Presentation on theme: "Planning an Event. What is Planning About? Planning is always future oriented Planning focuses on formulating goals Planning is political in nature It."— Presentation transcript:
What is Planning About? Planning is always future oriented Planning focuses on formulating goals Planning is political in nature It involves leadership and values It occurs within an organizational framework
The Role of Policies Policies implement the mission and goals of the organization Policies are a set of rules governing the activities of the members of an organization or group They can be formal (written) or informal (unwritten) Policies show what actions are desirable, permissible, or forbidden. Policies should not become so rigid that they inhibit flexibility or creativity
Event Project Planning Project planning is the design and implementation of a plan to create a new event, on time, and within established parameters pertaining to resources, venues and impacts Donald Getz Projects have definite starting and ending dates
The Process Concept or Conceptual Planning Asset Mapping/Feasibility Study Decision to Proceed or Terminate Formulation of a Preliminary Plan Detailed Project Planning Plan Implementation The Event The Event Wrap-Up The Contract or Approval Project Termination
Concept or Conceptual Planning The process may begin with – an idea for a new event, – a perceived need to revise or replace an existing event – an RFP (request for proposal) from the potential sponsor – Scope Creep
Asset & Liability Mapping Map (Identify & Locate) the community assets – Cultural/Historical/Natural Resources – Transportation, Dining & Lodging Infrastructure – Community Support and Volunteer resources Map the Liabilities (competing events) geographically and through time.
Feasibility Study--Purposes Determination of ability to get funds or approval Market tests and demand forecasts Assessment of affordability and/or profitability Physical aspectsweather, venues, accessibility, accommodations Potential impacts Desirability & Suitability
Feasibility Study--continued Does the venue or community have a track record of hosting successful events? What are the population characteristics? Are sponsors available? Is there a potential pool of volunteers? What is the economy? What are the politics and/or ideology of the community?
Feasibility--Economics Estimate the likely costs and revenuescalculate the financial feasibility Can the financial cost be met? What happens if revenue falls short or costs escalatewho pays? Consider possibility of political disruption or bad weather Is a formal EIA required?
Decision to Proceed or Terminate The feasibility analysis will lead to a decision or to a modification of the original concept. The Decision-making process may involve public input (if you have governmental sponsors). If it is a for-profit event, poor feasibility should lead to termination of abandonment of the project, For a governmental unit, tax dollars may be available to cover shortfalls
Preliminary Plan Elements Feasibility of venues, targets, cost, revenues, impacts, and approvals A program outline for the event A preliminary budget Schedule for construction (if required) A preliminary marketing plan Identification of human resources Organization and management systems
Approval/Termination Once the preliminary plan is written, it should be submitted for approval Approval may come from a private client, a commercial group, an organization, or a governmental entity Once approval is received, detailed planning commences If not approved, either modify or shelve (terminate)
Detailed PlanningTask Analysis The process begins with a task analysis and work plan This will be followed by a critical path analysis A task is a discrete activity that can be performed by one or more people with known resources, within a defined period of time All tasks will eventually be integrated and scheduled
Tasks, continued Tasks are assigned to various people (managers, subcontractors, work groups) Clusters need to be established in the beginning – geographical (the stage, the exhibition floor, the food court, etc.) – functional (marketing, human resouces) – Technical (audio-visual, lighting)
Scheduling of Tasks Usually, the event date is setthis is the final deadline, and all tasks need to be scheduled for completion before this date Initiation of certain tasks may depend upon completion of other tasks The sequencing of these tasks may involve CPA (Critical Path Analysis) or PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
Critical Path Analysis Tasks are arranged in chronological order, working backward from the event date Each prerequisite activity is scheduled in the proper sequence This results in a network of interconnected tasks which is the Critical Path
Steps in critical path analysis 1 identify all crucial tasks 2 set and prioritize goals and objectives 3 determine time lines and critical dates 4 establish the critical path 5 establish controls for the process
Program Evaluation and Review Technique Similar to CPA but does not work backward from a date PERT is based on identification of minimum, most likely, and maximum projected time lines Like CPA, it imposes logic on the planning process and involves the task analysis process In PERT, resources are assigned to the tasks Control is maintained
Network Notes Computer software is often employed in this processthe better ones are both expensive and complex Avoid looping in complex networksa situation in which completion of an activity appears to be dependent upon a later one There should be no dangling or loose activities which are not followed by another
More on CPA and PERT Project software will facilitate resource analysis Project software can generate calendars and Gantt charts
Decision Points Specific decision points should be predetermined to force go, no-go decisions These decision points may apply to the event as a whole, or to determine if some parts of the program will or will not be included
Elements of Plan Implementation Risk analysis / risk management plan Contingency plans Emergency procedures Training Information and Marketing
Terminating the Event Paying bills and collecting all promised and owed revenues Auditing the accounts Filing and processing insurance claims Settling any lawsuits Cleaning and closing venues Disposal of land or resources Thanking, rewarding, and out-placing staff and volunteers