Presentation on theme: "What was the Marshall Plan? (also known as Marshall Aid)"— Presentation transcript:
1What was the Marshall Plan? (also known as Marshall Aid)
2 Your taskRead your textbooks (p.48-9) and try to answer these questions:Why did the US see the need for Marshall Aid?What were its main aims?How successful was Marshall Aid?
3Origins of Marshall Plan General George Marshall, American Secretary of StateAssessment of Europe’s economic needsEurope owed US, $11.5 billionShortages of goods & fuelRationing, e.g. Britain, 1947 power cutsChurchill, ‘a rubble heap, a breeding ground of hate’General George Marshall, uncompromising US Sec. of State
4Aims of the Marshall Plan Stop spread of CommunismHelp economies of Europe recoverProvide a market for American goods$17 billion rebuild European prosperityIllustration for a booklet by Jo Spier ( ), a Dutch, Jewish artist and writer who had been imprisoned in a German concentration camp during World War II and who emigrated to the U.S. in 1951.
5How successful was the Plan? $12-13 billion dollars poured into Europe16 European states accepted aid (all non-Communist)Stalin banned Marshall Aid for USSR and banned satellite states from accepting itWhy would Stalin want to ban Marshall Aid?
6How successful was the Marshall Plan? Rejected by Stalin as ‘dollar imperialisation’Unacceptable to Soviet prideCzechoslovakia considered plan, but elections fixed & foreign minister killedYugoslavia 1948, Tito expelledWarsaw 1947, Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) created to protect communist states from US ‘aggression’President Tito of Yugoslavia – a loose canon
7 Your taskHow far do you feel each side was to blame for the increasing tension in the Cold War immediately after WWII? Decide where you would put the USA & USSR on the scale below. State your reasons why.Not to blameMostly to blame
8You are going to hold a debate over the issue who was to blame for increasing tensions during the early stages of the Cold War? One side will argue the case that it was the USSR the other that it was the Americans?
9US blame Support for anti-Communists during Civil War Anti-Communist stance of TrumanDevelopment of atomic bombIron curtain speechTruman Doctrine & Marshall AidIdeological differences (US capitalist democracy)
10USSR blame Historic tensions, e.g. Hitler Stalin pact, 1939 Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe & setting up of Communist governmentsRejection of Marshall AidFormation of CominformRed army, development of own nuclear weapons
11 Your taskWork in pairs. Prepare two statements. One which Truman could give to Congress explaining why he is supporting the Marshall Plan and one from Stalin to the Politburo condemning the Plan and outlining his response to it.Compare the differences in interpretation in your two speeches
12 Extra help You might want to consider the following points The background to the Marshall Plan (Greece & fear of Communist take-over)Marshall’s assessment of Europe’s needsThe public & hidden agenda (economic & political support)The growing tensions during the Cold War (spread of Communism, arms race, Iron Curtain speech)