Presentation on theme: "U NDERSTANDING P ERSPECTIVES & P OINTS OF V IEW Group A Michael Glynn Quadeisha Daniels Vanessa Dripaul Anne Gage."— Presentation transcript:
U NDERSTANDING P ERSPECTIVES & P OINTS OF V IEW Group A Michael Glynn Quadeisha Daniels Vanessa Dripaul Anne Gage
I NTRODUCTION Each one of us speaks and acts through our own point of view influenced by our perspectives and experiences. Everything we read and hear come from someone elses point of view. Even our textbooks and professors speak from their own point of view even though they have experience and knowledge. Perspectives and experience shape who we are and our point of view and although they may be helpful to us, to other they may mean nothing at all. Points of view can be true even though they are contrasting because it is the perspectives that shape these points of view. Since we cannot perceive outside of our own experiences it makes understanding others points of view difficult.
P ERSPECTIVES, P OINTS OF V IEW, AND G OALS Besides perspectives and experiences, goals also shape our point of view. Everything we do is done with a goal in mind which we wish to accomplish. These goals affect everything we do, which in turn affect our experience, which shape our perspective, which create our point of view. It is important to take these biases as guidelines and not word for word. When listening or reading it is important to understand is it important to understand the goals and perspectives of the author or speaker and relate this to your own goals and experience to better understand what is being said.
Q UESTION 1 Consider the following statement, The quality of your thinking is the most important component of an information system. Do you agree with this statement? Do you think it is even possible to say that one component is the most important one?
Q UALITY OF T HINKING AND I NFORMATION S YSTEMS The quality of your thinking is the most important component of an information system. This statement is absolutely true. Without a strong quality of thinking it would be next to impossible to put any of the information system to use. It would be like having a car without an engine. There is nothing to run the machine. It is possible to say that one component of an information system is more important than another, however it would not necessarily be correct because it is a matter of point of view shaped by perspective. No parts in the system can work without the others. They are all interdependent and require each other to work.
Q UESTION 2 The text claims that although it is impossible to raise your IQ, it is possible to improve the quality of your thinking. Do you agree? Whether or not you agree, give three examples that illustrate differences in quality of thinking. They can all be examples from one person or three different people.
I MPROVING Y OUR T HINKING It is possible to improve your thinking through expanding the way in which you think. If you look past the problem and to the way in which your perspectives will shape your decision then you can look past that to see how your decision will influence and make a difference to others allowing you to make the best decision possible. A person with a low quality of thinking will look at the question one dimensionally and answer from their own point of view without taking the point of view of others in to account. Another person may take in to account how others their perspectives shape their decision. A high quality thinker will take in to account others point of view as well as their own when decision making and thinking.
Q UESTION 3 Though it does not appear so, the statement, There are five components of an information system: hardware, software, data, procedures, and people is an opinion based on a perspective. Suppose you said this opinion to a computer engineer who said, Rubbish. Thats not true at all. The only components that count are hardware and maybe software. Contrast the perspective of the engineer with that of your MIS professor. How do those perspectives influence their opinions about the five component framework? Which is correct?
I NFLUENCES OF P ERSPECTIVES ON THE F IVE C OMPONENTS OF THE MIS S YSTEM The five components of an information system could be interpreted differently by many people. It all depends on how you use the information on day to day basis. Someone such as an engineer may believe that the only components they use are the hardware and maybe the software, but a MIS professor may believe that we use all five components of the information systems. The engineer may feel this way because his job may only deal with the technical aspects while an MIS professor sees the need for all components to be used and teaches this to his/her students. In this aspect both the computer engineer and the MIS professor are correct because neither is wrong it is just that their perspectives and experiences affect their answers.
Q UESTION 4 Consider Batesons definition, Information is a difference that makes a difference. How can this definition be used to advantage when designing a web page? Explain why someone who specializes in quantitative methods might consider this definition to be useless. How can a definition be both useful and useless?
D EFINING I NFORMATION IS A DIFFERENCE THAT MAKES A DIFFERENCE. "Information is a difference that makes a difference" could be used to advantage when designing a web page because when you make a web page, you can allow people to see what you want them to see. The information you send to the public is the only information they can receive so you would be able to persuade the public to be on your side if you have something they want. Someone who specializes in quantitative methods may see this definition as useless because in quantitative methods there is usually some form of equation used to formulate an answer; there is not much you can do with the information you are given. Although definitions may be helpful to some because it relates to their experiences it may be useless to others because it does not relate to their perspectives
Q UESTION 5 Some students hate open ended questions. They want questions that have one correct answer, like 7.3 miles per hour. When given a question like that in question 4, a question that has multiple, equally valid answers, some students get angry or frustrated. They want the book or the professor to give them the answer. How do you feel about this matter?
O PEN E NDED Q UESTIONS VS. S TRAIGHT F ORWARD Q UESTIONS You dont need the book or the professor to give you answers to an open-ended. With open-ended questions, you can express your answer and opinion more freely. I agree with the fact that one answer questions are straightforward and trouble-free but at the same time you cant really state your opinion on one answer questions even if you disagree with the answer or not. While straight forward questions have a definite answer, open ended questions leave room for discussion and opinions. Straight forward questions do not have room to examine our own point of view or perspectives where open ended questions allow us to have that insight. Many students get frustrated at open ended questions because they do not grasp the point of view idea
Q UESTION 6 Do you think someone can improve the quality of his or her thinking by learning to hold multiple, contradictory ideas in mind at the same time? Or, do you think that doing so leads to indecisive and ineffective thinking? Discuss this question with some of your friends. What do they think? What are their perspectives?
HOLDING MULTIPLE IDEAS IS WISER RATHER THAN INEFFECTIVE AND INDECISIVE MULTIFACETED THINKING IMPROVES THE QUALITY OF ONES THINKING IT IS AN EFFECTIVE MENTAL PROCESS AND A VALUEABLE FOUNDATION FOR CRITICAL – THINKING MULTIPLE IDEAS HELPS TO THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX IT CREATES A FRAME MIND BY WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT SPEAK AND ACT ONLY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ONES PERSONAL POINT OF VIEW IT GRANTS POWERFUL POSITION TO WALK IN OTHERS PEOPLE SHOES AND UNDERSTAND THEIR PERSPECTIVES IT EMPOWERS US TO DISCERN AND ADAPT TO THEIR PERSPECTIVES AND GOALS
CRITICAL-THINKING IT ENTAILS TAKING IN INFORMATION AND APPREHENDING ITS RELEVANCE: ANALYSIS=IDENTIFY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CONCEPTS EVALUATION=ONES REASONING INFERENCE=TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS BASED ON DATA RESULTS=JUDGMENTS AND DECISIONS THAT OPTIMIZE GOALS AND PROBLEM-SOLUTIONS IT IS A FACT THE INTEGRATION OF THE STUDY OF JUDGING AND DECISION-MAKING CONDUCTED IN PSYCHOLOGY IN DISCIPLINES LIKE ECONOMICS, FINANCE, MARKETING, LAW…
TWO SYSTEMS OF DECISION- MAKING THE PSYCHOLOGIST AND NOBLE PRIZE WINNER DANIEL KAHNEMAN DESCRIBES TWO SYSTEMS OF DECISION-MAKING: EXPERIENTIAL =FAST, DIFFICULT TO CONTROL, INTUITIVE, SUBJECT TO EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES, LIMITS OF INTUITION,MAINTAIN RELATIVE SMALL AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION ANALYTICAL =SLOWER, DELIBERATE, INVOLVES REASONABLE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION, BETTER SOLUTIONS,FORMAL ANALYTIC PROCESSES THAT WEIGHTS AND SUMS PREDICTOR VARIABLES FOR A QUANTITATIVE FORECAST IN A GLOBAL BUSINESS WORLD THE SCOPE IS TO RESIST OUR INCLINATION TO DRAW SIMPLE CONCLUSIONS FROM DYNAMIC AND COMPLEX SITUATIONS. TO CONSIDER THE OPPOSITE OF ONES IDEA OR SOLUTION REDUCES ERRORS IN JUDGMENTS DUE TO DECISIONS BASED ON BIASES AND HEURISTICS
THERE IS A DEMAND FOR NONROUTINE COGNITIVE SKILLS ABSTRACT REASONING PROBLEM-SOLVING COMMUNICATION COLLABORATION TO BE CONFORTABLE WITH AMBIGUITY AND TO TAKE RISKS AND TO EXPERIMENT