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**Chapter 12 – Work and Machines**

Work is when a force is used to make something move. Work = Force (Distance) Work units English units will be foot.pounds Metric units will be newton.meters (which is called a joule)

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Example problem: Use the four step method to determine how much work is done if a 50 newton force is used to drag a rock 30 meters. The force used in this equation is the force in the direction of motion. 40 newtons Force 30 newtons Force 30 newtons Force used to move box

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Machines A machine is a device with which you can do work in a way that is easier or more effective A machine can be simple or complex A machine makes work easier by: Changing the amount of force you exert or Changing the distance over which you exert the force The direction in which you exert your force

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**Input force – force you exert on the machine **

Output force – force exerted by the machine Output Force Mechanical advantage = Input Force Multiplying Force (mechanical advantage greater than 1) If the input force is less than the output force, the input force must be exerted over a greater distance. Examples: a car jack, pulling nails with a hammer

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**Multiplying distance (mechanical advantage less than 1) **

If the input force is greater than the output force, the output end of the machine will move a greater distance. Examples: a fan, a hockey stick, high gear on a bicycle or car Changing Direction of Force Example: a pulley, a lever

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Efficiency Efficiency is the total work or energy input into a machine compared to the useful work or energy output of the machine Output Work Efficiency = x 100 Input Work

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If there was no energy loss through friction or other causes, the efficiency of a machine would be 100% No machine is 100% efficient, although some simple machines are very close to 100% efficient

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**For simple machines Input work ≈ Output work Lift a distance of 2 ft.**

Push down a distance of 5 ft. 20 lbs 50 lbs Input work = F (D) Input work = 20 lb (5 ft.) Input work = 100 ft-lbs Output work = F (D) Output work = 50 lb (2 ft.) Output work = 100 ft-lbs 100 ft-lbs ≈ 100 ft-lbs

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**Use the efficiency equation to determine the approximate efficiency of the lever system.**

output work Efficiency = x 100 = input work 100 ft-lbs x efficiency = 100%

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**Example efficiency problems: Use the four step method to solve these problems**

Determine the efficiency of a machine that requires a work input of 224 foot pounds for a work output of 200 foot pounds. A hydraulic jack requires thirty ½ foot down ward strokes of 20 pounds each to lift an 1150 pound object a distance of .25 feet. Calculate the efficiency of the jack.

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Ideal Mechanical Advantage – the mechanical advantage of a machine if there was no friction. This can be calculated. Actual Mechanical Advantage – the real mechanical advantage of a machine. This can be different for each machine and must be measured.

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**Part 2 – Simple Machines The 6 types of simple machines are:**

The inclined plane The wedge The screw The lever The wheel and axle The pulley

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**The Inclined Plane Mechanical advantage (MA)= output force/input force**

Ideal MA = length of the incline/height of incline If there was no friction the actual MA would equal ideal MA. In real life it is always less. Incline length Incline height

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Wedge A wedge is like a moving inclined plane to split or cut things apart.

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**Screw A screw is also related to the inclined plane.**

The threads of a screw are like a spiral inclined plane. The closer the threads, the greater the MA of the screw.

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**Levers (3 types) First Class Lever (a pry or teeter-totter)**

Second class Lever (wheel barrel) Third class Lever Output force Input force Input force Output force Input force Output force Distance from fulcrum to input force Ideal MA = Distance from fulcrum to output force

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Wheel and Axle The wheel and axle are fastened together so they rotate together (door knob, screw driver, steering wheel of a car) radius of wheel mechanical advantage = radius of axle

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**Pulley A single fixed pulley has a mechanical advantage of one.**

A single movable pulley has a mechanical advantage of two We can add more movable pulleys to add more mechanical advantage.

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Compound Machine A machine that uses two or more simple machines Identify the simple machines in each of the following.

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Simple Machines Machines Lever Inclined plane Pulley Screw Wedge Wheel & axle.

Simple Machines Machines Lever Inclined plane Pulley Screw Wedge Wheel & axle.

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