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Part 1 Basic HDL Coding Techniques. Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to: Specify FPGA resources that may need to be instantiated.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1 Basic HDL Coding Techniques. Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to: Specify FPGA resources that may need to be instantiated."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1 Basic HDL Coding Techniques

2 Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to: Specify FPGA resources that may need to be instantiated Identify some basic design guidelines that successful FPGA designers follow Select a proper HDL coding style for fast, efficient circuits

3 Breakthrough Performance Three steps to achieve breakthrough performance 1. Utilize dedicated resources Dedicated resources are faster than a LUT/flip-flop implementation and consume less power Typically built with the CORE Generator tool and instantiated DSP48E, FIFO, block RAM, ISERDES, OSERDES, EMAC, and MGT, for example 2. Write code for performance Use synchronous design methodology Ensure the code is written optimally for critical paths Pipeline when necessary 3. Drive your synthesis tool Try different optimization techniques Add critical timing constraints in synthesis Preserve hierarchy Apply full and correct constraints Use High effort Performance Meter Virtex-6 FPGA

4 Use Dedicated Blocks Dedicated block timing is correct by construction –Not dependent on programmable routing –Uses less power Offers as much as 3x the performance of soft implementations –Examples Block RAM and FIFO at 600 MHz DSP48E at 600 MHz Phy Interface Rx Stats Mx Rx Stats Mx Tx Stats Mx Tx Stats Mx EMAC Core Host Interface Statistics Interface Client Interface Host Bus DCR Bus Proce ssor Interfa ce Proce ssor Interfa ce Smart RAM FIFO FIFO Dual-Port BRAM Dual-Port BRAM EMAC Core DSP48E Slice

5 Timing Closure

6 Instantiation versus Inference Instantiate a component when you must dictate exactly which resource is needed –The synthesis tool is unable to infer the resource –The synthesis tool fails to infer the resource Xilinx recommends inference whenever possible –Inference makes your code more portable Xilinx recommends using the CORE Generator software to create functions such as Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs), fast multipliers, and Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters for instantiation Xilinx recommends using the Architecture Wizard utility to create DCM, PLL, and clock buffer instantiations

7 FPGA Resources Can be inferred by all synthesis tools –Shift register LUT (SRL16E/ SRLC32E) –F7 and F8 multiplexers –Carry logic –Multipliers and counters using the DSP48E –Global clock buffers (BUFG) –SelectIO (single-ended) interface –I/O registers (single data rate) –Input DDR registers Can be inferred by some synthesis tools –Memories –Global clock buffers (BUFGCE, BUFGMUX, BUFGDLL) –Some DSP functions Cannot be inferred by any synthesis tools –SelectIO (differential) interface –Output DDR registers –DCM / PLL –Local clock buffers (BUFIO, BUFR)

8 Suggested Instantiation Xilinx recommends that you instantiate the following elements –Memory resources Block RAMs specifically (use the CORE Generator software to build large memories) –SelectIO interface resources –Clocking resources DCM, PLL (use the Architecture Wizard) IBUFG, BUFGMUX_CTRL, BUFGCE BUFIO, BUFR

9 Suggested Instantiation Why does Xilinx suggest this? –Easier to port your HDL to other and newer technologies –Fewer synthesis constraints and attributes to pass on Keeping most of the attributes and constraints in the Xilinx User Constraints File (UCF) keeps it simpleone file contains critical information Create a separate hierarchical block for instantiating these resources –Above the top-level block, create a Xilinx wrapper with instantiations specific to Xilinx –Instead use VHDL configuration statements or put wrappers around each instantiation This maintains hierarchy and makes it easy to swap instantiations Top-Level Block Top-Level Block BUFG DCM IBUFG Xilinx wrapper top_xlnx IBUFOBUF START UP

10 Hierarchy Management Synplify and XST software The basic settings are –Flatten the design: Allows total combinatorial optimization across all boundaries –Maintain hierarchy: Preserves hierarchy without allowing optimization of combinatorial logic across boundaries (recommended) If you have followed the synchronous design guidelines, use the setting -maintain hierarchy If you have not followed the synchronous design guidelines, use the setting -flatten the design. –Consider using the keep attribute to preserve nodes for testing Your synthesis tool may have additional settings –Refer to your synthesis documentation for details on these settings

11 Hierarchy Preservation Benefits Easily locate problems in the code based on the hierarchical instance names contained within static timing analysis reports Enables floorplanning and incremental design flow The primary advantage of flattening is to optimize combinatorial logic across hierarchical boundaries –If the outputs of leaf-level blocks are registered, there is generally no need to flatten

12 Multiplexers Multiplexers are generated from IF and CASE statements –IF/THEN statements generate priority encoders –Use a CASE statement to generate complex encoding There are several issues to consider with a multiplexer –Delay and size Affected by the number of inputs and number of nested clauses to an IF/THEN or CASE statement –Unintended latches or clock enables Generated when IF/THEN or CASE statements do not cover all conditions Review your synthesis tool warnings Check by looking at the component with a schematic viewer

13 IF/THEN Statement Priority Encoder –Most critical input listed first –Least critical input listed last do_c do_e cond_c cond_b do_b cond_a do_a crit_sig do_d oput 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 IF ( crit_sig ) THEN oput <= do_d ; ELSIF cond_a THEN oput <= do_a ; ELSIF cond_b THEN oput <= do_b; ELSIF cond_c THEN oput <= do_c; ELSE oput <= do_e ; END IF;

14 Avoid Nested IF and IF/ELSE Nested IF or IF/THEN/ELSE statements form priority encoders CASE statements do not have priority If nested IF statements are necessary, put critical input signals on the first IF statement –The critical signal ends up in the last logic stage

15 CASE Statements CASE statements in a combinatorial process (VHDL) or always statement (Verilog) –Latches are inferred if outputs are not defined in all branches –Use default assignments before the CASE statement to prevent latches CASE statements in a sequential process (VHDL) or always statement (Verilog) –Clock enables are inferred if outputs are not defined in all branches –This is not wrong, but might generate a long clock enable equation –Use default assignments before CASE statement to prevent clock enables

16 CASE Statements Register the select inputs if possible (pipelining) –Can reduce the number of logic levels between flip-flops Consider using one-hot select inputs –Eliminating the select decoding can improve performance Determine how your synthesis tool synthesizes the order of the select lines –If there is a critical select input, this input should be included last in the logic for fastest performance

17 CASE Statement This Verilog code describes a 6:1 multiplexer with binary- encoded select inputs –This uses fewer LUTs, but requires multiple LUTs in series on the timing critical path The advantage of using the dont care for the default, is that the synthesizer will have more flexibility to create a smaller, faster circuit How could the code be changed to use one-hot select inputs? module case_binary (clock, sel, data_out, in_a, in_b, in_d, in_c, in_e, in_f) ; input clock ; input [2:0] sel ; input in_a, in_b, in_c, in_d, in_e, in_f ; output data_out ; reg data_out; always @(posedge clock) begin case (sel) 3'b000 : data_out <= in_a; 3'b001 : data_out <= in_b; 3'b010 : data_out <= in_c; 3'b011 : data_out <= in_d; 3'b100 : data_out <= in_e; 3'b101 : data_out <= in_f; default : data_out <= 1'bx; endcase end endmodule

18 CASE Statement This is the same code with one- hot select inputs –This used more LUTs, but requires fewer logic levels on the timing critical path –This yields a greater benefit when the mux is larger Enumerated types allow you to quickly test different encoding –…and makes simulation more readable module case_onehot (clock, sel, data_out, in_a, in_b, in_d, in_c, in_e, in_f) ; input clock ; input [5:0] sel ; input in_a, in_b, in_c, in_d, in_e, in_f ; output data_out ; reg data_out; always @(posedge clock) begin case (sel) 6'b000001 : data_out <= in_a; 6'b000010 : data_out <= in_b; 6'b000100 : data_out <= in_c; 6'b0010 00: data_out <= in_d; 6'b010000 : data_out <= in_e; 6'b100000 : data_out <= in_f; default : data_out <= 1'bx; endcase end endmodule

19 Other Basic Performance Tips Avoid high-level loop constructs –Synthesis tools may not produce optimal results Order and group arithmetic and logical functions and operators –A <= B + C + D + E; should be: A <= (B + C) + (D + E) Use a synchronous reset –More reliable system control

20 Synchronous Design Rewards Always make your design synchronous –Recommended for all FPGAs Failure to use synchronous design can potentially –Waste device resources Not using a synchronous element will not save silicon and it wastes money –Waste performance Reduces capability of end products; higher speed grades cost more –Lead to difficult design process Difficult timing specifications and tool-effort levels –Cause long-term reliability issues Probability, race conditions, temperature, and process effects Synchronous designs have –Few clocks –Synchronous resets –No gated clocks; instead, clock enables

21 Inferred Register Examples always @(posedge CLOCK) Q = D_IN; always @(posedge CLOCK or posedge RESET) if (RESET) Q = 0; else Q = D_IN; always @(posedge CLOCK or posedge PRESET) if (PRESET) Q = 1; else Q = D_IN; always @(posedge CLOCK) if (RESET) Q = 0; else Q = D_IN; Ex 1 D Flip-Flop Ex 3. D Flip-Flop with Asynch Reset Ex 2. D Flip-Flop with Asynch Preset Ex 4. D Flip-Flop with Synch Reset

22 Clock Enables Coding style will determine if clock enables are used VHDL FF_AR_CE: process(ENABLE,CLK) begin if (CLKevent and CLK = 1) then if (ENABLE = 1) then Q <= D_IN; end if; end process Verilog always @(posedge CLOCK) if (ENABLE) Q = D_IN;

23 Summary Use as much of the dedicated hardware resources as possible to ensure optimum speed and device utilization Plan on instantiating clocking and memory resources Try to use the Core Generator tool to create optimized components that target dedicated FPGA resources (BRAM, DSP48E, and FIFO) Maintain your design hierarchy to make debugging, simulation, and report generation easier

24 Summary CASE and IF/THEN statements produce different types of multiplexers –CASE statements tend to build logic in parallel while IF/THEN statements tend to build priority encoders Avoid nested CASE and IF/THEN statements You should always build a synchronous design for your FPGA Inferring many types of flip-flops from HDL code is possible –Synchronous sets/resets are preferred

25 Where Can I Learn More? Software Manuals –Start Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.1 ISE Design Tools Documentation Software Manuals –This includes the Synthesis & Simulation Design Guide This guide has example inferences of many architectural resources –XST User Guide HDL language constructs and coding recommendations –Software User Guides and software tutorials Xilinx Education Services courses –www.xilinx.com/training Xilinx tools and architecture courses Hardware description language courses Basic FPGA architecture and other topics

26 Xilinx is disclosing this Document and Intellectual Property (hereinafter the Design) to you for use in the development of designs to operate on, or interface with Xilinx FPGAs. Except as stated herein, none of the Design may be copied, reproduced, distributed, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted, or transmitted in any form or by any means including, but not limited to, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Xilinx. Any unauthorized use of the Design may violate copyright laws, trademark laws, the laws of privacy and publicity, and communications regulations and statutes. Xilinx does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of the Design; nor does Xilinx convey any license under its patents, copyrights, or any rights of others. You are responsible for obtaining any rights you may require for your use or implementation of the Design. Xilinx reserves the right to make changes, at any time, to the Design as deemed desirable in the sole discretion of Xilinx. Xilinx assumes no obligation to correct any errors contained herein or to advise you of any correction if such be made. Xilinx will not assume any liability for the accuracy or correctness of any engineering or technical support or assistance provided to you in connection with the Design. THE DESIGN IS PROVIDED AS IS" WITH ALL FAULTS, AND THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO ITS FUNCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION IS WITH YOU. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NOT RELIED ON ANY ORAL OR WRITTEN INFORMATION OR ADVICE, WHETHER GIVEN BY XILINX, OR ITS AGENTS OR EMPLOYEES. XILINX MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, REGARDING THE DESIGN, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD-PARTY RIGHTS. IN NO EVENT WILL XILINX BE LIABLE FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, EXEMPLARY, SPECIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY LOST DATA AND LOST PROFITS, ARISING FROM OR RELATING TO YOUR USE OF THE DESIGN, EVEN IF YOU HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE TOTAL CUMULATIVE LIABILITY OF XILINX IN CONNECTION WITH YOUR USE OF THE DESIGN, WHETHER IN CONTRACT OR TORT OR OTHERWISE, WILL IN NO EVENT EXCEED THE AMOUNT OF FEES PAID BY YOU TO XILINX HEREUNDER FOR USE OF THE DESIGN. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE FEES, IF ANY, REFLECT THE ALLOCATION OF RISK SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT AND THAT XILINX WOULD NOT MAKE AVAILABLE THE DESIGN TO YOU WITHOUT THESE LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY. The Design is not designed or intended for use in the development of on-line control equipment in hazardous environments requiring fail-safe controls, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation or communications systems, air traffic control, life support, or weapons systems (High-Risk Applications). Xilinx specifically disclaims any express or implied warranties of fitness for such High-Risk Applications. You represent that use of the Design in such High-Risk Applications is fully at your risk. © 2012 Xilinx, Inc. All rights reserved. XILINX, the Xilinx logo, and other designated brands included herein are trademarks of Xilinx, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Trademark Information

27 Part 2 Basic HDL Coding Techniques

28 Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to: Identify some basic design guidelines that successful FPGA designers follow Select a proper HDL coding style for fast, efficient finite state machines Easily pipeline your design

29 Put the next-state logic in one CASE statement –The state register can also be included here or in a separate process block or always block Put the state machine outputs in a separate process or always block –Prevents resource sharing, which can hurt performance S1 S5 S4 S3 S2 State Machine Module Inputs to FSM Next-state logic State register State machine outputs HDL Code State Machine Design

30 The Perfect State Machine The perfect state machine has… –Inputs: Input signals and state jumps –Outputs: Output states, control signals, and enable signals to the rest of the design –NO arithmetic logic, datapaths, or combinatorial functions inside the state machine State Jumps Only! Input Signals Next State Current State Feedback to Drive State Jumps State Register Output State and Enables

31 State Machine Encoding Use enumerated types to define state vectors (VHDL) –Most synthesis tools have commands to extract and re-encode state machines described in this way Use one-hot encoding for high-performance state machines –Uses more registers, but simplifies next-state logic –Examine trade-offs: Gray and Johnson encoding styles can also improve performance –Refer to the documentation of your synthesis tool to determine how your synthesis tool chooses the default encoding scheme Register state machine outputs for higher performance

32 Benefits of FSM Encoding Binary –Smallest (fewest registers) –Complex FSM tends to build multiple levels of logic (slow) –Synthesis tools usually map to this encoding when FSM has eight or fewer states One-hot –Largest (more registers), but simplifies next-state logic (fast) –Synthesis tools usually map this when FSM has between 8 and 16 states –Always evaluate undefined states (you may need to cover your undefined states) Gray and Johnson –Efficient size and can have good speed Which is best? –Depends on the number of states, inputs to the FSM, complexity of transitions How do you determine which is best? –Build your FSM and then synthesize it for each encoding and compare size and speed

33 State Machine Example (Verilog) module STATE(signal_a, signal_b, clock, reset, usually_one, usually_zero); inputsignal_a, signal_b, clock, reset; outputusually_one, usually_zero; reg [4:0]current_state, next_state; parameters0 = 0, s1 = 1, s2 = 2, s3 = 3, s4 = 4; always @(posedge clock or posedge reset) begin if (reset) begin current_state <= s0; end else current_state <= next state; end Outputs are not defined here (good) –Placed in a separate always block Asynchronous reset (bad)

34 State Machine Example (Verilog) always @ (current_state or signal_a or signal_b) begin case (current_state) s0: if (signal_a) next_state = s0; else next_state = s1; s1: if (signal_a && ~signal_b) next_state = s4; else next_state = s2; s2: next_state = s4; s3: next_state = s3; s4: next_state = s0; default: next_state = bx; endcase end endmodule Use a default statement as part of your next state assignments (good)

35 reg [3:0] current_state, next_state; parameter state1 = 2b00, state2 = 2b01, state3 = 2b10, state4 = 2b11; always @ (current_state) case (current_state) state1 : next_state = state2; state2 : next_state = state3; state3 : next_state = state4; state4 : next_state = state1; endcase always @ (posedge clock) current_state = next_state; Test different FSM encodings yourself (good) –Dont always trust your synthesis tool to choose the best encoding Binary Encoding (Verilog)

36 reg [4:0]current_state,next_state; parameterstate1 = 4b0001, state2 = 4b0010, state3 = 4b0100, state4 = 4b1000; always @ (current_state) case (current_state) state1 : next_state = state2; state2 : next_state = state3; state3 : next_state = state4; state4 : next_state = state1; endcase always @ (posedge clock) current_state = next_state; Encoding is easily changed One-Hot Encoding (Verilog)

37 State Machine Example (VHDL) library IEEE; use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all; entity STATE is port ( signal a, signal b: in STD_LOGIC; clock, reset: in STD_LOGIC; usually_zero, usually_one: out STD_LOGIC ); end STATE; architecture STATE_arch of STATE is type STATE_TYPE is (s0,s1, s2, s3); signal current_state, next_state: STATE_TYPE; signal usually_zero_comb, usually_one_comb : STD_LOGIC; begin

38 State Machine Example (VHDL) COMB_STATE_MACHINE: process(current_state, signal a, signal b) begin next_state <= s0; usually_zero_comb <= '0'; usually_one_comb <= '1'; -- set default to one and reset to zero when necessary case current_state is when s0 => next_state <= s1; if signal a = '1' then next_state <= s0; end if; when s1 => next_state <= s2; if signal a='1' AND signal b = '0' then next_state <= s3; usually_zero_comb <= '1'; end if; when s2 => next_state <= s3; when s3 => usually_one_comb <= '0'; next_state <= s3; when others => next_state <= s0; end case; end process; Default state is used to define output values (good)

39 State Machine Example (VHDL) SYNCH_STATE_MACHINE: process(clock, reset) begin if (reset = '1') then current_state <= s0; usually_zero <= '0'; usually_one <= '1'; elsif (clock'event and clock = '1') then current_state <= next_state; usually_zero <= usually_zero_comb; usually_one <= usually_one_comb; end if; end process; end STATE_arch; Asynchronous reset (bad, unreliable)

40 entity EXAMPLE is port( A,B,C,D,E, CLOCK: in std_logic; X,Y,Z: out std_logic); end EXAMPLE; architecture XILINX of EXAMPLE is type STATE_LIST is (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7); signal STATE: STATE_LIST; begin P1: process( CLOCK ) begin if( CLOCKevent and CLOCK = 1) then case STATE is when S1 => X <= 0; Y <= 1; Z <= 1; if( A = 1 ) then STATE <= S2; else STATE <= S1; Undefined encoding (bad, probably inefficient) Unspecified Encoding (VHDL)

41 architecture one-hot_arch of one-hot is subtype state_type is std_logic_vector(5 downto 0); signal current_state, next_state: state_type; constant s0 : state_type := "000001"; constant s0_bit : integer := 0; constant s1_bit : integer := 1; constant s2_bit : integer := 2; constant s3_bit : integer := 3; constant s4a_bit : integer := 4; constant s4b_bit : integer := 5; signal usually_zero_comb, usually_one_comb : std_logic; begin comb_state_machine: process(current_state, signal a, signal b, signal c, signal d) begin next_state '0'); if current_state(s0_bit) = '1' then if signal a = '1' then next_state(s0_bit) <= '1'; else next_state(s1_bit) <= '1'; end if; if current_state(s1_bit) = '1' then next_state(s4a_bit) <= '1'; end if; end; OHE a little harder in VHDL (recommend using your synthesis tools attribute, if possible) One-Hot Encoding (VHDL)

42 Pipelining Concept DQ f MAX = n MHz f MAX 2n MHz two logic levels one level DQ DQDQDQ

43 Pipelining Three situations in which to pipeline –Register I/O Usually done by the designer from the beginning –Register the outputs of each lower leaf-level output Typically done after timing analysis Can easily be done for purely combinatorial components –Register high-fanout secondary control signals (Set, Reset, CEs)

44 Performance by Design Code A Code B One level of logic, but the routing can be prohibitive May require higher speed grade, adding cost Switch Enable reg_data reg_enable data_in DQ CE DQ DQ Switch Enable reg_data data_in DQ DQ CE DQ DQ High fanout One level of logic Maximum time for routing of high fanout net Flip-flop adds nothing to the cost Data_in must also be registered High fanout QD

45 Performance by Design (Verilog) These two pieces of code are not functionally identical –Code B (on the right) forms a pipeline stage for the circuit and improves its speed, Code A does NOT In each case –reg_data and data_in are 16-bit buses –switch and enable are outputs from flip-flops Code ACode B always @(posedge clk) begin if (switch && enable) reg_data <= data_in; end always @(posedge clk) begin if (set_in && enable_in) reg_enable <= 1'b1; else reg_enable <= 1'b0; if ( reg_enable ) reg_data <= data_in; end

46 Performance by Design (VHDL) These two pieces of code are not functionally identical –The code on the right forms a pipeline stage for the circuit and improves its speed In each case –reg_data and data_in are 16-bit buses –switch and enable are outputs from flip-flops capture: process (clk) begin if clk'event and clk='1' then if switch='1 and enable=1 then reg_data <= data_in; end if; end process; capture: process (clk) begin if clk'event and clk='1' then if switch ='1 and enable=1 then reg_enable <= 1; else reg_enable <= 0; end if; if reg_enable ='1 then reg_data <= data_in; end if; end process; Code A Code B

47 Summary When coding a state machine, separate the next-state logic from state machine output equations Evaluate whether you need to use binary, one-hot, Gray, or Johnson encoding style for your FSM –This will yield a smaller and/or faster FSM Pipeline data paths to improve speed

48 Where Can I Learn More? Software Manuals –Start Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.1 ISE Design Tools Documentation Software Manuals –This includes the Synthesis & Simulation Design Guide This guide has example inferences of many architectural resources –XST User Guide HDL language constructs and coding recommendations –Software User Guides and software tutorials Xilinx Education Services courses –www.xilinx.com/training Xilinx tools and architecture courses Hardware description language courses Basic FPGA architecture and other topics

49 Xilinx is disclosing this Document and Intellectual Property (hereinafter the Design) to you for use in the development of designs to operate on, or interface with Xilinx FPGAs. Except as stated herein, none of the Design may be copied, reproduced, distributed, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted, or transmitted in any form or by any means including, but not limited to, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Xilinx. Any unauthorized use of the Design may violate copyright laws, trademark laws, the laws of privacy and publicity, and communications regulations and statutes. Xilinx does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of the Design; nor does Xilinx convey any license under its patents, copyrights, or any rights of others. You are responsible for obtaining any rights you may require for your use or implementation of the Design. Xilinx reserves the right to make changes, at any time, to the Design as deemed desirable in the sole discretion of Xilinx. Xilinx assumes no obligation to correct any errors contained herein or to advise you of any correction if such be made. Xilinx will not assume any liability for the accuracy or correctness of any engineering or technical support or assistance provided to you in connection with the Design. THE DESIGN IS PROVIDED AS IS" WITH ALL FAULTS, AND THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO ITS FUNCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION IS WITH YOU. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NOT RELIED ON ANY ORAL OR WRITTEN INFORMATION OR ADVICE, WHETHER GIVEN BY XILINX, OR ITS AGENTS OR EMPLOYEES. XILINX MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, REGARDING THE DESIGN, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD-PARTY RIGHTS. IN NO EVENT WILL XILINX BE LIABLE FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, EXEMPLARY, SPECIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY LOST DATA AND LOST PROFITS, ARISING FROM OR RELATING TO YOUR USE OF THE DESIGN, EVEN IF YOU HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE TOTAL CUMULATIVE LIABILITY OF XILINX IN CONNECTION WITH YOUR USE OF THE DESIGN, WHETHER IN CONTRACT OR TORT OR OTHERWISE, WILL IN NO EVENT EXCEED THE AMOUNT OF FEES PAID BY YOU TO XILINX HEREUNDER FOR USE OF THE DESIGN. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE FEES, IF ANY, REFLECT THE ALLOCATION OF RISK SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT AND THAT XILINX WOULD NOT MAKE AVAILABLE THE DESIGN TO YOU WITHOUT THESE LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY. The Design is not designed or intended for use in the development of on-line control equipment in hazardous environments requiring fail-safe controls, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation or communications systems, air traffic control, life support, or weapons systems (High-Risk Applications). Xilinx specifically disclaims any express or implied warranties of fitness for such High-Risk Applications. You represent that use of the Design in such High-Risk Applications is fully at your risk. © 2012 Xilinx, Inc. All rights reserved. XILINX, the Xilinx logo, and other designated brands included herein are trademarks of Xilinx, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Trademark Information


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