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The Holocaust © Karen Devine 2013. The Holocaust The Holocaust or Shoah, was the murder of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany during World War.

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Presentation on theme: "The Holocaust © Karen Devine 2013. The Holocaust The Holocaust or Shoah, was the murder of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany during World War."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Holocaust © Karen Devine 2013

2 The Holocaust The Holocaust or Shoah, was the murder of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II. The Holocaust or Shoah, was the murder of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II. © Karen Devine 2013

3 The Holocaust The translation of the word Shoah in Hebrew denotes a disaster, catastrophe, calamity or absolute destruction. The translation of the word Shoah in Hebrew denotes a disaster, catastrophe, calamity or absolute destruction. © Karen Devine 2013

4 The Holocaust It was the culmination of many hundreds of years of anti-semitism in Europe. It was the culmination of many hundreds of years of anti-semitism in Europe. © Karen Devine 2013

5 The Holocaust The extermination of the Jews was rooted in the myth that they were attempting to control the world which was the antithesis of the Aryan ideal. The extermination of the Jews was rooted in the myth that they were attempting to control the world which was the antithesis of the Aryan ideal. © Karen Devine 2013

6 The Holocaust The Holocaust also included the murder of other groups of people such as: The Holocaust also included the murder of other groups of people such as: a) Gypsies b) Homosexuals c) The disabled d) Soviet POWs e) Jehovahs Witnesses. © Karen Devine 2013

7 The Holocaust The Holocaust occurred in stages: The Holocaust occurred in stages: a) Legislative restrictions on civil rights b) Restricted movements within society c) Confiscation of Jewish property d) Creation of ghettos e) Forced removal to concentration camps f)Selections within the camps g) Random executions h) Gas chambers. © Karen Devine 2013

8 The Holocaust The Germans were meticulous in cataloguing all the material goods of the Jews, as well as their movements and extermination details. The Germans were meticulous in cataloguing all the material goods of the Jews, as well as their movements and extermination details. © Karen Devine 2013

9 The Holocaust Another horrendous aspect of the Holocaust was the degree of medical experimentation which occurred on living subjects. Another horrendous aspect of the Holocaust was the degree of medical experimentation which occurred on living subjects. Such tests included: Such tests included: a) Cold water immersion b) Amputations c) Sterilisations d) Freezing e) Injections of chemicals into the body f) Experiments on twins. © Karen Devine 2013

10 Pogroms Kristallnacht (1938) or crystal night was a pogrom unleashed against the Jews. Kristallnacht (1938) or crystal night was a pogrom unleashed against the Jews. Essentially it involved a night where Jews were attacked and there was a significant amount of Jewish property which was vandalised. Essentially it involved a night where Jews were attacked and there was a significant amount of Jewish property which was vandalised. © Karen Devine 2013

11 Pogroms 7000 shops and nearly 2000 synagogues were destroyed that evening shops and nearly 2000 synagogues were destroyed that evening. The pogroms led to mass evacuation of the Jews from many nations in Europe. The pogroms led to mass evacuation of the Jews from many nations in Europe. © Karen Devine 2013

12 Ghettos Ghettos were a method of separating and controlling Jews in a segregated area of a city. Ghettos were a method of separating and controlling Jews in a segregated area of a city. It was a space that held many thousands but was suitable for only hundreds of people. It was a space that held many thousands but was suitable for only hundreds of people. © Karen Devine 2013

13 Ghettos The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest with 380,000 Jews contained within and approximately 40,000 people died within its walls. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest with 380,000 Jews contained within and approximately 40,000 people died within its walls. © Karen Devine 2013

14 Ghettos I n Poland ghettos were created to initially both contain the Jews and to get them working for the German war machine. I n Poland ghettos were created to initially both contain the Jews and to get them working for the German war machine. © Karen Devine 2013

15 Ghettos Inside the ghettos people were deprived of almost every aspect of a reasonable life. Inside the ghettos people were deprived of almost every aspect of a reasonable life. © Karen Devine 2013

16 Ghettos The ghettos were to be a place of transition until resettlement in the east, but ultimately they were prisons before transport to the extermination camps. The ghettos were to be a place of transition until resettlement in the east, but ultimately they were prisons before transport to the extermination camps. © Karen Devine 2013

17 Exterminations Ultimately the hangings, shootings, use of grenades and random bashings were considered to be too slow as a method of murdering the Jews. Ultimately the hangings, shootings, use of grenades and random bashings were considered to be too slow as a method of murdering the Jews. © Karen Devine 2013

18 Exterminations They were transported to extermination camps for both work and death. They were transported to extermination camps for both work and death. The transport system was via cattle trains where the Jews were herded in for the long journeys to resettlement. The transport system was via cattle trains where the Jews were herded in for the long journeys to resettlement. © Karen Devine 2013

19 Exterminations Once at the camps a selection process occurred whereby able-bodied workers were assigned jobs and children, the elderly, disabled and unfit were sent for extermination. Once at the camps a selection process occurred whereby able-bodied workers were assigned jobs and children, the elderly, disabled and unfit were sent for extermination. © Karen Devine 2013

20 Exterminations The Nazis tortured their prisoners further by telling them they were heading for the showers and therefore needed to strip down and surrender their clothes. The Nazis tortured their prisoners further by telling them they were heading for the showers and therefore needed to strip down and surrender their clothes. Outside the gas chamber was a sign which read spa. Outside the gas chamber was a sign which read spa. © Karen Devine 2013

21 Exterminations Once people were inside the chamber (which held up to 1,200) a pellet of Zyklon-B was dropped which released hydrogen-cyanide. Once people were inside the chamber (which held up to 1,200) a pellet of Zyklon-B was dropped which released hydrogen-cyanide. People either died instantly or within 20 minutes. People either died instantly or within 20 minutes. © Karen Devine 2013

22 Exterminations When the bodies were removed from the chambers the Germans continued their desecration by removing gold fillings from teeth and shaving the womens heads. When the bodies were removed from the chambers the Germans continued their desecration by removing gold fillings from teeth and shaving the womens heads. © Karen Devine 2013

23 Exterminations Towards the end of WWII 8,000 people per day were executed in Auschwitz. Towards the end of WWII 8,000 people per day were executed in Auschwitz. © Karen Devine 2013

24 Exterminations In addition to extermination camps such as Auschwitz, there were also work camps such as Dachau. In addition to extermination camps such as Auschwitz, there were also work camps such as Dachau. The focus of these camps was hard labour, yet many died here as well from disease, starvation and exposure. The focus of these camps was hard labour, yet many died here as well from disease, starvation and exposure. © Karen Devine 2013

25 Jewish Resistance Jews attempted resistance of the Nazis via many methods, most of which ended in their summary executions. Jews attempted resistance of the Nazis via many methods, most of which ended in their summary executions. © Karen Devine 2013

26 Jewish Resistance Other methods they tried were: Other methods they tried were: a) Passive resistance b) Bribery c) Delays d) Bargaining e) Negotiation f) Hostile resistance g) Underground resistance movements. © Karen Devine 2013

27 Death Marches As the war drew to an end, the Nazis did all in their power to exterminate the remaining prisoners and to cover up the atrocities. As the war drew to an end, the Nazis did all in their power to exterminate the remaining prisoners and to cover up the atrocities. © Karen Devine 2013

28 Death Marches Mass graves were dug up and the bodies cremated. Mass graves were dug up and the bodies cremated. Crematoriums were dynamited and the gas chambers were dismantled. Crematoriums were dynamited and the gas chambers were dismantled. Farmers were also encouraged to plant crops over certain areas to cover evidence. Farmers were also encouraged to plant crops over certain areas to cover evidence. © Karen Devine 2013

29 Death Marches The remaining prisoners were either executed or were forced into marching from one camp to another to join trains for shipment to another extermination camp. The remaining prisoners were either executed or were forced into marching from one camp to another to join trains for shipment to another extermination camp. © Karen Devine 2013

30 Death Marches During these death marches, the already exhausted and sick prisoners faced exposure and starvation. During these death marches, the already exhausted and sick prisoners faced exposure and starvation. Those who were too slow were shot. Those who were too slow were shot. It is estimated that 250,000 Jews died on the death marches. It is estimated that 250,000 Jews died on the death marches. © Karen Devine 2013

31 Death Marches Slowly over 1944 and 1945 the camps were liberated by the Soviets, Americans and British. Slowly over 1944 and 1945 the camps were liberated by the Soviets, Americans and British. The horrors they found there were unimaginable. The horrors they found there were unimaginable. © Karen Devine 2013

32 Pause Point © Karen Devine 2013 Watch this film on the Holocaust.Holocaust.

33 © Karen Devine 2013 Question Time Why do some people deny that the holocaust occurred?


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