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Machine Protection – ISSC 2010B. ToddAugust 2010 Thanks to : TE/MPE/MI, CERN Machine Protection Panel, et al 0v3 A Future Safety System?

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Presentation on theme: "Machine Protection – ISSC 2010B. ToddAugust 2010 Thanks to : TE/MPE/MI, CERN Machine Protection Panel, et al 0v3 A Future Safety System?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Machine Protection – ISSC 2010B. ToddAugust 2010 Thanks to : TE/MPE/MI, CERN Machine Protection Panel, et al 0v3 A Future Safety System?

3 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN Founded in 1954 Funded by the European Union 20 Member States 8 Observer States and Organisations 35 Non-Member States …Japan, Russia, USA… 580 Institutes World Wide 2500 Staff 8000 Visiting Scientists …Australia, Canada, New Zealand… …most of the EU… European Centre for Nuclear Research Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire Pure Science – Particle Physics 1.Pushing the boundaries of research, physics beyond the standard model. 2.Advancing frontiers of technology. 3.Forming collaborations through science 4.Educating the scientists and engineers of tomorrow

4 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? 4 We use the worlds largest and most complex scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter. These instruments are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions. Our flag-ship project is the Large Hadron Collider…

5 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN CERN Accelerator Complex Lake Geneva Geneva Airport CERN LAB 1 (Switzerland) CERN LAB 2 (France)

6 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN CERN Accelerator Complex Lake Geneva Geneva Airport CERN LAB 1 (Switzerland) CERN LAB 2 (France) Proton Synchrotron (PS) Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

7 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? The Large Hadron Collider

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9 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN, the LHC and Machine Protection CERN 9 of 23 CERN Accelerator Complex Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Beam-1 Transfer Line (TI2) Beam-2 Transfer Line (TI8) Beam Dumping Systems ~ 9 km ~ 5.5 miles Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) 150m underground, 100us for one turn, 1e12 protons / injection

10 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN CERN Accelerator Complex CMS ALICE ATLAS LHC-b

11 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? ATLAS – A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS 11

12 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? ATLAS – A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS 12

13 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? ATLAS 13

14 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Why the LHC? 14 [11] material costs of the LHC and experiments $4 billion The Higgs Boson Gravity is such a weak force – can it be explained? high intensity = more events high energy = more massive particles possible LHC Beam Intensity = 3 x p LHC Energy = 7 TeV Dark Matter / Energy 96% of mass in the universe is unaccounted for Do Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) account for this? Beyond the Standard Model String Theory / Super Symmetry / Super String Theory / A Theory of Everything? We need some clues! collide two beams…

15 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? ~10 9 proton-proton collisions per second Massive amounts of data generated – all must be processed new particles are rare – only a few events per day Collisions 15 [3]

16 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Stored energy in the magnet circuits is 9 GJ Technological Challenges 16 …To see the rarest events… LHC needs high luminosity of [cm -2 s -1 ] 3 x p per beam … to get 7 TeV operation… LHC needs 8.3 Tesla dipole fields with circumference of 27 kms (16.5 miles) … to get 8.3 Tesla … LHC needs super-conducting magnets <2°K (-271°C) with an operational current of 13kA cooled in super fluid helium maintained in a vacuum 1 ppm Collisions generate PetaBytes of data Per year two orders of magnitude higher than others Worlds largest machine [11] A magnet will QUENCH with milliJoule deposited energy Stored energy per beam is 360 MJ 10x less pressure than on moon surface

17 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Stored energy in the magnet circuits is 9 GJ Technological Challenges 17 [11] Stored energy per beam is 360 MJ Kinetic Energy of 200m Train at 155 km/h 360 MJ

18 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Stored energy in the magnet circuits is 9 GJ Technological Challenges 18 [11] Stored energy per beam is 360 MJ Kinetic Energy of 200m Train at 155 km/h 360 MJ Kinetic Energy of Aircraft Carrier at 50 km/h 9 GJ

19 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Protection Function x energy per magnet of TEVATRON magnet quenched = hours downtime many magnets quenched = days downtime (few spares) 100x energy of TEVATRON Emergency DischargeMagnet Energy Powering Protection: Beam DumpBeam Energy Beam Protection: magnet damaged = $1 million, months downtime many magnets damaged = many millions, many months downtime % of beam lost into a magnet = quench 0.005% beam lost into magnet = damage Failure in protection – complete loss of LHC is possible

20 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Protection Function x energy of TEVATRON Beam DumpBeam Energy Beam Protection: % of beam lost into a magnet = quench 0.005% beam lost into magnet = damage Failure in protection – complete loss of LHC is possible 8m long absorber Graphite = 800°C Concrete Shielding Beam is painted diameter 35cm

21 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Protection Function x energy of TEVATRON Beam DumpBeam Energy Beam Protection: % of beam lost into a magnet = quench 0.005% beam lost into magnet = damage Failure in protection – complete loss of LHC is possible To protect against fastest failure modes 400 µs over 27km

22 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 22 [11] Vacuum Pressure Vacuum Pump Speed Control Fulfill operational requirements Plant Systems: Vacuum Example: maintain correct pressure

23 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 23 [11] Vacuum Pressure Vacuum Pump Speed Control Vacuum Pressure Vacuum Valve Actuator Ensure plant stays within limits Plant Protection: Fulfill operational requirements Plant Systems: Vacuum Example: maintain correct pressure bad pressure = close valves

24 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 24 [11] Vacuum Pump Speed Control Vacuum Pressure Vacuum Valve Actuator Sensors, Actuators and Process may be combined No rules regarding combination Must meet functional requirement Ensure plant stays within limits Fulfill operational requirements Plant Systems:

25 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 25 [11] Access doors Beam absorbers personnel safe but machine at risk People in perimeter – stop machine Personnel Safety System: cannot be merged with plants Must meet legal requirement

26 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 26 [11] Prevent damage to machine Prevent undue stress to components Machine Protection System: No rules regarding implementation Must meet functional requirement

27 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 27 [11] powering protection closely coupled to powering plant Prevent damage to machine Prevent undue stress to components Machine Protection System: No rules regarding implementation Must meet functional requirement

28 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 28 [11] Personnel Safety System: Plant Systems: Machine Protection System: danger exists – extract energy danger will exist – extract energy

29 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? LHC Equipment and Control System 29 [11] Personnel Safety System: Plant Systems: Machine Protection System: danger exists – extract energy danger will exist – extract energy Beam protection inputs from Safety system Plant systems Dedicated sensors

30 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Developing the Machine Protection System 30 Why am I here? … machine protection safety But… cost of protection system failure is enormous LHC is (just) the first machine with these energy risks High Energy Physics community has to learn to deal with the challenges System-safety ideas, concepts and approaches have to be absorbed by CERN LHC is its own prototype: systems involved protection are unique certain technologies used have never been tried on this scale before I can argue that the MPS is fit for purpose My mission: rigorous development of machine protection as if it were a safety system But: can our argument-based approach be accepted by system-safety?

31 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Developing the Machine Protection System 31 CERNs machine protection system development process… could this ever be considered as a safety-system? prior knowledge assumptions simulations failure cases solutions for every failure case testing Implementation verification It took more than ten years to address all of the issues for the LHC… And were still learning…

32 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? The Machine Protection System Today 32 Powering ProtectionBeam Protection

33 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? The Machine Protection System Today 33

34 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Install magnets LEP Upgrade September 10 th first circulating beam CERN approves LHC project November 20 th second startup 3.5 TeV 7.0 TeV Repair November 30 th 1.18 TeV November 23 rd 450 GeV The Story So Far September 18 th first lesson learned

35 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Install magnets LEP Upgrade September 10 th first circulating beam CERN approves LHC project November 20 th second startup 3.5 TeV 7.0 TeV Repair November 30 th 1.18 TeV November 23 rd 450 GeV September 18 th first lesson learned

36 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? The Future – Linear Accelerators 36 CLIC – Compacy LInear Collider LHC results = electron / positron collider required for detailed study CERN is designing CLIC machine protection Various Institutes designing ILC machine protection Only one of these likely to be built – depends on what LHC discovers ILC – International Linear Collider logical next step for physics specification to be finished circa 2015 > $10 Billion machines km long beam energy densities 1000x higher than previous e - e + machines beam energy 10000x above component damage limit

37 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

38 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? The Future – ITER 38 [11] ITER – International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor first steps of 50-year plan prove / disprove fusion feasibility for commercialisation > $10 Billion machine > 100 GJ of stored magnetic energy 500MW of fusion for 1000 seconds vs state-of-the-art: 16MW of fusion for 1 second (Joint European Torus) Tritium – Deuterium Fusion many synergies with LHC challenges CERN is consulting on the design of the ITER Machine Protection…

39 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? The Future – ITER 39 [11] ITER – International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor first steps of 50-year plan prove / disprove fusion feasibility for commercialisation > $10 Billion machine > 100 GJ of stored magnetic energy 500MW of fusion for 1000 seconds vs current record: 16MW of fusion for 1 second (Joint European Torus) Tritium – Deuterium Fusion many synergies with LHC challenges CERN is consulting on the design of the ITER Machine Protection…

40 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? An Outlook 40 LHC is its own prototype, a unique machine, 30 years in the making key protection systems involved are one-of-a-kind LHC is the first machine with such massive built-in destruction potential cost of failure is extreme we have used an argument based approach to address the issues weve had positive and negative experiences Could stake-holders demand some compliance from us to insure their investment? My mission: rigorous development of machine protection as if it were a safety system. Keep the deep-thinking approach, incorporate system-safety techniques Future machines: bigger, more powerful, more challenging protection already crucial, even in first design drafts Ultimate goal: certification. Wishful thinking? High Energy Physics community has to learn to deal with the challenges Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? – an open question to your community

41 CERN Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? 41 Machine Protection – A Future Safety System? CERN Fin Thank you for your attention


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