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AIRPORT EMERGENCY PLANNING Part I CABO VERDE, JULY 2009 Presented by Rheaume Allard (Aerodrome Expert under the COSCAP-BAG Project) 1.

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Presentation on theme: "AIRPORT EMERGENCY PLANNING Part I CABO VERDE, JULY 2009 Presented by Rheaume Allard (Aerodrome Expert under the COSCAP-BAG Project) 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 AIRPORT EMERGENCY PLANNING Part I CABO VERDE, JULY 2009 Presented by Rheaume Allard (Aerodrome Expert under the COSCAP-BAG Project) 1

2 INTRODUCTION The participants – Who, Where, What, Why. – Main responsibilities The facilitators 2

3 COSCAP-BAG Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Program – Banjul Accord Group Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Guinee, The Gambia and Cape Verde International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Role 3

4 The Aerodrome Division Working with States, the CAA Working with the Airport Operators As requested by the States As requested by the Airport Operators through the CAA 4

5 Administrative Information Documents to participants Evaluation of participants – Attendance, Participation, Team work, Presentation, Final Exam. Course Evaluation by participants – Course Evaluation Form – Your comments will help improve the course 5

6 COURSE OBJECTIVES ICAO & National Regulations Responsibilities of CAA & Airport Operators Main components of the AERP: equipment & installations required, command, communications & coordination Different types of emergencies Media relations To develop tools & strategies for exercises 6

7 COURSE SCHEDULE Five (5) days From 09h00 to 12h00 and from 13h30 to 16h30 Fifteen minute breaks 7



10 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS International Obligations – ICAO Member States = obligations – ICAO Annex 14, article 9.1.1., 9.1.2 and 9.1.3. Also 9.1.12, 9.1.13 and 9.1.14. National Regulations – Specific to each country 10

11 CAA & AIRPORT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES CAA = the State – Responsible for establishing laws & regulations – Responsible for oversight & audit – Responsible towards ICAO for all aeronautics activities including aerodromes Airport Operator: ASA in Cape Verde – Holder of an « Airport Certificate » from the AAC – Operate the airport according to the conditions set in the « Airport Certificate ». 11

12 AIRPORT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES Respect standards set out in airport standards Allow CAA inspectors access to airport Check the aeronautical publications Notify the AAC of any change to the airport – Drop in the level of service, ref. AIP – Obstacle or dangerous situations – Close of part of the aircraft movement area 12

13 AIRPORT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES Emergency Planning – ICAO Standards – National Regulations – « Aerodrome Certificate » – Aerodrome Standards & Recommended Practices 13

14 WHAT IS AN «AIRPORT EMERGENCY PLAN» Process of preparing an airport to cope with an emergency occurring at the airport or in its vicinity Objective: to minimize the effects of an emergency by saving lifes & maintaining airport operations 14

15 COORDINATION (MUTUAL AIDS) A coordinated program between the airport & the surrounding communities Mutual aids agreement Airport emergencies are similar in nature to any major emergencies that can strike a community Command, Communication & Coordination 15

16 ON & OFF AIRPORT EMERGENCIES Airport Emergency Plan to be implemented similarly whether it is on or off the airport Jurisdiction will change Jurisdiction limits have to be agreed upon with local communities Command, Coordination and Communication 16

17 AEP & PARTICIPATING AGENCIES AEP to include a set of instructions to ensure prompt response of: – Rescue and fire fighting – Police/security – Medical services – Law enforcement – Other competent, trained, expert personnel to meet all unusual conditions. 17

18 AN OPERATIONALLY SOUND AEP To meet this objective a comprehensive airport emergency plan must give consideration to: – Preplanning BEFORE an emergency; – Operations DURING an emergency; – Support and documentation AFTER the emergency 18

19 AN OPERATIONALLY SOUND AEP Preplanning BEFORE the emergency – Considerations include plannnig for the handling of all factors that could bear upon effective emergency response – Preplanning should define the organizational authority and the responsibilities for developing, testing and implementing the emergency plan 19

20 AN OPERATIONALLY SOUND AEP Operations DURING the emergency – Considerations depend on the stage, nature and location of the emergency Stage: Ex: the fire chief is in charge at the beginning of the emergency. After a while he is in a supportive role Nature: a crash on the runway will be more disruptive than a fire in a cargo building Location: a crash outside the airport boundaries will be less disruptive than a crash on the main runway 20

21 AN OPERATIONALLY SOUND AEP Support and Documentation AFTER the emergency – Less urgent – Who is in charge – What will be the role of coroner, police, fire fighters, airport administration, etc. – To re-establish normal operations – To inform all participating agencies – Debriefing and various accident reports. 21

22 MEDICAL SERVICES AEP recommended actions are based on the paramount need for survival of aircraft occupants and other casualties resulting from the aircraft accident/incident Stabilization and emergency medical treatment is of equal importance Speed and skill of such treatment is crucial Preplanning & exercises are required 22

23 DIFFICULT CONDITIONS The AEP should take into consideration operations in all weather conditions such as extreme heat, rain, wind or reduced visibility Difficult terrain such as bodies of water, marsh, roads, mountains, depressions and other problem areas. 23

24 MATERIAL RESOURCES Important consideration in the AEP is the identification of all material resources both internal and external The more effective method of acquiring these resources and placing them where needed in a timely manner 24

25 THE THREE « Cs » 3 elements to deal efficiently with a real emergency situation or to realize a successful emergency exercise: COMMUNICATION COORDINATION COMMAND 25

26 COMMUNICATIONS Radio, telephone, mobile radio Communications Between the ECC and the MCP and the RVP Between the ECC and the outside world Between third parties and their counterparts Note: to disconnect private users. 26

27 COORDINATION Communication means are tools for achieving good coordination Communication means do not guarantee by themselves a good coordination between the various agencies involved. They have to be properly used 27

28 COORDINATION Definition: – « Ordering of things or various activities in order to achieve predefined objectives » In AEP the objectives are: – To save lifes – Minimize the impact on airport operations – Minimize material lost 28

29 COORDINATION AEP shall be known & understood by all participating agencies Agencies shall agree on roles & responsibilities Understand inter-relations between each of them Full Scale etc. shall be conducted, a higher level of coordination shall thus be achieved 29

30 COORDINATION Coordination between the airport operator, the police, the ambulance, the hospitals, the airline etc. is one of the essential key to achieve the objectives of saving lifes, to maintain airport operational capability and to minimize material lost 30

31 COMMAND Airport Operator = coordinator in chief at the ECC and on the airport in general AO responsible to appoint an on-scene commander Command will pass from one person to the other as the phases of the emergency pass from emergency operations to investigation phase 31

32 COMMAND First stage: airport fire chief will be in charge On-scene commander Police, Coroner (forensic or legal doctor) ECC to be informed each time the command is transferred from one person to the other 32

33 ROLE OF THE AIRPORT OPERATOR Establishing the emergency plan to deal with all unusual conditions at the airport and its vicinity Coordinating the plan with surrounding community authorities Assignment of emergency personnel & equip- ment provided by participating agencies 33

34 ROLE OF THE AIRPORT OPERATOR First and foremost role = COORDINATOR Coordination of internal & external resources The Airport Operator relies on the cooperation of various external agencies such as hospitals, police, ambulance etc. Coordination between these bodies is one of the essential key to success 34

35 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE AEP Rescue & Fire Fighting Services Medical services Hospitals Police and/or Security Services Airport Admistration Airport Maintenance Staff Air Traffic Services Aircraft Operators (Airlines) 35

36 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE AEP CAA & other Government Agencies Communication Services Airport Tenants Transportation Authorities (land, sea & air) Rescue co-ordination Center Civil Defence Mutual Aid Agencies Military 36

37 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE AEP Harbour Patrol & Coast Guard Clergy Public Information Office (local TV & Radio) Customs Public Utilities Postal Authorities Veterinary Services Coroner (forensic or legal doctor) 37


39 TYPE OF SERVICES REQUIRED (int) Escort on the airside Coordination of these escorts Airside Operations Coordination (NOTAM etc.) Stretchers Bearers On-Scene Commander ECC Coordinator RVP Coordinator Logistic suppor to rescue team (water, food) 39

40 TYPE OF SERVICES REQUIRED (int) Transportation of Emergency Equipment to the Accident Site Transportation of the MCP (if towed) 40

41 TYPE OF SERVICES REQUIRED (ext) Doctors (medical cares, triage & first aids) Nurses Hospitals (contingency plan, hotels etc.) Private clinics Ambulance (public & private, private vehicles) Police Military Coast Guard (private boats, yacht club etc.) 41

42 TYPE OF SERVICES REQUIRED (ext) City Fire Fighters Stretcher Bearers (gym etc.) Bomb Squad Coroner Crown Control Cranes & other Mechanical Equipment Psychologists 42

43 AIRPORT INSTALLATIONS & EQUIPMENT REQUIRED Emergency Coordination Center (ECC) Mobile Command Post (MCP) Rendez-Vous Point (RVP) & Signage First Aid Equipment (medical) Vehicle for Transportation of First Aid Equip. Temporary Hospital Temporary Morgue (refrigeration) Airside Escort Vehicles 43

44 AIRPORT INSTALLATIONS & EQUIPMENT REQUIRED Body Bags Bags for Victims Personal Effects Press Room Room for Victims Relatives Room for Survivors Transportation of Survivors Radio Communications Telephone Communications 44

45 AIRPORT INSTALLATIONS & EQUIPMENT REQUIRED Portable Generators Portable Lighting System METTAGs Identification Arm Band Emergency Laissez-Passer?? (police road block) or Airport Laissez-Passer 45

46 AIRLINE VS AO RESPONSIBILITIES The Airlines and the AO Responsibilities Vis-à- Vis the Passengers – Airlines are responsible for taking care of their passengers – AO is responsible to supply the installations used by the airlines for providing care to their passengers 46

47 AIRLINE VS AO RESPONSIBILITIES Example: – The AO supply the « survivor room » for the survivors but once the passengers are in the room, they become the responsibility of the airline involved 47

48 MUTUAL AID AGREEMENT Ref. example preceding slide – Who is responsible for the transportation of the passengers from the accident site to the « survivors room »? Need for Mutual Aid Agreement – Operational details must be agreed upon before hand 48

49 MUTUAL AID AGREEMENT It is imperative that the AO arrange emergen- cy mutual agreements which define responsi- bilities and/or liabilities of each contributing parties 49

50 MUTUAL AID AGREEMENT Mutual Aid Agreement should at least include the following: – Clarification of political and jurisdictional responsibilities – Establishment of the command authority in the various phases of the emergency – Designation of communication priorities at the accident site – Organization of emergency transportation facilities under a predesignated coordinator 50

51 MUTUAL AID AGREEMENT Mutual Aid Agreement should at least include the following: – Predetermination of the legal authorities and liabilities of all co-operating emergency personnel – Prearrangement for use of portable and heavy rescue equipment from available sources – Arrangement with airlines concerning the processing of the passengers (survivors etc.): transportation, relations with the media etc.) 51

52 PURPOSE OF THE AEP Purpose: – To set out in manual form the responsbilities & re- quired actions/roles of the various personnel / agencies involved in dealing with various types of emergencies affecting the airport. 52

53 SCOPE OF THE AEP During the Emergency: – Exact nature and/or location of the accident – Location will dictate the agency responsible for management of the emergency – Nature changes from emergency operations to the investigation phase, the appropriate accident investigation authority will assume command & responsibility for the accident scene. All agencies must know, in advance, their respective roles, res- ponsibilities, and to whom they report & who reports to them 53

54 SCOPE OF THE AEP After the emergency: – Transition of authority and other legal factors need to be discussed and preplanned. Considera- tions needs to be given to the restoration of protective services in order to permit continuation of normal airport/aircraft operations and to public protection that may have been disrupted ty the emergency 54

55 SCOPE OF THE AEP Other Considerations: – The actions recommended in the AEP are based on the requirement that survival of aircraft occu- pants and other related accident victims is the primary operational objective. Effective operations require a great deal of preplanning & regular exercises that provide opportunity for realistic training of personnel from all agencies which will be involved in the emergency 55

56 SCOPE OF THE AEP Night Operations – It is crucial that planning details by the response agencies consider night operations. For example, lighting equipment with portable generators will be required for night operations. 56

57 SCOPE OF THE AEP Local Weather Conditions: – Precautions must be taken, where necessary, to mitigate weather-induced physical problems such as dehydration. Such considerations apply to emergency personnel as well as to victims of the accident 57

58 SCOPE OF THE AEP Communications, Coordination & Command – The scope of the emergency plan document should include communications, coordination and command functions for executing the plan 58


60 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP The Emergency Coordination Center (ECC) – A fixed ECC to deal with emergency situations should be available at each airport – It is the point where co-operating agency heads assemble to receive & dissiminate information & make decisions pertinent to the overall emergency situations in support of the Mobile Command Post 60

61 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP The ECC main features: – Fixed location – Act in support of the on-scene commander in the MCP for aircraft accidents/incidents – Command, coordination & communication centre for unlawful seizure of aircraft & bomb threats – It is operationally available 24 hours a day 61

62 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP ECC Back-up, Location & Equipment – A back-up ECC should be identified, preferably in another building – Location of ECC should provide a clear view of the movement area and aircraft parking position, wherever possible – Should have necessary equipment & personnel to communicate with agencies involved in the emer- gency, including the MCP and the RVP 62

63 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Emergency Coordination Center (ECC) – In order to eliminate confusion & missed transmission, since several agencies are working together in the ECC utilizing several radio frequencies & telephones, it is essential that the volume of noise be reduced by utilizing headsets or sound absorbent partitions walls for each participant 63

64 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Mobile Command Post (MCP) – The MCP is a point where co-operating agency operational heads assemble to receive and dissiminate information and make decisions pertinent to the rescue operations. 64

65 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Main Features of the MCP: – Mobile facility capable of being rapidly deployed (self-powered or towed) – It serves as on accident site command, coordination & communication center for aircraft accidents/incidents – It is operational during aircraft accidents/incidents – It is strategically & correctly located with respect to wind & terrain conditions 65

66 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Mobile Command Post: – In the event of any accident/incident, a designated, recognizable & readily visible MCP is a high priority item – Should be deployed rapidly, at the same time as fire fighter service & rescue activities, if possible – Continuity of command shall be maintained so that agency reporting to the MCP can be adequately briefed 66

67 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Mobile Command Post (MCP) Equipment: – Should contain the necessary equipment & personnel to communicate with all agencies involved in the emergency, including the ECC – Maps, charts, & other relevant equipment & info should be immediately available at the MCP – MCP should be recognizable by provision of an elevated distinguishing marker, such as a chequered flag, colored traffic cone, balloon or rotating beacon 67

68 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP The Rendez-Vous Point: – Pre-determined area where outside agencies gathered before being dispatched on the airside for intervention 68

69 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Rendez-Vous Point (RVP) main Characteristics: – Located on the ground side of the airport or – If located on the airside the location must provide for a physical control of each vehicle that is to proceed to the accident site – An AO staff must be in charge at the RVP 69

70 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP Rendez-Vous Point (RVP) main Characteristics: – Communications means must be available with the on-scene commander and the ECC – Area to be large enough to accommodate many vehicles, accessing & exiting the airside area 70

71 COORDINATION UNITS IN THE AEP – Rendez-Vous Point (RVP) main Characteristics: Routing to be followed to access the RVP must be marked with appropriate sign posts, participating agencies must be familiar with the sign used Escorts to the accident site are coordinated from the RVP 71

72 COMMUNICATIONS Communication – Links VITAL IMPORTANCE – Communications between the ECC & MCP – Communications between the ECC & RVP – Communications between the MCP & RVP 72

73 COMMUNICATIONS Communication – Links – Communications between the ECC & the outside world (outside the airport) – 2-way communications for all airport agencies involved in the emergency 73

74 COMMUNICATIONS Networking – A coordinated communication network is of vital importance to any major operation involving agencies from more than one jurisdiction 74

75 COMMUNICATIONS Networking – A coordinated communication network should consist of a sufficient number of radio transceivers, telephones & other communication devices to establish & maintain a primary & a secondary means of communication. These networks should link the ECC, the RVP & the MCP with each other as well as with all participating agencies. (see flow chart) 75

76 COMMUNICATIONS OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK – The operational communication network should provide a primary and, where necessary, an alternate means for effective direct communications between the following: (Next 4 slides, a, b, c and d). 76

77 COMMUNICATIONS Direct communications between: – A) The alerting authority (control tower or any other air traffic control unit, airport director, fixed- base operator, or airline office) and the rescue and fire fighting (RFF) units serving the airport 77

78 COMMUNICATIONS Direct communications between: – B) ATC, the appropriate fire department alarm room/dispatch centre(s) and the fire fighting and rescue crews en-route to an aircraft emergency and at the accident/incident site 78

79 COMMUNICATIONS Direct communications between : – C) Appropriate mutual aid agencies located on or off the airport, including an alert procedure for all auxiliary personnel expected to respond 79

80 COMMUNICATIONS Direct communications between: – The RFF vehicles, including a communication capability between crew members on each RFF vehicle 80

81 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – It is important to provide serviceable communica- tion equipment in sufficient quantity to ensure rapid response of personnel & equipment to an emergency. The following communication equipment should be available for immediate use in the event of an emergency: 81

82 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Portable Radios: a sufficient number of portable, two-way radios should be available toprovide each participating agency with ability to communicate with the MCP and the ECC 82

83 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Strict Communication Discipline must be adopted to prevent jamming of emergency frequencies – Each agency should operate on its own frequency – There should be a designated command frequency 83

84 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Radios should be available at the MCP to provide direct communication with the aircraft or ground controller should it become necessary – These radios to be equipped with headsets to re- duce the confusion and noise from multiple frequencies in use at the same time. 84

85 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Direct communications may also be established with the pilot or the aircraft cockpit by use of cockpit-to-ground lines. Proper connecting device is required: ground service headset plugged into a wheel well interphone jack 85

86 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – A sufficient number of telephone lines (both listed & not listed) or cellular phones should be available at the ECC & MCP to provide direct communica- tion with agencies within and outside the airport – Direct lines save time & reduce the probability of overloading radio communication channels 86

87 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – It is desirable to install recording devices with time insertion units at the ECC and/or MCP to ensure that all communications are recorded for later analysis – It is also desirable to record all emergency communications, including printed communica- tion 87

88 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Portable megaphones should also be available 88

89 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Apron & Terminal Area Emergencies Communication system to be provided in order to pro- vide rapid response of the emergency equipment to accidents/incidents occurring in the terminal areas Apron accidents include aircraft cabin fires, refueling spills & fires, aircraft and vehicle collisions & medical emergencies 89

90 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Apron & Terminal Area Emergencies As many apron personnel as possible, but at least all supervisory personnel, should be equipped with 2 way radios in order to establish direct communication with a central notification facility. 90

91 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Apron & Terminal Area Emergencies All aircraft loading gates or jetway should be equipped with telephones at both boarding and apron levels. Emergency telephone numbers should be prominently displayed by the telephone 91

92 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Testing & Verification The communication system should be tested each day to verify the operability of all radio and telephone network 92

93 COMMUNICATIONS Communication Equipment – Telephone numbers A complete and current list interagency telephone numbers should be available to all agencies and to personnel responsible for the airport /community emergency plan These telephone numbers should be verified monthly to ensure they are correct Updated lists should be distributed to all emergency plan participants on a continual basis 93

94 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care Urgency – In the aftermath of an aircraft accident, many lives may be lost and many injuries aggravated if immediate medical attention is not provided by trained rescue personnel – Survivors should be triaged, given available emergency medical aid as required, and then promptly evacuated to appropriate medical facilities 94

95 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Triage (definition) – Triage is the sorting and classification of casualties to determine the order of priority for treatment and transportation 95

96 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Triage categories: – Casualties should be classified into 4 categories: Priority I: Immediate care Priority II: Delayed care Priority III: Minor care Priority IV: Deceased 96

97 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Who do the triage – The first qualified, medically trained person to arrive at the site must immediately begin initial triage (fire fighters etc.) – Until relieved by a more qualified personnel – Victims move from triage area to care holding area – Casualties should be stabilized at the care holding areas & then transported to an appropriate facility 97

98 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Processing the priorities – Every effort should be made to ensure that Priority I casualties are treated first & receive am- bulance transportation priority when stabilized. This is the responsibility of the triage officer 98

99 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Triage accomplished in place – Triage is most efficiently accomplished in place. However, the conditions at an accident scene may demand the immediate movement of casualties before triage can be safety accomplished. In that case, the casualties should be moved the shortest distance, well away from the danger – See figure 9-1. 99

100 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Triage & Identification Tag – Triage of casualties should include the use of casualty identification tags (METTAG) to aid in the sorting of the injured and their transportation to a designated hospital. This technique is especially suited to multilingual situation 100

101 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE METTAG – Need for Standardized Tags – Casualty identification tags should be standardized through color coding & symbols to make the tag as simple as possible. Tags help to expedite the treatment of mass casualties in a triage situation and thus permit more rapid evacuation of the injured to medical facilities 101

102 METTAG METTAG – Design – Standardized tags should be designed to require only minimal information to be entered thereon, be usable: Under adverse weather conditions Be water resistant 102


104 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE METTAG – Priority I:Red tag, Roman Numeral I, Rabbit Symbol. IMMEDIATE CARE – Priority II:Yellow tag, Roman Numeral II, Turtle Symbol. DELAYED CARE – Priority III:Green tag, Roman Numeral III, Ambulance with X symbol. MINOR CASE – Priority IV:Black tag, Deceased, Numeral 0 104

105 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE METTAG – Serial Numbered – The tags are serial numbered. Apart from the main section of the tag, there are six (6) detachable sections. The serial number appeared on each of the seven (7) parts of the tag (main section & 6 detachable section) 105

106 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE METTAG – Information on recto side – To show recto side of METTAG 106

107 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE METTAG – Information on verso side – To show verso side of METTAG 107

108 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care Principles – Stabilization of the seriously injured should be accomplished at the accident site. The immediate transportation of the seriously injured before stabilization should be avoided 108

109 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Airport Fire Fighters Role – In accidents occurring on or adjacent to the airport, RFF personnel are generally the first emergency personnel on the scene. The personnel must be aware that it is imperative that seriously injures casualties be located & stabilized as quickly as possible. – RFF personnel should also be trained on first aids 109

110 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Airport Fire Fighters Role – As soon as possible RFF personnel should commence casualty stabilization under the direction of the most qualified trauma-trained individual on the scene 110

111 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Fire Trucks & First Aid Equipment – First response rescue vehicles should carry initial supplies of casualty-care equipment, including compresses, bandages, oxygen & other related equipment used for the stabilization of smoke inhalation casualties & severe trauma 111

112 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Airport Fire Fighters Role – Actions taken during the first few minutes of medical treatment should stabilize the casualties until more qualified medical care is available – More sophisticated cares will be provided when more qualified medical staff arrive on the scene 112

113 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Priority II casualties: – Care of casualties sustaining injuries which do not need immediate emergency mdeical treatment to sustain life can be delayed until Priority I casualties have been stabilized. Transportation of Priority II casualties will be performed following minimun on-site care 113

114 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Priority III (Minor care) Casualties: – Minor injuries only. Certain accidents/incidents will occur where passengers have either minor or no injuries, or appear not to be injured. Because these casualties can interfere with other priorities & operations, it is important that they be transported from the accident/incident site to the designated holding area where they should be re- examined. 114

115 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Priority III (Minor care) Casualties: – Identification of Priority III Casualties: Provisions must be made for the care, comfort, and identification of Priority III casualties. It should be provided through the AO Specific treatment area should be predesignated: hangar, ATB, hotel, school, etc.) Equipped with A/C, toilets, seats etc. Sites to be known by airlines staff 115

116 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Control of the Flow of the Injured: – The injured, on the scene, should pass through areas which should be carefully located easily identified (see figure 9-1). These areas are as follows: Collection Area Triage Area Care Area Transportation Area 116

117 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Collection Area – Accident scene, collection of the seriously injured from the debris is accomplished – Custody of casualties is normally transferred from the RFF personnel to medical services at this point, in most cases however, this transfer will occur at the triage area 117

118 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Triage Area: – The triage area should be located at least 90 m upwind of the accident site to avoid possible exposure to fire and smoke. If necessary, more than one triage area may be established 118

119 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care Area: – Initially there will be a single carea area. Subse- quently, this area should be subdivided into three subareas according to the 3 categories of injured, i.e. Priority I, II and III – Carea areas can be color coded for identification purposes. The use of coloured traffic cones, flags, etc., may be used 119

120 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Transportation Area – A transportation area for the recording, dispat- ching & evacuation of survivors should be located between the care area & the egress road. Only 1 transportation area is normally required. Howe- ver, if there is more than one transportation area, it is essential to have communication between them 120

121 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Mobile Facilities – Mobile facilities for the stabilization & treatment of Priorities I and II casualties are recommended. These facilities should consist of: 121

122 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Mobile Facilities Conventional or resuscitation ambulances. Ideal for Priority I. The casualty can be treated there and subsequently conveyed directly to a hospital Red tents to accommodate serious or extremely urgent cases. These facilities, with provisions for integrated A/C & lighting, can be transported to the scene together with all the necessary medical equipment Yellow tents to accommodate Priority II casualties. Transportable mobile hospitals or ambulances can be used for stabilization treatment for all casualties 122

123 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Priority III (Minor care) Casualties: – The AO, Airlines, or other predesignated agency selected for the purpose is responsible to: Select holding area Provide transportation from accident site to holding area To have doctors & nurses at the holding area Furnish a full crew/passenger manifest (accountability) Record names, phone number etc. of uninjured Notify relatives or next of kin, if necessary Prevent interference from unauthorised persons 123

124 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Ambulatory Survivors – If slides were used: people barefoot or without proper clothing – People can be wet and uncomfortable – Blankets & other clothing equipment should be made available – International relief agencies & military establish- ments provide many of the aforementioned requi- sites 124

125 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Evidence must be preserved when caring for the fatalities at an aircraft accident site. It is important to realize that an undisturbed site will produce the most reliable evidence for determining cause and/or future corrective action that may help prevent a similar accident 125

126 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Whenever possible, the wreckage should remain undisturbed until the arrival of the appropriate accident investigation authority 126

127 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – If bodies have to be moved identify the locations where they were – The METTAG number to be noted on the signage left on site so that it will be possible to know what body was at any location on the accident site 127

128 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Bags to gather passengers personal effects should be available 128

129 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Area to be secured The area immediately surrounding the location of the fatality should be completely secured. Areas in which a large number of fatalities or dismembered bodies are located should be left undisturbed until the arrival of the forensic doctor and the aircraft accident investigator or designated 129

130 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – An adequate supply of disposable plastic gloves and leather gloves should be available for stretcher bearers removing the remains of the fatalities – All gloves should be burned following use in gathering body parts 130

131 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Photographs If it becomes necessary to move bodies or parts of the wreckage, photographs should be taken showing the relative position of the bodies and parts within the wreckage & a sketch of their respective positions should be made prior to removal. Special precaution should be taken to avoid disturbing anything in the cockpit area. 131

132 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – The fatalities should be extricated & personal effects removed from the wreckage prior to the arrival of the forensic doctor or appropriate authority only to prevent their destruction by fire or other similar compelling reasons 132

133 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Body Bags: Body bags are normally available from major local suppliers of caskets, funeral directors and their equipment and supply firms, and from nearby military facilities Stock of body bags at each airport are desirable 133

134 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Care of Fatalities (black tag) – Temporary Morgue Normal morgue facilities are overloaded In areas where temperatures may contribute to dete- rioration of tissue refrigeration storage should be considered Permanent cooler, semi-trailer, hotels, etc. Isolate area not accessible to the general public or relatives 134

135 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Contacting the next of kin: – Not an AO responsibility – After ID is made, contacting the next of kin should commence – Airline responsibility – Public service organizations, intl relief agencies and police or clergy should be utilized 135

136 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Autopsies: – Accident investigation team generally has the au- thority and the need to require autopsies & toxicological analysis of flight crew members, and in special cases, passengers – The need for these tests should be determined prior to the release of bodies 136

137 TRIAGE & MEDICAL CARE Debriefing: – ASAP all participants should be debriefed – Their observations are to be recorded – Sketches, diagrams, photographs, movie films, & tape & video recording made on the accident site as well as appropriate details on the tagging of bodies parts removed from their positions are invaluable tools for the investigators 137

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