (SERVICES) - MODIFIED OR NEW PRODUCTS (SERVICES)

102 GLOBAL STRATEGY ONLY THE BIGGEST AND MOST AGGRESSIVE COMPANIES ECONOMIES OF SCALE GLOBAL IMAGE

103 MODIFIED STRATEGY REASONS FOR MODIFYING THE STRATEGY HOW TO CHANGE WHAT TO CHANGE

104 REASONS FOR CHANGE DIFFERENCES IN CUSTOMS USAGE OF THE PRODUCTS/SERVICES LEGAL PLATFORM QUALITY REQUIREMENTS INFRASTRUCTURE CULTURE BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

105 HOW TO CHANGE INTERNAL CHANGE MATERIAL, TECHNICAL, FUNCTIONAL CHANGE EXTERNAL CHANGE QUALITY, SHAPE, COLOUR, SIZE, SERVICE NECESSARY CHAGE ELECTRONIC OR LEGAL REQUIREMENTS OPTIONAL CHANGE

106 WHAT TO CHANGE CORE PRODUCT / SERVICE ACTUAL PRODUCT/ SERVICE AUGMENTED PRODUCT/SERVICE + ROLE OF MODULES

107 NEW OFFER TO RESPOND TO THE DIFFERENT NEEDS AND CONDITIONS FOR MOST OF THE COMPANIES

108 HOW TO DEVELOP NEW PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IDEA GENERATION NEED ANALYSIS SOCIETAL ANALYSIS BUSINESS ANALYSIS –MARKETIBILITY STUDY –COMPATIBILITY STUDY

109 HOW TO DEVELOP NEW PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING TEST-MARKETING –CONCEPT-TEST –TECHNICAL-TEST –MARKET-TEST LAUNCHING THE PRODUCT/SERVICE

110 THE NEWNESS NEW FOR THE COMPANY NEW FOR THE MARKET –CONGRUENT INNOVATION –CONTINUOUS INN. –DYNAMIC INN. –BREAKING INN.

111 PLANNING THE STRUCTURE DEPTH WIDTH MARKET POSITIONING!

112 BRANDING BRAND NAMES FAMILY OR INDIVIDUAL BRAND NAMES PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BRANDS SELF CANNIBALISATION

113 BRANDING - DECISIONS TO USE BRAND NAMES OR NOT IF YES, –OWN BRAND NAM – DISTRIBUTORS BRAND NAME – OTHER IF OWN, – IN ONE MARKET – IN MORE MARKETS

114 BRANDING - DECISIONS IF IN ONE MARKET –1 BRAND NAME –MORE BRAND NAMES IF IN MORE MARKETS –LOCAL BRAND NAMES –GLOBAL BRAND NAMES

115 CRITERIA OF BRAND NAMES PRONOUNCABLE RETAINABLE NOT MISUNERSTANDING SHORT RESULT IN POSITIVE BRAND ASSOCIATION WRITTEN AND ORAL FORM SHOULD BE SIMILAR

116 PACKAGING DOUBLE PACKAGING DIFFERENT AS, –DELIVERY –CUSTOMS –LEGAL REQUIREMENTS –CULTURAL DIFF. –ECONOMIC DIFF.

117 FURTHER QUESTIONS WARRANTY NOTE FOR APPLICATION AFTER SALE SERVICE –SAME OR ADOPTED?

118 INTERNATIONAL PROMOTION POLICY INTERNATIONAL PLANNING INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MANAGEING THE PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

119 INTERNATIONAL PROMOTION PROMOTION IS NOT ONLY FOR CONVINCING AND MANIPULATING PEOPLE BUT FOR INFORMING THEM AND FOR COMMUNICATING WITH THEM AS WELL!

120 ELEMENTS OF PROMOTION ADVERTISING SALES PROMOTION PUBLICITY DIRECT SELLING

121 ADVERTISING STRENGTH OF SOURCE CREDIBILITY OF SOURCE PRESTIGE OF SOURCE HOMOPHILY

122 OBJECT OF ADVERTISING BRAND PRODUCT FIRM COUNTRY

123 NEW PHENOMENA IN ADERTISING PATTERN ADVERTISING PAN EUROPEAN ADVERTISING PAN EAST EUROPEAN ADVERTISING

124 FACTORS TO DETERMINE WHAT TO SAY –WHAT TO ADVERTISE HOW TO SAY IT –RATIONAL OR EMOTIONAL MESSAGES WITH THE USAGE OF WHO OR WHAT TO SAY IT –FAMOUS OR EVERY DAY PEOPLE OR THINGS HOW TO DETERMINE WHAT TO DO

125 SALES PROMOTION PRICE REDUCTION SALE CUPONS TRIAL PAY FOR ONE, RECEIVE TWO GIFT GAME

126 WHEN TO USE SP? WHEN LAUNCHING A NEW PRODUCT OR SERVICE ON THE MARKET TO MAKE THE PEOPLE TRY THE PRODUCT MAKE THE PEOPLE TRY A NEW RETAIL SHOP OR SELLING FORM CONVINCE THE RETAILERS TO HOLD THE PRODUCT OR OFFER THE SERVICE

127 WHEN TO USE SP? SHORT TERM EFFECT USED TOGETHER WITH ADVERTISING INFLUENCE THE TIMING OF THE BUYING EFFICIENCY OF THE USAGE OF SP CAN BE REDUCED IF OFTEN USED

128 SPONSORING GOOD CHOICE OF THE EVENT WHAT WE SPONSOR POSITIVE IN THE EYE OF THE CUST. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE EVENT AND OFFER CONN. BETWEEN THE EVENT AND TARGET MARKET

129 PUBLICITY CHEAP WAY OF MAKING THE PEOPLE TALK AND WRITE ABOUT OUR OFFER OR COMPANY TIMING IS OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE DIRECT PAYMENT IS MISSING

130 DIRECT SELLING DIRECT - PERSONAL - COMMUNICATION THE CHANNEL IS THE PERSON - WHO HAS TO SELL HIM(HER)SELF ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IS NEEDED AS THE CHECKING OF THE CUSTOMERS UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE IS NECESSARY.

131 INTERNATIONAL PROMOTION STRATEGIES PUSH PULL GRAVITATION

132 STANDARDISATION OR DIFFERENTIATION? WE PREFER THE STANDARDISED VERSION, AS CREATIVE IDEAS COSTS SYNERGIE GLOBAL IMAGE

133 INTERNATIONAL PRICING POLICY INTERNATIONAL PLANNING INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF THE PRICES

134 PRICE PLANNING OBJECTIVE OF PRICE SETTING METHODS OF PRICE SETTING

135 OBJECTIVES OF PRICE SETTING PROFIT SALES VOLUME MARKET SHARE IMAGE TRANSFER IMAGE

136 METHODS OF PRICE SETTING BASED ON INTUITIONBASED ON CALCULATION OBJECTIVE ORIENTED DIFFERENTIATED SALES PROMOTION COST PLUS INTENTION ORIENTED (PEN-SKI) PSYCHOLOGICAL

137 DIFFERENTIATION OR STANDARDISATION 3 POSSIBILITIES: STANDARDISED DUAL DIFFERENTIATED TECHNIQUE AND LEVEL

138 MANAGEING INTERNATIONAL PRICES MEASURE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE PRICES COMPARE THE RESULTS WITH THE SET OBJECTIVES METHODS: –MULTI VARIATE STATISTICS –MOTIVATION ANALYSIS

139 INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL POLICY INTERNATIONAL PLANNING INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT OFT THE CHANNELS

140 INTERNATIONAL PLANNING OF THE D. CH. DIRECT OR INDIRECT CHANNELS TO USE? INTENSITY OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL DESIGN STANDARDISED OR DIFFERENTIATED MESSAGE

141 DIRECT OR INDIRECT? IT DEPENDS ON: AVERAGE COSTS OF DISTRIBUTING I UNIT DELIVERY TIME EXPECTATIONS PRODUCT/SERVICE FACILITIES CONDITIONS

142 INTENSITY OF DISTRIBUTION EXCLUSIVE SELECTIVE INTENSIVE

143 CHANNEL DESIGN MARKET COVERAGE ASPECTS PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS CUSTOMER SERVICE ASPECTS PROFITABILITY

144 MARKET COVERAGE ASPECTS CUSTOMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR INTENSITY OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL STRUCTURE CONTROL

145 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS VALUE OF THE PRODUCT TECHNICALITY MARKET ACCEPTANCE SUBSTITUTABILITY BULK, STEWABILITY PERISHABILITY MARKET CONCENTRATION SEASONABILITY WIDTH AND DEPTH

146 CUSTOMER SERVICE ASPECTS AVAILABILITY ORDER CYCLE COMMUNICATION

147 PROFITABILITY ASPECTS ESTIMATION OF COSTS AND REVENUE OPPORTUNITY COSTS MARKET SEGMENT MARGIN ESTIMATION FOR FUTURE

148 CHANNEL STRUCTURE BASED ON THE FOUR DIMESIONS MAKE A DECISION ABOUT THE LENGTH OF THE CHANNEL PARTICIPANTS OF THE CHANNEL WAY OF MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PARTICIPANTS

149 STANDARDISATION OR DIFFERENTIATION HOW TO LINK THE NATIONAL CHANNELS TO EACH OTHER? HOW TO COMPARE THE PERFORMANCE DATA? POSSIBILITY FOR STANDARDISED MEANS OF DELIVERING GOODS TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMERS

150 ORGANISATIONAL FRAMEWORK WHAT DEPARTMENT OR WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INTERNATIONALISATION? WHAT ARE THE COMMUNICATION LINKS INSIDE THE COMPANY? HOW TO FIND THE BEST PEOPLE FOR THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROJECT? HOME - HOST - THIRD COUNTRY PEOPLE?

151 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR FOREIGN ASSIGNMENTS COMPETENCE FACTORS –TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE –LEADERSHIP ABILITY –EXPERIENCE, PAST PERFORMANCE –AREA EXPERTISE –LANGUAGE

152 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR FOREIGN ASSIGNMENTS ADAPTABILITY FACTORS –INTEREST IN FOREIGN WORK –RELATIONAL ABILITIES –CULTURAL EMPATHY –APPRECIATION OF NEW MANAGEMENT STYLES –APPRECIATION OF NEW ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS –ADAPTABILITY OF FAMILY

153 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR FOREIGN ASSIGNMENTS PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS –AGE –EDUCATION –SEX –HEALTH –,ARITAL RELATIONS –SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY

154 CULTURAL SHOCK INITIAL EUPHORIA IRRITATION AND HOSTILITY ADJUSTMENT REENTRY

155 REPATRIATION PROFESSIONAL PERSONAL

156 COMPENSATION BASE SALARY AND SALARY RELATED ALLOWANCES (HARDSHIP ALL., COLA, HOUSING ALL.) NONSALARY RELATED ALLOWANCES ( MOBILITY ALL., TRAVEL EXP., EDUCATION ALL.)

157 GREEN MARKETING ENVIRONMENTALISTS MEDIA == CONSUMERS NEW PREFERENCES

158 GREEN CONSUMERS LOOK FOR PRODUCTS PACKAGED IN RECYCLABLE MATERIALS NOT EXCESSIVELY PACKAGED PERCEIVED AS ENVI. FRIENDLY MADE FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS THAT DONT CONTAIN DYES OR TOXIC MATERIALS THAT ARE NOT PACKAGED IN FOAM

159 INTERMARKETING SEGMENTS OF PEOPLE GREEN LEADERS –TRUE BLUE GREENS –GREEN BACK GREENS GREAN FOLLOWERS - SPROUTS NONENVIRONMENTALISTS –GROUSERS –BASIC BROWNS

160 TYPES OF COMPANIES IGNORE THE GREEN PASS AS GREEN GENUINE GREEN PROGREEN –4RS: RETHINKING LIFESTYLES, REFUSE PRODUCTS CONTAINING A LOT OF RESSOURCES, REUSE THE PRODUCTS, RECYCLE PACKAGING

161 MARKETING ASPECTS PRODUCT: GREEN IN ALL PHASES PRICE: COMPETITIVE, AS STANDARDISED GREEN PRODUCTS ARE MANUFACTURED PROMOTION: TO INFORM AND EDUCATE PLACE RECYCLING CENTERS, OR MANUF. PROGRAMS

162 COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECTS AFFECT TRANSFER PROCESS COGNITIVE MEDIATION PROCESS PURCHASE INTENTION EFFECT

163 STRATEGIES TO MINIMISE THE INFLUENCE AFFECT TRANSFER PROCESS - DEMONSTRATE THE USAGE OF PRODUCTS COMING FROM C.X. COGNITIVE MEDIATION PROCESS - DEMONSTRATE THE ATTRIBUTES OF PRODUCTS PURCHASE INTENTION PROCESS - BECOME NATIONAL!

164 GREY MARKETING MARKETING? DUE TO THE: –INFORMATION –GLOBAL BRANDS THREE POSSIBILITIES –REIMPORTATION –PARALLEL IMPORTATION –LATERAL IMPORTATION

165 CONSEQUENCES OF GREY MARKETING POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES –NEW TARGETS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES –IMAGE –RELATIONSHIP WITH DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL MEMBERS –SELF CANNIBALISATION

166 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING PLAN

167 THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING PLAN 1. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE MANAGER/OWNER –READER - EMPLOYEE, PARTNER, AUDITOR, FINANCIAL INSTITUTION –OBJECTIVE, REASON

168 2. THE COMPANY –HISTORY –PARAMETERS 3. MOTIVATORS AND OBSTACLES –MACRO AND MICRO MOTIVATORS –INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL OBSTACLES 4. INTERNATIONAL MARKET RESEARCH –OBJECTIVE –METHODS

169 5. REVIEW OF THE MICRO AND MACRO ENVIRONMENT –MICRO ENVIRONMENT COMPETITORS, NEW ENTRANTS, SUBSTITUTES, POWER OF THE CLIENTS POWER OF THE SUPPLIERS

170 –MACRO ENVIRONMENT GEOGRAPHICAL ECONOMIC POLITICAL LEGAL TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURAL

171 6. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SELECTION –INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION –INTERNATIONAL TARGETING 7. MODE OF ENTRY

172 8. MARKETING MIX –PRODUCT / SERVICE –PRICE (COST) –PROMOTION –DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL 9. ORGANISATIONAL FRAMEWORK

173 10. SCHEDULING 11. BUDGETING 12. EFFECT STUDY 13. CONCLUSION


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