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1 Creative Compositing - Part 1 Creating a Title Page for a PowerPoint Presentation Using PhotoShop 6.0 Nick Rumbelow - 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Creative Compositing - Part 1 Creating a Title Page for a PowerPoint Presentation Using PhotoShop 6.0 Nick Rumbelow - 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Creative Compositing - Part 1 Creating a Title Page for a PowerPoint Presentation Using PhotoShop 6.0 Nick Rumbelow

2 2 About This Screen Show Navigation Introduction Next Slide Return to the Last Slide Viewed Previous Slide View Front Page Click Anywhere to Progress

3 3 This work-through aims to demonstrate how PhotoShop 6.0 can be used creatively and effectively in our work in Presentations. By creating the background for the title page of this PowerPoint presentation, issues are presented in context to common requests made by Analysts, helping skills to be absorbed by example. Introduction Objectives Introduction Topics covered: Measuring in Pixels Image Size Target Size Resolution Sampling Colours Background / Foreground Colours Fill / Bucket Tool Layers / Layer Options Canvas Filters Cropping Working With Small Logos Transform / Scale Magic Eraser History Gaussian Blur Selection / Transform Selection Copy Layer Move Layer Re-order Layer Linking Layers Merge Linked Layers Flip Scanning Pen Tools Grid Preferences Stroke Selection Colour Profile Levels Quick Mask Brushes Matting Layer Blend Dragging Between Images Layer Styles Save for Web Formatting PowerPoint Backgrounds

4 4 Section 1: Setting Up

5 5 For this tutorial you will create the composition on the front cover. Before you begin, you need to know how big the background picture should be to fit the PowerPoint page exactly, and as we shall see, just looking at PowerPoints Page Setup will not help. You may be working on a client-style document that has already been started with custom dimensions, or beginning a new one, so sizes may vary; 1.Open a blank presentation in PowerPoint 2.Select File > Page Setup 3.By default, the template sets the page to 26.4 x 20.4cm 4.If your units are in inches, select Start > Settings > Control Panel > Regional Settings > Number and set the Measurement System to Metric 5.Select Cancel It would be tempting to use these dimensions for creating the background PhotoShop document, however this would be misleading as the actual PowerPoint page is larger. To prove this; 6.Draw a rectangle to fill the PowerPoint page 7.Format it by double-clicking on it, and select the Size tab 8.Contrary to the Page Setup information, the working size is actually 21.6 x 27.95cm. This is the target size and should be recorded 9.Cancel the formatting dialog box for the rectangle, and delete it Page Dimensions Prepare for the End at the Beginning Setting-Up

6 6 Page Dimensions (contd) Converting Centimetres Into Pixels Setting-Up 10.Open a new document in PhotoShop 11.Set the Width and Height according to the dimensions measured from the PowerPoint rectangle - in this case x 21.6cm 12.Set the Resolution to 96 pixels-per-inch (also referred to as dots-per-inch) as this is the standard for PC monitors and therefore gives a true representation of the rectangle. This translates as pixels per cm, but the industry standard for resolution is still to use inches 13.Ensure the mode is set to RGB Colour. You are designing a screen presentation, so the final image will be created from combining just three colours of light - Red, Green and Blue, as opposed to four colours of ink for print (CMYK - Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and BlacK). Working with just three colours will help to keep the file size down 14.Set the Contents to white. This will set the background colour 15.Click OK When working in PhotoShop, always work with a higher resolution than you need, as this will give you finer image detail to edit. You should work in high resolution, then compress a low resolution copy. In this tutorial you will be working with 300dpi, which will be too big for PowerPoint to process effectively, and looking ahead, the PhotoShop function you will need to use when you eventually compress the final image allows you to set the dimensions in pixels only. Therefore, before you increase the dpi to 300, you need to find out how big your page is in terms of pixels so that you can reset it at the end; 16.Select Image > Image Size (Fig. 1) Click to view Fig. 1 – Jump back here by clicking the UP arrow when it appears on the right The pixel dimensions are given at the top of the Image Size dialog box. You need to record these dimensions for use at the end of the tutorial (in this case 1056 x 816). 17.With the Image Size dialog box open, make sure Constrain Proportions is ticked and Resample Image is set to Bicubic (Resampling is discussed later) 18.Now change the Resolution to 300 pixels/inch 19.Notice the pixel dimensions now change to 3,301 x 2, Click OK

7 7 Page Dimensions (contd) Setting-Up Change Resolution Fig. 1 Target Dimensions / Resolution Change By setting the metric dimensions for the new document, the target pixel dimensions can be recorded from the Image Size dialog box. Step 1: Record the target pixel dimensions Step 2: Change the resolution Metric Dimensions Target Dimensions Converting Centimetres Into Pixels

8 8 Capture the Argos Website Preparing to Sample Setting-Up The presentation will be influenced by the style of the clients website. You could develop a feeling for their design and philosophy as you navigate the site, taking note of the common elements, such as shapes, colours, fonts etc. This will help you to interpret their online presence, and plan the layout of the slide placeholders and the visual flow. Try to feel what the client would do themselves - in the spring of 2002, after this tutorial had been created, Argos happened to produce a new catalogue with a sunflower off-set in a bottom corner, with a similar layout as this cover. 21.Use Internet Explorer to visit The Argos site relies on the use of just a few colours, in fact limiting the number of colours together with clean, cut-out graphics, gives the site a very distinctive look, and promotes Argos familiar identity. As you navigate through the site, the colours switch place, giving a sense of moving location, but by allowing the style to develop within principal guidelines, consistency is easily achieved. The Argos site may have changed since this tutorial was written, but in the Autumn of 2001 the dominant features were; a basic five-colour cycle elements in boxes with white frames some elements breaking through their boundaries a clean sans-serif font two opposing sides of the background framed by stripes From these observations a theme can develop, but to achieve convincing results you need to sample the exact colours Argos have used. To do this you need to capture the web page as a picture so that you can measure the colours using PhotoShop; 22.At the Argos home page, press the Print Screen key (Fig. 2). This copies an image of everything currently visible on your screen into the clipboard memory. If the website has changed considerably, please copy Fig.2 23.Create a second new document in PhotoShop. By accepting the default dimensions offered by PhotoShop, the new document is set at the size of the last item copied into the memory 24.Press Ctrl+V to paste the screenshot into the new document 25.In PhotoShop, switch back to the developing Argos composition

9 9 (July 2001) Fig. 2 The Argos Website Setting-Up Capture the Argos Website (contd)

10 10 Section 2: The Blue & Yellow Halves

11 11 Dividing the Page Using the Grid The Blue & Yellow Halves The page is going to be divided into five columns for our five objects in their squares. We will use the grid to divide the page, but the current page dimensions are not readily divisible by five; 26.Select Image > Image Size, ensure Constrain Proportions is ticked, and set the Print Size Width to 25cm 27.Click OK 28.Zoom out using the Navigator so that you can see the whole page, and maximize the workspace 29.Display the grid by selecting View > Show > Grid, followed by View > Snap to > Grid For the grid to be meaningful to this job, the gridline spacing needs to be set as a preference; 30.Select Edit > Preferences > Guides and Grid (Fig. 3) 31.Set a Gridline every 2.5cm, with just 1 Subdivision 32.Click OK The page is also going to be divided into two horizontal halves, the yellow top and the blue bottom; 33.Using the Rectangular Marquee tool (Fig. 4) make a selection across the top half of the page Fig. 3 The Guides and Grid Preferences

12 12 Tip: A small black triangle in the bottom-right corner of a Toolbar tool indicates that tool is part of a group of related tools. If the desired tool is not being displayed, left-click and hold the incorrect tool to display and select the appropriate tool from its group To make sure you are using exactly the same colours as Argos, switch to the captured web page in PhotoShop; 34.Use the Eyedropper tool to sample the mustard- yellow from the background (Fig. 4) 35.To set the background colour, press Alt and use the Eyedropper tool to sample the blue from the right- hand stripe 36.Switch back to the Argos composition 37.Fill the selected top half with the yellow foreground colour, using either Edit > Fill, or Shift+f5, or the Bucket tool 38.Select the bottom half of the page by selecting Select > Inverse 39.Press the Delete key to fill the selection with the background colour If you were working in a different layer, the deleted area would be replaced with transparent area, but deleting in the background layer reveals the Canvas, on which all the elements for the composition are layered. The Canvas takes the current background colour. 40.Deselect (Ctrl+D) Getting the Colours Sampling From the Site Fig. 4 The Toolbar The Blue & Yellow Halves Rectangular Marquee Select Foreground Colour Pure Black and White Magic Eraser Direct Select Standard Mode Pen Tool Eyedropper Swap Foreground / Background Colours Background Colour Move Quick Mask Mode Bucket / Fill Magnifying Glass Paintbrush

13 13 Filling the Halves Fig. 5 Top and Bottom Halves Filled, Displaying the Grid The Blue & Yellow Halves Getting the Colours (contd)

14 14 Section 3: Creating the Shapes

15 15 To create the stripes you will use the grid again, this time to make the two stripes lay flush together by creating one above a gridline, and one below the same gridline. Once created you can move them into position. 41.Create a new layer (Fig. 7) The stripes need to be 25cm wide and 0.5cm high, so you can set the Rectangular Marquee Select tool to be a fixed size; 42.Double-click the Rectangular Marquee tool to display the Options bar (Fig. 6). All tool Options are displayed along the top of the screen by default. 43.Select Fixed Size as the Style 44.Set the Width to 25cm and the Height to 0.5cm, and choose New Selection from the operations on the left side of the bar 45.Click above the 3rd gridline from the top, and position the selection to snap above it 46.Sample the green and orange from the captured screenshot, then fill the selection with green 47.Make a selection below the 3rd gridline and position the selection to snap underneath it, and fill it with orange 48.Deselect Fixed Size Selection Marquee Options Creating the Shapes Fig. 6 Marquee Options New SelectionStyle Dimensions

16 16 Layers can be thought of as stacked sheets of transparent acetate; layer contents cannot be moved within the layer, rather the whole layer is moved unless a selection is made. Both stripes are contained in the same layer, and so are no longer separate. 49.Using the Move tool (Fig. 4), drag the stripes into position so that the bottom stripe snaps to rest above the 3rd gridline. (Holding the Shift Key while moving will constrain the movement into straight lines.) Both lines move together because they are part of the same layer To create the second set of stripes, you will simply copy the layer, position it, and then flip it vertically. First, re-name the layer; 50.Right-click Layer 1 in the Layers Palette, select Layer Properties, and name the layer Stripes 51.To make a copy of the Stripes layer, left-click the layer and drag it to the New / Copy Layer icon at the bottom of the palette (Fig. 7) 52.Use the Move tool to place the new stripes in position so that the top stripe snaps beneath the 5th gridline. 53.Select Edit > Transform > Flip Vertical Layers Duplicating Fig. 7 Layers Palette Trash BinNew / Copy LayerLink LayerLayer On / Off Blending ModePalette Options Layer Opacity Creating the Shapes

17 17 It would be acceptable to leave the two sets of stripes in their individual layers, but there may be occasions when you will need to combine several layers into one. 54.Link the Stripes copy layer to the Stripes layer by clicking the Link Layer box (Fig. 7). A chain link icon appears in the box to indicate that although the two layers are still separate, they will now behave as one. There is no limit to the number of linked layers 55.From the Layers Palette Options, select Merge Linked (Fig.7) Both sets of stripes are now part of the same layer (Fig. 8) and any layers not linked have been preserved. Reducing the number of layers can be useful to keep the desktop uncluttered, but once committed it may be difficult to separate them should you need to later. By default, transparent areas are represented by a grey and white chequered pattern. If you were working on a predominantly grey image, this chequered pattern would not be helpful. Tip:If you need to change the way transparent areas are represented, select Edit > Preferences > Transparency & Gamut, and change the colours, size and frequency of the chequered pattern Layers (contd) Merging Fig. 8 Layers Merged, Background Preserved Creating the Shapes

18 18 Layers (contd) Merging Fig. 9 The Stripes Snapped Into Position and Merged Creating the Shapes

19 19 56.Create a new layer and make sure it is above the Stripes layer in the layers palette 57.Name the new layer Squares 58.Use the Eyedropper tool to select the yellow from the top half of your image To fit the five squares into your 25cm wide image, each square needs to be 5cm x 5cm, which is the width of two gridlines (Fig. 10). You could make the selection using a Normal Rectangular Marquee Select, but it would be quicker to continue to use a Fixed Size Marquee; 59.In the Rectangular Marquee Select tools Options, set both the Width and Height to 5cm. 60.Click inside the composition and position the selection so that it covers the first 2 x 2 squares formed by the grid (Fig. 10) 61.Fill the selection with yellow using either Edit > Fill, or Shift+f5, or the Bucket tool The Squares Select and Fill Fig. 10 The First Square Selected and Filled Creating the Shapes

20 20 In PhotoShop, the weight of a line is referred to as its Stroke. You need to create a white line around the selected square, in other words you will stroke the selection; 62.Choose Edit > Stroke 63.In the Stroke dialog box, set the Width to 10 pixels (Fig. 11) 64.Set the Colour to white by clicking in the Colour swatch The Location indicates where the line will be drawn in relation to the selection marquee. If you were to choose either Inside or Outside, the line would become double thick along the sides where the squares are joined. 65.Select Centre so that one half of the line falls inside and the other half falls outside 66.Make sure the Blending Mode is set to Normal (more on this later), the Opacity is set to 100%, and Preserve Transparency is unchecked 67.Click OK 68.A white line now appears around the square 69.Repeat this process, (fill and stroke) for the other four squares, sampling the other colours from the background, the stripes, and the captured version of the web page The Squares (contd) Stroke Fig. 11 Stroke Options Creating the Shapes

21 21 The Squares (contd) Fill and Stroke Fig. 12 The Squares Filled and Stroked Creating the Shapes

22 22 Section 4: The Logo

23 23 Tip:When a request is made for a logo to be taken from a website, avoid right-clicking and copying it. Instead, capture the whole page by pressing Print Scrn and then crop and edit it in PhotoShop. To demonstrate the difference, try the wrong way first; 70.Switch to the website in Internet Explorer 71.Right-click on the logo and select Copy 72.Create a new PowerPoint document and paste the logo The original logo was created with a transparent background, and the colour around the edges – the matting – has been set by the designer to blend with the site background colour (Fig. 13) Unless the matting happens to be exactly the same colour as your PowerPoint background, this method is inappropriate. A particular logo may also be too small for the presentation, and appears blocky when it is stretched on the page For an alternative method; 73.Close the PowerPoint document without saving 74.In PhotoShop, switch to the captured website image, and draw a rectangular marquee around the logo. (Make sure the Style is set to Normal in the Options.) 75.Press Ctrl+C to copy it Getting the Logo Print Screen vs. Copy The Logo Fig. 13 Copied Logo Fig. 14 Copied at 72dpi, Pasted Into 300dpi

24 24 Tip:If you were using PhotoShop for only a logo, you would crop the website image so that only the logo was left, then select Image > Image Size to change the resolution to 300dpi. PhotoShop will fill-in the missing detail as the image expands, a process known as resampling, which avoids the blocky pixelated effect. You would then be able to edit the logo appropriately in finer detail In this tutorial, your composition is already 300dpi; 76.Switch back to your PhotoShop composition 77.Press Ctrl+V to paste the selection into a new layer Because the original was only 72dpi, it appears tiny within your composition (Fig. 14). 78.Select Edit > Transform > Scale to resize the logo. Holding Shift while dragging the corner handles will constrain the proportions As you drag the handles, it appears even more pixelated (Fig. 15) 79.Press Enter to apply the transformation, then move the logo into the yellow area PhotoShop resamples the missing data, fills-in the gaps and smoothes the edges (Fig. 16) Getting the Logo (contd) Changing the Resolution The Logo Fig. 15 Before Transformation is Applied Fig. 16 Resampled Interpolation After Transformation

25 25 Section 5: The Sunflowers

26 26 Always scan at a higher resolution than you need; the editing will be finer, then later you can save a lower resolution version for your output. Tip:When scanning, draw the bounding box around the preview, then click Auto before confirming the scan. This will help achieve the best contrast and colour balance from the scan The sunflower used in this tutorial was scanned at 400dpi and the un-edited version has been saved for your use; 80.In PhotoShop, select File > Open and locate the file S:/Training Department/Staff Personal Training/PS Tutorials/Argos/Sunflower Scan.psd It is possible that the Profile Mismatch dialog box appears (Fig.17). This indicates that the image youre opening was created on a PC which had been set up to manage colours in a different way to the one you are working on now. This becomes particularly important when designing for print as it can help to display a truer representation of the printed colours on the screen. 81.For this work it is safe to Convert the sunflowers profile to the same as your current profile Scanning Scan Settings & Colour Profile The Sunflowers Fig. 17 Profile Mismatch

27 27 Scanning (contd) The Sunflowers Fig. 18 The Scanned Sunflower

28 28 There are many ways of selecting areas to be erased, and the choice of method is often driven by the content. The Magic Eraser tool (Fig. 4) will delete blocks of colour with similar values. 82.Double-click the Magic Eraser tool to display its Options (Fig. 19) When you left-click in an area with the Magic Eraser, all areas with the same colour value will be deleted. The Options allow you to control; Tolerance:how similar the surrounding pixels have to be to the area clicked before they are deleted. A low tolerance means only pixels that are very similar are deleted, a high tolerance broadens the criteria Anti-aliased:smoothes the edges of the erased area, helping to prevent stepped, jagged edges Contiguous:only deletes pixels adjacent to the area clicked. If this option is not ticked, any pixel which falls into the criteria set by the other options will be deleted, regardless of where it appears in the image Use All Layers:allows you to sample and target pixels through all visible layers Opacity:the transparency of the target pixels. 100% will delete the pixels completely, 50% will make them semi-transparent 83.Experiment with different settings to better understand how it works The problem with the sunflower is that the scanning process can leave a grainy pattern when scanning from newspapers and magazines, called a Moiré pattern. The variety of differences in the pattern will prevent a smooth erasure and traces will be left over (Fig. 20). To combat this, blur the image slightly; 84.Select Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur (Fig. 21) 85.Experiment with the Radius slider to see the effect as a preview 86.Set the Radius to 1.5 pixels, and click OK. This will blur the image enough to be effective, but subtle enough for it not to be noticeable 87.Now use the Magic Eraser tool to delete the sky Deleting Unwanted Areas The Magic Eraser The Sunflowers

29 29 Deleting Unwanted Areas (contd) The Sunflowers Fig. 19 Magic Eraser Options Fig. 21 Gaussian BlurFig. 20 The Moiré Pattern The Moiré Pattern

30 30 The Magic Eraser has deleted much of the sky, but it would be difficult to use it to accurately delete the sunflowers behind the petals (Fig. 22) as there is not enough contrast between them. A much better method for making complex selections is to convert a paintbrush into a selection tool for defining the area to be selected. The advantage is that the shape of the selection can be edited in minute detail. To convert the paintbrush tool into a selection tool, you will enter Quick Mask Mode. 88.Left-click the Quick Mask Mode button at the bottom of the Toolbar (Fig. 4) In Quick Mask Mode, the selection is displayed as blocks of colour. Notice the foreground / background colours have changed to black and white. Painting with black will add to the selection, painting with white will delete from it. To demonstrate how it works; 89.Display the Options (Fig.23) by double-clicking the Quick Mask Mode button 90.Choose a colour that contrasts with the picture by clicking the Colour swatch. In the following examples, red has been selected 91.Set the Opacity to 50%, so that you can see the image beneath the mask 92.Make sure Colour Indicates Selected Areas, as you want your brushstrokes to become the selection, rather than be the protected areas 93.Click OK Quick Mask The Sunflowers Fig. 22 Problem Area Fig. 23 Quick Mask Options Painting to Select

31 31 94.Choose black as the foreground colour, and select the Paintbrush tool (Fig. 4) 95.When you select the Paintbrush tool, the Options for the brush size and type are automatically displayed at the top of the screen 96.Select a medium-sized brush (maybe about 45 pixels) and paint an arbitrary area 97.Return to Standard Mode (Fig. 4) The block of colour has become the selection. 98.Deselect (Ctrl+D) 99.Enter Quick Mask again, and using a variety of brush sizes, start to paint around the outside of the sunflower, covering the remaining sky and background flowers Tip:When painting into narrow angles, such as between petals, using a tiny brush to get into the corner can be quite messy. Instead, use a larger brush to cover the area, overlapping the petals, then swap to white and shave away the excess mask (Fig. 24 – 26) 100.Once the mask is complete, in the Options, set the Quick Mask Opacity to 100% to check for holes (Fig. 27) 101.Return to Standard Mode (Fig. 28) 102.Press Delete (Fig. 29) Quick Mask (contd) The Sunflowers Fig. 24 Paint to Overlap the Angle Fig. 25 Switch to White and Shave One Side Away Painting to Select

32 32 Quick Mask (contd) The Sunflowers Fig. 28 Return to Standard Mode Fig. 29 Press Delete Fig. 26 Shave the Other Side Away Fig. 27 Completed Mask at 100% Opacity

33 33 For your convenience, the sunflower has been isolated already and can be found in S:/Training Department/Staff Personal Training/PS Tutorials/Argos/Sunflower Isolated.psd. 103.The grid is no longer needed, so deselect View > Show > Grid 104.View both the Argos composition and the sunflower image at the same time by selecting Window > Tile 105.Make sure the sunflower image is the active window, then simply click and drag the sunflower Layer from the Layers Palette, and drop it into the Argos composition 106.Close Sunflower Isolated.psd The sunflower is automatically placed into a new layer. 107.Use the Auto Levels function by pressing Ctrl+Shift+L Simplified, this makes the darkest shadows black, the brightest highlights white, and stretches the midtones evenly between them. The sunflower appears twice within composition; 108.Copy the sunflower layer, and rename the pair Small and Large (Right-click the layer and select Layer Properties) 109.Use the Move tool (Fig. 4) to move the Large sunflower into position in the bottom-left corner (Fig. 30) 110.Working in the Small layer, resize the sunflower by selecting Edit > Transform > Scale. Hold the Shift key while dragging a corner handle to constrain the shape 111.Scale it so that it fits neatly inside one of the squares 112.Press Enter to apply the transformation, then position the Small sunflower (Fig. 30) Working Between Images Copying the Sunflower Layer Into the Composition The Sunflowers

34 34 Positioning the Sunflowers The Sunflowers Fig. 30 The Sunflowers in Place

35 35 Section 6: Layer Blends / Layer Styles

36 36 The contents of layers can be combined to react with each other according to their colour and brightness values to produce creative results. By assigning a blend to a layer, the contents will be combined with the layers behind it, though they will remain separate. 113.Select the Large layer 114.From the Blending Mode drop-down list on the Layers palette, select different modes to see their effect (Fig. 31) When using a blend, try all the modes as the results will differ according to the contents of your composition. 115.For this tutorial, Overlay was the mode used, and the Opacity was set to 50% (Fig. 32) Blending Layers Combining Colour Values Through Layers Layer Blends / Layer Styles Fig. 31 Layer Settings Blending ModeLayer Opacity Lock Transparency New Layer / Layer Copy

37 37 Fig. 32 The Large Sunflower Blended Blending Layers (contd) Combining Colour Values Through Layers Layer Blends / Layer Styles

38 38 Lock Transparency Drop Shadows There are two ways of creating a drop shadow; by assigning a Layer Style, which will create only a flat, off-set drop shadow, or you can create an independent drop shadow in a separate editable layer. The advantage of creating an independent drop shadow is that it can be scaled, skewed, distorted, perspective can be added, or it can have filters applied to it such as Ripple, etc. To create an independent drop shadow; 116.Select the Small layer and make a copy of it by dragging it onto the New Layer icon (Fig. 33) 117.Re-order the layers so that the Small copy layer is below the Small layer –To see what happens to the new layer, hide the Small layer by clicking its Eye icon along the left side of the palette. 118.Working in the Small copy layer, select Lock Transparency to protect the transparent areas from change. A small padlock appears in the Layers Palette to indicate the layer has one of its features locked 119.Select black as the foreground colour, then press Shift+f5 to fill the shape of the sunflower with black (Fig. 34) 120.Switch Lock Transparency off 121.Reveal the Small layer again Fig. 33 Creating the Shadow Layer Layer Blends / Layer Styles Lock Transparency New Layer / Layer Copy View / Hide Layer Transparency Locked

39 39 Lock Transparency (contd) Fig. 35 Independent Drop Shadow Fig. 34 Transparency Locked Layer Blends / Layer Styles

40 40 Layer Styles Automatic Drop Shadow 122.Select the Move tool, and use the cursor keys to move the shadow down and to the right so that it is off-set slightly 123.Still working in the Small copy layer, use the Gaussian Blur filter to blur the shadow by about 10 pixels 124.Set the layer blending mode to Multiply, and the Opacity to 75% (Fig. 35) This method allows total control over how the shadow appears. However, applying a drop shadow as a Layer Style is a faster process, though more limited; 125.Delete the Small copy layer by dragging it to the Trash Bin (Fig. 7) 126.Select the Small layer 127.From the main menu bar select Layer > Layer Styles > Drop Shadow 128.In the Layer Style dialog box, all the settings used for creating the independent shadow are available at once, together with options for applying other styles. Experiment with these settings, then set them as shown in Fig. 36 –Multiple Styles could be set to work together by selecting another style from the drop-down list and adjusting the settings 129.The Style youve created can be stored for instant access by clicking New Style. The style will then be stored in the Styles Palette and can be applied to a selected layer by simply clicking on it 130.Click OK to apply the effect Fig. 36 Layer Styles Dialog Layer Blends / Layer Styles

41 41 Layer Styles (contd) Layer Styles Indicator Tip:Be subtle with the effects. Use them to enhance your work without dominating it. Less is definitely more Notice that in the Layers palette, a small f and a triangle have appeared in the layer containing the effect. The f indicates the layer contains a Style (in PhotoShop 5.5, Styles were referred to as Effects), and clicking the triangle next to it will reveal a list of the Styles applied to that layer. Double-click the layer name or an applied Style to make any adjustments. Right-clicking the layer name will still offer the same options as before, such as re- naming the layer As an alternative way of creating an independent effect, the automatic shadow could be detached from the sunflower. If you needed to do this, just select Layer > Layer Styles > Create Layer. This puts all the effects into separate layers, which is useful, but can create many layers. Sometimes a combination of automatic and manually created effects are the best option. Fig. 37 Layer Styles Layer Blends / Layer Styles Layer Styles Indicator Styles Applied

42 42 Section 7: Working With Paths

43 43 Smooth Curves and Straight Lines Prepare the Washing Machine Image Working With Paths To save time, the images in the five squares in the final composition have already been selected from the website and saved without any editing. 131.Open S:/Training Department/Staff Personal Training/PS Tutorials/Argos/Washing.jpg to open the picture of the washing machine This picture is exactly as it would be if you had copied it from the site and pasted it into a new PhotoShop document. 132.Copy the washing machine into the working composition by viewing both at the same time (Window > Tile), then dragging the washing machine layer directly into the composition from the Layers Palette –The washing machine image can now be closed 133.Use the Move tool to position the washing machine inside the first square 134.Select Edit > Transform > Scale to resize it. Holding Shift while dragging will constrain the shape 135.Press Enter to apply the transformation You need to delete the white background, but the Magic Eraser will be unreliable due to the similarity of the colours, and the Quick Mask would require a steady hand. To create a selection with straight lines and smooth curves, you will use the Pen and its associated tools. Fig. 38 The Pen Tools

44 44 The Pen Tool Dot-To-Dot Paths With the Pen tool (Fig. 38), curves and lines can be created between anchor points. Each anchor point has two leader handles to control the direction of the curve as it enters and leaves the point. Tension is created in a curve when one point sends it in one direction and the next point pulls it from another direction. Left-clicking places the first anchor point, and holding then dragging in the direction of the curve displays the leader handles (Fig. 39). Clicking and dragging again places the second anchor point and sets the direction for the next segment. The length and direction of the leader handles between any two points changes the shape and tension of the curve segment between them. Tip:To create the smoothest curves, place anchor points only where the curve changes direction, and use as few anchor points as possible. To draw straight lines between anchor points, just click to place the point without dragging. This will create corner points instead of smooth points. The shape created with the Pen tool is called a Path. For the beginner, it is sometimes easier to create a path by placing the key anchor points as corners with straight lines, then pulling out the leader handles and creating the curves. This is the method you will use to draw a path around the washing machine. Fig. 39 Creating a Curve Anchor Point 1 Anchor Point 2 Drag Curve Segment Leader Handles Working With Paths

45 45 Creating / Editing a Path Tracing the Washing Machine 136.Zoom-in on the washing machine by drawing a box around it with the Magnifying Glass tool (Fig. 4) 137.Select the Pen tool (Fig. 38) and double-click it to display its Options at the top of the screen 138.Choose the following option: –Select the Create New Work Path icon –Deselect Auto Add/Delete points, as this makes it simpler for the beginner –Make sure Rubber Band is ticked. This will display the next segment line as you move the mouse before you click, helping to position the next point 139.Place anchor points around the edge of the washing machine (Fig. 40) Fig. 40 Washing Machine Path Working With Paths Use the Direct Selection tool (Fig. 38) - not the Move tool - to reposition any anchor points which need moving. If necessary, use the Convert Point tool (Fig. 38) to change a corner into a curve by clicking on the point and dragging the leader handles out, or to convert a curve back into a corner. Extra anchor points can be added by clicking on the path with the Add Anchor Point tool selected, or deleted by using the Delete Anchor Point tool (Fig. 38). Notice as you return to the first point, the cursor changes shape to indicate the path will close.

46 46 Load the Path As a Selection The Paths Palette Fig. 41 The Paths Palette The Paths Palette contains a thumbnail representation of the path you just created, named Work Path by default. If you needed to save the path so that you can retrieve it again later, you could click on the Path Options arrow (Fig. 41) and select Save Path. You created the path so that everything surrounding the washing machine can be deleted, but in order to do this, you need to convert the path to a selection; 140.If the Paths Palette is not visible, select Window > Show Paths 141.Drag the Work Path onto the Load Path as a Selection icon (Fig. 41) The path is replaced with Marching Ants to indicate it is now a selection (Fig. 42). The washing machine is selected, but you need to select everything outside the washing machine in that layer. You need to inverse the selection; 142.From the menu bar choose Select > Inverse 143.Make sure you are working in the correct layer, press Delete, and then deselect by pressing Ctrl+D Working With Paths Delete Path Create New Path Load Selection as a Path Load Path as a Selection Stroke Path Fill Path Path Options Drag

47 47 Inversing the Selection Deleting the White Background Fig. 42 Path Converted to Selection The other objects and the little girl can all be found in the same directory. 144.For each one; a)Open it and drag the layer containing the object into the composition b)Position and scale the object accordingly c)Use the Pen and its associated tools to create a path around the object d)Turn the path into a selection e)Inverse the selection f)Press Delete g)Apply a drop shadow The picture of the little girl has already been isolated from the background, and needs only to be scaled and positioned. Working With Paths

48 48 A Variety of Selection Methods Fig. 43 The Final Composition Working With Paths

49 49 Section 8: Save for Web

50 50 Compression File Types Save for Web Now that the composition is complete, you can prepare it for the presentation. PowerPoint does not support PhotoShop.psd files, so the composition needs to be compressed and saved in a format which PowerPoint can process and print quickly. A pictures format indicates the method of compression used, and an application needs to be able to decompress the image data so that it can be displayed. The compressions used most in Presentations are.jpg and.gif and there are major differences between the two. A.gif will generally produce good results if the original has blocks of solid colour and not much shading. This is because.gifs are limited to a maximum range of just 256 colours, so all shading and subtleties will be reduced and forced to become one of the 256. The range of colours available is called the Gamut. Colour-reduction makes the file size smaller, but it can significantly reduce the quality. If the original was a colour photo with lots of colours, tones and shades, as a.gif, noise (random areas of distortion) will appear where Out-of-Gamut colours (colours not included in the range of 256), are converted to fit. A colour photo generally needs a gamut of millions of colours to faithfully reproduce the spectrum of shades created by lighting, shadows and ambience, and so a.jpg would be more appropriate. However, if the original has simple plain colours, such as a logo, the 256-colour Gamut is usually enough for there to be little or no perceptual distortion, and unlike.jpgs,.gifs will allow transparency as one of the colours. From an original with plain colours, a.jpg would create a larger file because it will still carry a gamut of millions of colours, even though only a few are used, whereas a.gif can have the number of colours reduced to 2 if necessary. PhotoShop can help you to decide which method produces the best result by letting you compare different formats and compromise between quality and file size. 145.Always save your original work before entering Save for Web 146.Select File > Save for Web (Fig. 44) The Save for Web dialog allows you to preview and compare up to four compressed versions of the image. So you could test the file size and quality of your image as a.gif at various settings, and compare it with the results of the image as a.jpg, also at various settings, and choose the one which produces the best quality yet creates a small file size.

51 51 Compression (contd) 2-Up View Fig. 44 Save for Web Original File SizeCompressed File Size Image Size Colour Table Settings View Options Save for Web

52 52 Speeding-up the Refresh Change the Image Size First 147.From the View Options at the top of the dialog box, select 2-Up so that the original can be compared with a compressed preview (Fig. 44) The original is displayed on the left, and the optimized, compressed version on the right. The file size of each is displayed below each preview (Fig. 44) At the beginning of this tutorial, you measured the size of the rectangle covering the PowerPoint slide, and recorded the pixel size (1056 x 816) so that your final will be the same size and fit the page exactly. 148.Select the Image Size tab from the panel on the right hand side (Fig. 45) 149.Set the Width to 1056 and the Height to 816 pixels 150.Click Apply (do not press Enter) After the screen refreshes, notice the file size of the optimized version has shrunk significantly. For backgrounds, aim for a target file size of less than 100k. Logos should be less than 30k. The advantage of setting the image size first is that it will increase the speed of further calculations. Any more changes that you make will be applied to the reduced version instead of the large original. Now you need to assess which format will produce the best result. Fig. 45 Image Size Tab Save for Web

53 53 Comparing Formats.gif Settings 151.From the File Format drop-down list, select GIF (Fig. 46) 152.Set the Colour Reduction Method to Selective. This will select the 256 colours in the gamut from the image. Other options include reducing the colours so that they match Mac colours, or reducing them so that they will display correctly on the Internet 153.Set the Gamut Range to 256 The optimized window updates, and the 256 colours selected from the image are displayed in the Colour Table. The image forces all its colours to become one of the Notice the new file size of the optimized version. Also notice the quality of the image 155.Try setting the Gamut Range to 64 The optimized window refreshes again, and the Colour Table updates to display the 64 colours which now make the image. 156.Notice how the file size has been reduced, but the quality is deteriorating because the limited number of colours reduces the shading and detail Fig. 46.gif Settings Displaying 256-Colour Gamut File Format Presets Gamut Range Matte Colour Reduction Method Gamut Save for Web

54 54 Comparing Formats (contd).jpg Settings 157.From the File Format drop-down list, select JPEG 158.Experiment with different settings 159.Check the new file size and the quality of the optimized image From testing the various settings for both.jpg and.gif you can decide which will produce the best compromise between quality and file size, which one optimizes the best for this particular image. Even though there are plenty of areas of plain colour, the number of shades which make the fine details in changes of tone, light and texture need millions of colours to produce the best results. 160.Set the Compression Quality to High. The Image Quality automatically sets to 60 You should find that this yields the best quality at a smaller file size. 161.Click OK 162.Save the.jpg to a familiar location on S:/ Fig. 47.jpg Settings File Format Compression Quality Presets Image Quality Save for Web

55 55 Section 9: PowerPoint

56 56 Backgrounds Inserting the Image PowerPoint Before you decide whether to place the image in a Master Slide or to use it as the background format, test the size of it by inserting it as a picture; 163.In PowerPoint, select Insert > Picture > From File and locate the file you created in Save for Web The picture should fit the page exactly. 164.If the image appears as the background for every page, copy it into the Slide Master; a)Copy the image b)Select View > Master > Slide Master c)Paste the image 165.If it is to appear on only the title page, copy it into the Title Master a)Copy the image b)Select View > Master > Title Master c)If no Title Master is available, open the Slide Master, then select Insert > New Title Master d)Paste the image 166.Alternatively, you may want to have a different background on different pages; a)Right-click in a neutral background area of the page, or select Format b)Select Background c)From the dialog box, pull out the drop-down list and select Fill Effects d)Select the Picture Tab, then Select Picture e)Locate the image, then click Insert > OK f)Click Apply to All if the image is to appear on all pages, or Apply if it is only for the current page

57 57 Section 10: Next Steps

58 58 Where to Go From Here Experiment Next Steps Practice 167.Develop the composition into the other backgrounds used in this tutorial 168.Think of a business, maybe one of the FTSE100, or one you pass in the High Street, or for more of a challenge, open the Yellow Pages and choose the first business you look at. Visit their website if they have one, and get a feel for their corporate style and create a presentation title page for it Support The following websites offer PhotoShop tutorials, covering a wide range of skills and special effects; Samples of the authors work can be viewed at

59 59 The End


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