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1 Human-Machine Interaction / Interazione Uomo-Machina/ by Adam Maria Gadomski URL: ENEA, C.R.Casaccia 18 November 1999 MICA R&D Project ? On the rights of the web white paper (Intell.Prop.) - © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999.

2 Presentation outline Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions "Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler. [Albert Einstein] MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Human-Machine Interaction from the Systemic and Cognitive Perspective Contribution to the MICA Task D: Realization of an Integrated Modeling Environment for the Hardware/Software/Human Components of Plant Control Room Systems : Study on a Meta-Modeling Frameworks.

3 Preface Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, This my activity have been focused on a preliminary study of the human mental errors of industrial operators involved in the control and supervisory of high-risk complex technological systems. It deals with the identification of human mental errors and possibilities of their mitigation through an application of intelligent computer decision support systems. Methodology Heuristic application of the TOGA (Top-down Object-based Goal- oriented Approach) methodology to the problem identification. Application of the IPK conceptual framework to the cognitive operator modelling [ Results An indication and the preliminary analysis of mental functins and tasks which could be supported or executed by IDSSs (Intelligent Computer Decision Support Systems). Human-Machine Interaction Dec.97,

4 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Human-Machine Interaction is a continuously growing domain of interest of researchers and practictioners. It is a consequence of ever more and more complex technologies and systems controlled and managed by humans. The problem is dedected from the perspectives of : - efficacy and quality of the production - economy and sostenibility, and especially, - safety and reliability of human component in human-machine aggregates. Human-Machine Interaction

5 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, The research in the field of Human-Machine Interaction (AltaVista: doc. ) is also distributed among such domains as: Man-Machine Interface - AltaVista: 1906 doc. Human-Computer Interface - AltaVista: 2868 doc. Lycos: 8201doc. Stanford: 524 MIT: 897 Human-Computer Communication -AV. 734 Human-Computer Cooperation - AV. 39 Cognitive Technology - AV. 985 Cognitive Engineering - AV Human-Machine Interaction

6 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Human ignorance is a source of defeates and... human power Classical engineering paradign: To addopt humans to machine failured in the case of high-risk systems and complex tasks.... is a classical example of the consequences of a badly designed user interface [Excerpt from the official report to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident] New systemic perspective: a joint human machine system is performing the task [E.Hollnagel at al, 94], Human-Machine Interaction

7 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Poorly designed user interface causes economical loss: - rejection, - rare using. Badly designed user interface causes catastrofic human errors trough: -> confusion, misleading presentation of information, -> misinterpretation, -> cause of dangerous actions. More difficult is to specify what should be implemented than how to do it. We need appropriate goal-oriented models Goal: make communication smoothest possible to interfere least possible with thought process. [W.Joerg, Alberta Univ.95] Human-Machine Interaction

8 Problem Recognition State of the Art Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, "The goal is to create software that works --- really works --- in being appropriate and effective for people who live in the world that the software creates. [Terry Winograd, HCI,96, and yet: Human-Machine Interaction should be modeled from the human and systemic perspective but not invented by software specialists. [KMC, E.Swanstrom,1997] Human-Machine Interaction

9 Problem Identification approches © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, MICA Project Sistemic ApproachCognitivistic Approach Human - Machine Interactions Software + Hardware Systems Software Technologies & Engineering Platform Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Human-Machine Interaction

10 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Systemic Perspective on Reliability and Safety of Human-Machine Interactions (HMI) HMI can be seen as a process. Reliability and Safety can be seen as a two complex properties of HMI and characterized by integrated generalized indicators: Reliability Indicator - R Safety Indicator - Sf The carrier of the HMI process is the coupled system: Human-Machine. Human-Machine Interaction

11 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective Problem Identification Human-Machine Interaction Modeling Design Soft-Tools develop. Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective

12 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Elementary heterogenious unit in the modern systemic approach [Gad.99] H - Human, CSS - Computer Support Systems (Web) HO - Human Organization AD - Domain of Activity ENV - Environment H CSS HOENV AD Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective Systemic Perspective Top-down identification and decomposition rules Human-Machine Interaction

13 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Everything said is said by an observer'. (Maturana & Varela, 1980) Systemic Perspective Human-Machine Interaction Identification of Systems involved Identification of Processes, Activities and their attributes Given: Objectives, Functions and their indicators Search expressions (models) of the type: indicators (attributes) Search attributes which min or max of indicators Modification/design of Processes and Systems according to selected attributes [Heuristic Appication of SPG, Gadomski,since 86;99] Software engineer

14 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Systemic Perspective Human-Machine Interaction # HOME WORKS # PUBLIC SERVICIES # ADMINISTRATION # CULTURE # INDUSTRY # HEALTH # MILITARY # INSTRUCTION & SCIENCE High Risk Domains ? Key Factor: RISK Risk Analysis Risk Sources Human Errors Application Domains:

15 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Systemic Perspective Human-Machine Interaction MIND Organization Machine (controlled system/proc esses) Control and Measurement System Computer Console Physical environment Psycho-social environment Human operator Causes of Human Errors Hardware & Software

16 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Bases of the Cognitivistic Perspective Human-Machine Interaction Professor Norman, the first chair of the UCSD Department of Cognitive Science, originated the Cognitive Engineering course. Distributed Cognition and Human Computer Interaction Laboratory. Univ. of California.,May 99. "the study of intelligence and intelligent systems, with particular reference to intelligent behaviour as computation" (Simon, H. A. & C. A. Kaplan, "Foundations of cognitive science", in Posner, M.I.T Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the human mind. Kalish, P.N.Johnson-Lard-Mental Models,83. M.Olivetti-Belardinelli - Mental Architectures,98, A.Slomans - Emotional Agents. John Locke's (1690). Essay Concerning Human Understanding and the nature of human consciousness -First model..

17 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Cognitive Engineering Perspective Human-Machine Interaction the principles of cognitive engineering refers to: user-centered design ( its practices have wide applicability) and human-computer interaction in particular. It is base on cognitive models. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the intersection between the social and cognitive sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design interaction technologies (e.g., displays and pointing devices, gestures and sketching). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g., usability evaluation, software toolkits, cognitive ethnography). Over the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computers. established a body of technical knowledge and methodology, and contributed broadly to the development of new computer technologies and applications. See also: MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.

18 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Cognitive Technology Perspective Human-Machine Interaction Douglas Hofstadter is College Professor of cognitive science and computer science, director of the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Ph.D. in physics, University of Oregon, 1975; Pulitzer Prize. The First International Conference on Cognitive Technology (Hong Kong, 1995) stressed the need for a radically new way of thinking about the impact computer technology has on humans, especially on the human mind. Our main aim at that time was a consideration of these effects with respect to rendering the interface between people and computers more humane. Cognitive technologies in Europe: - Rasmunssen, Andeson - Riso National Lab. - Hollnagel - Halden Project (from about 18 years) -Gadomski (since 86), Nanni (87), Balducelli (93), DiCostanzo - ENEA.

19 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, General Cognitivistic Perspective Systemic + Psychology + Physics Mindware applied to the identification of mental processes of humans and living systems Development of the Universal Theory of Cognition Human-Machine Interaction Applied to living systems Applied to autonomous H/Software systems Applied to Human-Machine Interaction Software Engineering Platform

20 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Cognitivistic Perspective Human-Machine Interaction The web is constructed for the communication between humans not computers Risk Human Errors Human Models Levels of a Human Functional Model: Sensorial & Manipulation Perception Reasoning Decision-Making Communication Cognitive Modeling

21 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Possible Solutions Human-Machine Interaction Existing Strategies for improving of HMI - Command-driven - improving what is requested - Event-driven - post-accident improvement - Means-driven - improv. based on available know-how - Goal-driven (Model-driven) - research based eng. improv.

22 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Possible Solutions Searching Human-Machine Interaction Assumptions: 1. Every human interaction with complex machine is through computer then a Human-Computer Cooperation is needed. 2. Every human interaction with complex machine is decomposable on decision-making mental events. Mental processes Machine + Computer processes... ?

23 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Possible Solutions Human-Machine Interaction Mental processes Machine + Computer processes... ? Computer substitutes or supports goal-dependent tasks of human user/operator. Critical points (recognizable events) which need to be identified by the cognitive modeling.

24 Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Possible Solutions Human-Machine Interaction Solution: In order to increase human reliability and safety in high-risk complex human-machine systems, we need to shift mental functions from human to computer, Is it my idea ? to construct computer ever more intelligent. We need intelligent agents. ESPECIALLY FOR NOT ROUTINE, MULTI-DATA TASKS UNDER TIME CONSTRAINS.

25 MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Possible Solutions: an Abstract Intelligent Agent, AIA Human-Machine Interaction Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Two roles of AIA: 1. user model -- cognitive intelligent agent 2. kernel of a computer intelligent assisstant. Intelligent - an agent with capability to the modification of own preferences, capability of learning and meta-reasoning.[TOGA,Gadomski]. Emotional agent - Modeling of emotions, emotional behaviour [Web]

26 MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Possible Solutions: Project Results Human-Machine Interaction Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions 1. Recognized utility of the TOGA meta-theory [Gadomski,90,99] and SPG conceptualization [Gadomski,86,99] to the goal-oriented knowledge ordering in meta-system engineering applied to the analysis of HMI attributes. 2. Recognized plausibility of the identification of human mental states by the Protocol Analysis [K.A.Ericsson, H.A.Simon] applied to the IPK cognitive architecture [A.M.Gadomski,98,99]. 3. Formal conceptual separation of knowledge, preferences and information acquisition in Human- Machine Interactions [Gadomski at al.,99]; has been applied to the IDA-MICA Project.

27 MICA Project © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, Conclusions Human-Machine Interaction The work has been supported by the Scientific Cooperaton (ortogonal no profits activity) with The Interuniversity Center for the Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems ( ECONA)., of Gadomski, Pestilli : INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: TOGA COGNITIVE AGENT, in frame of The ECONAs Meeting on Research Activities on Cognitive Modeling, May,99 [Web]. A.M.Gadomski,S. Ceccacci: Seminar Contesto TOGA per la Progettazione di un Agente Intelligente Astratto ed il suo Decision-Making, Perugia,99 [Web](Bora per Tesi di L.) SET, A.M.Gadomski: TOWARDS SYSTEM ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGIES, SET, transparent-sheet, ENEA, 99[Web]. The obtained resualts are also the base for the proposal of a research project for the FET * Open (5th Program EU) with Univ. of Brussel,Poland, Ansaldo, ECONA (under preparation). *FET - Future and Emerging Technologies


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