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How to use this program When you have finished reading these instructions, click on the button at the right. This will take you to Exercise 1. Read carefully.

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Presentation on theme: "How to use this program When you have finished reading these instructions, click on the button at the right. This will take you to Exercise 1. Read carefully."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to use this program When you have finished reading these instructions, click on the button at the right. This will take you to Exercise 1. Read carefully what is in the large yellow box. Do the exercise in the blue box at the bottom of the screen. Each exercise has four parts - in each part you have to choose between two answers. At the right of the screen are sixteen buttons showing all the possible combinations of answers. Click on the one you think has the four correct answers. If you have answered all four correctly you will jump to a new screen. Do the same there - read what is in the large yellow box then do the exercise in the blue box. If you did not answer all four correctly, you will jump to another screen. Follow the instructions on it. Start

2 Exercise 1 - Verbs There are thousands of words in our language, but they perform only a few tasks. We can break these tasks down into groups. We shall begin by dealing with two groups known as subject and verb. Without a verb and its subject, we cannot make a sentence - and without a sentence we cannot clearly express any thought or ask a question or give a command. First we shall look at the verb. The verb tells us what someone or something does: Michael runs. It jumps. Runs tells us what someone (Michael) does; and jumps tells us what something (It) does. So runs and jumps are verbs. The verbs runs and jumps tell us about actions of the body - actions we can see with our own eyes. Verbs can also tell us about the mind or emotions - which we cannot observe with our eyes: Julia thinks. The dog fears water. Thinks tells us what someone (Julia) does - even though we do not see her do it. Fears tells us what something (The dog) does - even though we could not see the dog do it. So thinks and fears are also verbs. Pick out the verbs and click on the correct button to the right. A. He hates lessons. hates - 1 lessons - 5 B. The man rides a large horse. man - 2 rides - 6 C. Boys love shouting. love - 3 shouting - 7 D. Joan faints regularly. faints - 4 regularly - 8 1, 2, 3 and 4 1, 6, 3 and 4 1, 2, 7 and 4 1, 6, 7 and 4 1, 2, 3 and 8 1, 6, 3 and 8 1, 2, 7 and 8 1, 6, 7 and 8 5, 2, 3 and 4 5, 6, 3 and 4 5, 2, 7 and 4 5, 6, 7 and 4 5, 2, 3 and 8 5, 6, 3 and 8 5, 2, 7 and 8 5, 6, 7 and 8

3 Sorry, that s the wrong answer! Click the button below and try again. Back to the Exercise

4 Exercise 2 - Verbs When a verb tells us what someone or something does it is concerned with what is going on now, at the present time. It is therefore said to be in the Present Tense. But a verb can also tell us what someone or something did or will do: Michael ran. Michael will run. It jumped. It will jump. When a verb tells us what someone or something did it is said to be in the Past Tense. When it tells us what someone or something will do it is said to be in the Future Tense. Note that a verb may be a group of words - two, three or even four words. It is not always just one word. Pick out the verbs and click on the correct button to the right. A. I shall swim every evening. swim - 1 shall swim - 6 B. The teacher arrived late. arrived - 2 teacher - 5 C. Our team will win. will win - 3 win - 8 D. They climbed very high. climbed - 4 climbed very - 7 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 3 and 4 1, 5, 3 and 4 1, 2, 8 and 4 1, 5, 8 and 4 1, 2, 3 and 7 1, 5, 3 and 7 1, 2, 8 and 7 1, 5, 8 and 7 6, 2, 3 and 4 6, 5, 3 and 4 6, 2, 8 and 4 6, 5, 8 and 4 6, 2, 3 and 7 6, 5, 3 and 7 6, 2, 8 and 7 6, 5, 8 and 7

5 Exercise 3 - Verbs So far we have learned that the task of the verb is to tell us what someone or something does, did or will do. Now compare the following: Peter pushes. Peter is pushed. In the first example the verb tells us what someone (Peter) does. In the second, however, the situation is reversed. Here Peter is the receiver of the action, and the verb is telling us what is done to someone or something. The verb can also tell us what was done to someone or something (Past Tense) and what will be done to someone or something (Future Tense): Peter was pushed. Peter will be pushed. Pick out the verbs and click on the correct button to the right. A. I am seated. am seated - 1 am - 7 B. The cows were being fed. were being fed - 2 were fed - 8 C. The pigs were feeding noisily. were - 3 were feeding - 5 D. Our friends will be coming. will be coming - 4 will be - 6 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 3 and 4 1, 8, 3 and 4 1, 2, 5 and 4 1, 8, 5 and 4 1, 2, 3 and 6 1, 8, 3 and 6 1, 2, 5 and 6 1, 8, 5 and 6 7, 2, 3 and 4 7, 8, 3 and 4 7, 2, 5 and 4 7, 8, 5 and 4 7, 2, 3 and 6 7, 8, 3 and 6 7, 2, 5 and 6 7, 8, 5 and 6 We can now state the task of the verb in full: A verb is a word (or group of words) telling us what someone or something does, did, or will do; or what is, was, or will be done to someone or something. Note that the action of a verb may be continuous: Pushes - is pushing: is pushed - is being pushed: etc. There are variations to all the three main tenses - Present, Past and Future.

6 Exercise 4 - Verbs When a verb contains two or more words, other words which are not verbs can come in between them. You must be careful not to confuse these wother words with the verb itself. He was quietly walking home. Although the word quietly comes between the two parts of the verb, it is not itself a verb. It does not tell us what someone or something did (or was doing). You cannot quietly a person or a thing. Note that words can often be rearranged to clear up the confusion: He was walking home quietly. Pick out the verbs and click on the correct button to the right. A. How shall we know? shall we know - 1 shall know - 3 B. Girls will seldom arrive on time. will seldom arrive - 2 will arrive - 4 C. They were rather rudely interrupted. were rather rudely interrupted - 5 were interrupted - 7 D. Mary was not greatly interested. was interested - 6 was not interested - 8 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 5 and 6 1, 4, 5 and 6 1, 2, 7 and 6 1, 4, 7 and 6 1, 2, 5 and 8 1, 4, 5 and 8 1, 2, 7 and 8 1, 4, 7 and 8 3, 2, 5 and 6 3, 4, 5 and 6 3, 2, 7 and 6 3, 4, 7 and 6 3, 2, 5 and 8 3, 4, 5 and 8 3, 2, 7 and 8 3, 4, 7 and 8 When we ask a question the verb is always split if it contains two or more words: Shall we go? (We shall go.) When were you asked? (You were asked when.) Observe that the word not does not belong to the verb: They will not be coming. They cannot do it.

7 Exercise 5 - Subjects In our first lesson we said that the two essential parts of a sentence are the verb and its subject. To find the subject of a verb we must ask the questions 'Who?' or 'What?' in front of the verb. The young girl was sleeping. First, find the verb -'was sleeping'. Now ask 'Who?' or 'What?' in front of it. 'Who was sleeping?' - The young girl. This is the subject of the verb. The injured bird was taken indoors. The verb is 'was taken'. 'Who was taken?' - No one was taken. 'What was taken?' - The injured bird. Subject. Pick out the subjects and click on the correct button to the right. A. Up in the sky floated the red balloon. (1 the sky) (8 the red balloon) B. That chair will collapse. (2 That chair) (7 collapse) C. It will be changed by my father. (3 my father) (6 It) D. 'Piffle!' retorted the chief. (4 'Piffle!') (5 the chief) All correct - well done! 1, 2, 3 and 4 1, 7, 3 and 4 1, 2, 6 and 4 1, 7, 6 and 4 1, 2, 3 and 5 1, 7, 3 and 5 1, 2, 6 and 5 1, 7, 6 and 5 8, 2, 3 and 4 8, 7, 3 and 4 8, 2, 6 and 4 8, 7, 6 and 4 8, 2, 3 and 5 8, 7, 3 and 5 8, 2, 6 and 5 8, 7, 6 and 5 Note that, although we ask the questions in front of the verb, the subject itself does not necessarily come in front of the verb: Into the water plunged the grey seal. (What plunged?) It was the grey seal that plunged - not the water.

8 A verb that takes a subject is called a finite verb - that is to say a 'finished' or 'complete' verb. Remembering that we cannot make up a sentence without a verb and its subject, we are now in a position to define a sentence: A sentence is a group of words containing a finite verb. It is important to remember this definition. Without a finite verb no group of words, however long or impressive, can make up a sentence - just as no space craft can be accurately called a space craft unless it has a rocket motor to drive it. Most words in a Pick out the subjects and click on the correct button to the right. A. Can Honour's voice provoke the silent dust? the silent dust - 1 Honour's voice - 4 B. Times out of number he has been told. he - 2 number - 3 C. Down the road came she. she - 5 road - 8 D. A bag of apples was lying on the floor. A bag of apples - 6 apples - 7 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 5 and 6 1, 3, 5 and 6 1, 2, 8 and 6 1, 3, 8 and 6 1, 2, 5 and 7 1, 3, 5 and 7 1, 2, 8 and 7 1, 3, 8 and 7 4, 2, 5 and 6 4, 3, 5 and 6 4, 2, 8 and 6 4, 3, 8 and 6 4, 2, 5 and 7 4, 3, 5 and 7 4, 2, 8 and 7 4, 3, 8 and 7 language - like most mechanisms in a space craft - are refinements. They have their jobs to do, but they are not absolutely essential to set things going in the first place. Note that, when a sentence is in question form, the subject always comes after the verb, or after part of the verb: Is he here? (He is here) Are you dreaming? (You are dreaming) Where shall we sit? (We shall sit where) Exercise 6 - Finite Verbs

9 A sentence is a group of words containing a finite verb.' What, then, do we call a group of words that does not contain a finite verb? Unless it is merely nonsense we call it a phrase. In the haze of a summer's evening, towards the end of a long, gentle and gracious day by the shore of the sea. Despite its length, this group of words does not contain a verb and subject. Therefore it is a phrase. Sitting by the stream To take things easy These two groups of words both contain verbs, but they have no subjects. When we ask 'Who?' Decide whether these are sentences or phrases and click on the correct button to the right. A. We sleep. (1 Phrase) (5 Sentence) B. Stop! (2 Phrase) (6 Sentence) C. Over the hills and far away. (4 Sentence) (8 Phrase) D. Two shillings to pay for a seat! (3 Phrase) (7 Sentence) All correct - well done! 1, 2, 4 and 3 1, 6, 4 and 3 1, 2, 8 and 3 1, 6, 8 and 3 1, 2, 4 and 7 1, 6, 4 and 7 1, 2, 8 and 7 1, 6, 8 and 7 5, 2, 4 and 3 5, 6, 4 and 3 5, 2, 8 and 3 5, 6, 8 and 3 5, 2, 4 and 7 5, 6, 4 and 7 5, 2, 8 and 7 5, 6, 8 and 7 or 'What?' in front of them we get no answer - nor would he sitting' or 'they to take' make real sense. Thus both these groups of words are also phrases. Verbs which cannot take subjects are called non- finite - that is to say 'unfinished' or 'incomplete'. Note that, when a sentence is in the form of a command, the object 'You' is usually left out. But it is 'understood' to be there: Come here! ((You) come here!) Sentence So sentences can be very short - sometimes they contain only two words - while phrases can be quite long. Length is no guide. You must look for the verb and subject. Exercise 7 - Phrases

10 Compare the following sentences carefully: My father drives the car. The car is driven by my father. Both these sentences say the same thing and yet there is a subtle difference between them. In the first sentence, the subject 'My father' is the doer of the action. In the second sentence, the subject the car' is the receiver of the action. This brings us to what we call the voice of the verb. When the subject of a verb is the doer of the action the verb is said to be in the Active Voice. When the subject of a verb is the receiver of the action the verb is said to be in the Passive Voice. Here are two more very simple examples: Jean helps - Jean, the subject, is doing the helping. Active Voice verb Jean is helped - Jean, the subject, is being helped. Pa.ssive Voice verb Decide whether the verbs are active or passive and click on the correct button to the right. A. I saw him. They watched me. Active - 1 Passive - 6 B. He was seen by me. I was watched by them. Active - 2 Passive - 5 C. They were chased. The player was rested. Active - 4 Passive - 7 D. The player was resting. They were chasing. Passive - 3 Active - 8 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 4 and 3 1, 5, 4 and 3 1, 2, 7 and 3 1, 5, 7 and 3 1, 2, 4 and 8 1, 5, 4 and 8 1, 2, 7 and 8 1, 5, 7 and 8 6, 2, 4 and 3 6, 5, 4 and 3 6, 2, 7 and 3 6, 5, 7 and 3 6, 2, 4 and 8 6, 5, 4 and 8 6, 2, 7 and 8 6, 5, 7 and 8 Exercise 8 - Voice

11 When someone or something receives the action of an Active Voice verb then that someone or something is said to be the object of that verb. We find the object (if any) by asking the questions 'Whom?' or 'What?' after the verb. I followed the ginger cat. First find the verb -'followed'. Now ask 'Whom?' or 'What?' after it. 'Followed whom?'- no answer. 'Followed what?'-the ginger cat. This is the object of the verb 'followed'. Although we ask the questions after the verb, the object (if any) does not necessarily come after the verb: Several people I asked. (Asked whom?) Pick out the objects (if any) and click on the correct button to the right. A. Chocolate cake we just adore! No object - 1 chocolate cake - 7 B. The guide stopped by the lake. lake - 2 No object - 8 C. 'John!' my father shouted. 'John!' - 4 No object - 6 D. I will help you now. you now - 3 you - 5 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 4 and 3 1, 8, 4 and 3 1, 2, 6 and 3 1, 8, 6 and 3 1, 2, 4 and 5 1, 8, 4 and 5 1, 2, 6 and 5 1, 8, 6 and 5 7, 2, 4 and 3 7, 8, 4 and 3 7, 2, 6 and 3 7, 8, 6 and 3 7, 2, 4 and 5 7, 8, 4 and 5 7, 2, 6 and 5 7, 8, 6 and 5 Exercise 9 - Objects NB 1 A Passive Voice verb can never take an object because, as we have seen, the subject is already the receiver of the action. NB 2 Verbs immediately followed by such words as 'in', 'at', 'on', 'over', 'near', 'by', 'with', 'from', etc, hardly ever take objects. NB 3 Verbs that take objects are called transitive. Verbs that do not take objects are called intransltive.

12 Sometimes a subject or object is re-expressed by a phrase which follows it. This is called an appositional phrase - that is, a phrase which is 'positioned next to' some other word or words. Examine the following: Susan, my youngest sister, is six today. Who is six today? - Susan) Who is six today? - my youngest sister)Both subjects My youngest sister is a phrase in apposition to the subject 'Susan'. Similarly, a phrase may be in apposition to an object: I helped Susan, my youngest sister. Note that the appositional phrase is always marked off between commas, unless it comes at the end of a sentence when, of course, the second comma is replaced by a full-stop. Decide whether the appositional phrases in the following sentences are re-expressing subjects or objects. Click on the correct button. A. Joseph Conrad, the novelist, was a sailor for much of his life. Subject - 1 Object - 3 B. I have visited Paris, the French capital. Subject - 2 Object - 4 C. John, my next-door neighbour, lent me his very ancient, nearly collapsing bicycle. Subject - 6 Object - 8 D. Aloysius, the hero of the tale, then defeats the enemy army single- handed. Subject - 5 Object - 7 All correct - well done! 1, 2, 6 and 5 1, 4, 6 and 5 1, 2, 8 and 5 1, 4, 8 and 5 1, 2, 6 and 7 1, 4, 6 and 7 1, 2, 8 and 7 1, 4, 8 and 7 3, 2, 6 and 5 3, 4, 6 and 5 3, 2, 8 and 5 3, 4, 8 and 5 3, 2, 6 and 7 3, 4, 6 and 7 3, 2, 8 and 7 3, 4, 8 and 7 Exercise 10 - Appositional Phrases

13 The appositional phrase brings us to our first practical step in composition. Before we take this step, however, we must learn to think about degrees of importance. Whenever we speak or write, some of the things we say are more important or interesting (to ourselves, anyway) than other things we say. One of the main arts of speech or composition is to give the right amount of emphasis to these things according to their importance. Look at the following: Select the more important or interesting sentence and click on the correct button. A. The chameleon is a species of lizard. - 1 The chameleon can change its colour at will. - 8 B. Claude Monet was a founder of the Impressionist movement in art. - 2 Claude Monet was a Frenchman. - 7 C. Sir Isaac Newton was a scientist. - 4 Sir Isaac Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation. - 5 D. Pompeii was an ancient Italian town. - 3 Pompeii was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in A.D All correct - well done! 1, 2, 4 and 3 1, 7, 4 and 3 1, 2, 5 and 3 1, 7, 5 and 3 1, 2, 4 and 6 1, 7, 4 and 6 1, 2, 5 and 6 1, 7, 5 and 6 8, 2, 4 and 3 8, 7, 4 and 3 8, 2, 5 and 3 8, 7, 5 and 3 8, 2, 4 and 6 8, 7, 4 and 6 8, 2, 5 and 6 8, 7, 5 and 6 Exercise 11 - Appositional Phrases Mr. Robson is our mathematics teacher. Mr. Decimal was married today. Which of these two sentences is more important? Clearly the second one is more important. The first sentence merely gives someone or something a label, as it were, so that the listener or reader shall know who is being discussed.

14 Often in essays we wish to give some additional information about someone or something. This, as we have seen, can be done by means of the appositional phrase. We shall now see how two sentences can be blended into one by using this kind of phrase. Let us return to Mr. Decimal: Mr Decimal is our mathematics master. Mr. Decimal was married today. Leave the more important sentence untouched. Reduce the less important sentence to a phrase by removing its verb and subject. Now insert the phrase into the remaining sentence, placing it after the person or thing that it is re- expressing. Mark it off with commas: Select the phrase you would use in apposition if you were blending the following pairs of sentences and click on the correct button. A. Peter is (my cousin - 1). Peter is (the best athlete in the school - 4). B. My dog is (an Irish wolfhound - 2). My dog was (the champion at last year's show - 3). C. Our village is (a remote one - 6). Our village is (a famous beauty spot - 7). D. Mr. Perkins is (a seven-foot giant - 5). Mr Perkins is (our landlord - 8). All correct - well done! 1, 2, 6 and 5 1, 3, 6 and 5 1, 2, 7 and 5 1, 3, 7 and 5 1, 2, 6 and 8 1, 3, 6 and 8 1, 2, 7 and 8 1, 3, 7 and 8 4, 2, 6 and 5 4, 3, 6 and 5 4, 2, 7 and 5 4, 3, 7 and 5 4, 2, 6 and 8 4, 3, 6 and 8 4, 2, 7 and 8 4, 3, 7 and 8 Exercise 12 - Blending Sentences Mr. Decimal, our mathematics master, was married today. Observe that we have now only one finite verb - 'was married'. So we have now blended two sentences into one, instead of having two separate, unlinked statements. Such blending, or linking, is essential to good essay writing, but we must always decide what is more important and what is less important when we do this blending or linking.

15 Two appositional phrases can be linked together with and : Mr. Robson is our mathematics teacher. He is also our rugby coach. He was married today. Preserve the most important or interesting sentence. Remove the verbs and subjects of the other two sentences, thereby turning them into phrases. Link them with' and'. Insert them into the remaining sentence. Mark them off between commas. Substitute 'Mr. Decimal' for 'He': From each of these groups of sentences, select the one you would keep as being the most important. Click on the correct button. A. Bicycles are driven by means of pedals. They are fairly cheap. They are a useful means of transport. First - 1 Third - 5 B. Mr Jenkins is our postman. He is also an ex-miner. He broke our gate last week. Third - 3 Second - 7 C. Man is a two-legged creature. He is master of this planet. He stands upright. First - 2 Second - 6 D. Telephones enable us to communicate over long distances. Some of them use landlines. Some of them are wireless. Second - 4 First - 8 All correct - well done! 1, 3, 2 and 4 1, 7, 2 and 4 1, 3, 6 and 4 1, 7, 6 and 4 1, 3, 2 and 8 1, 7, 2 and 8 1, 3, 6 and 8 1, 7, 6 and 8 5, 3, 2 and 4 5, 7, 2 and 4 5, 3, 6 and 4 5, 7, 6 and 4 5, 3, 2 and 8 5, 7, 2 and 8 5, 3, 6 and 8 5, 7, 6 and 8 Exercise 13 - Blending Sentences Mr. Robson, our mathematics teacher and (also our) rugby coach, was married today. Note that we have now blended three sentences into one. The words' also our' have been bracketed because they are no longer necessary and may be left out.

16 Before changing a sentence into an appositional phrase, we sometimes have to re-express a word or words. Examine the following: John sprints well. He won the race. If we try to turn the first sentence into an appositional phrase by removing its verb and subject, we are left with the word 'well', which is not another way of saying 'John'. (You could not say 'Well won the race'.) So we must Re-express the following and click on the correct button. A. A person who plays the violin well is (a well violinist - 1 a good violinist - 6). B. A person who likes to climb mountains is (a keen mountaineer - 3 a mountainous liker - 8). C. A person who comes to clean and sweep every day is (a daily cleaner - 2 a clean sweep - 5). D. A person who jumps high is (a high jumper - 4 a tall jumper - 7). All correct - well done! 1, 3, 2 and 4 1, 8, 2 and 4 1, 3, 5 and 4 1, 8, 5 and 4 1, 3, 2 and 7 1, 8, 2 and 7 1, 3, 5 and 7 1, 8, 5 and 7 6, 3, 2 and 4 6, 8, 2 and 4 6, 3, 5 and 4 6, 8, 5 and 4 6, 3, 2 and 7 6, 8, 2 and 7 6, 3, 5 and 7 6, 8, 5 and 7 Exercise 14 - Blending Sentences re-express. What do we call a person who sprints ? - A sprinter. And what do we call a person who sprints well? - Obviously a fast sprinter, or a good sprinter. Now we are able to blend the two sentences into one sentence by using an appositional phrase: John, a fast sprinter, won the race.

17 When the task of a word is to tell us the name of a person, place or thing, we call it a noun. We find nouns by asking Who?', 'Whom?', or 'What?' in relation to some other word: Eve Smith was visiting her friend near Dunster when she heard the cry of a curlew. Who was visiting? - Eve Smith - Name of a person Visiting whom?-friend- " Near what?- Dunster- " place Heard what?- cry- " " thing Of what?-curlew- " Since nouns answer the questions 'Who?', 'Whom?' and What?', they will very often be subjects or objects of verbs, as you can see above. 'Eve Smith' is subject to the verb' was visiting'; 'friend' is object to the verb 'was visiting'; 'cry' is object to the verb' heard', etc. Normally a noun contains only one word. However, when it tells us the name or title of a particular person or thing, then it may contain several words, eg Eve Smith, The Rock of Gibraltar, The Duke of Alba, etc. Pick out the nouns and click on the correct button. A. The boy had big ideas. boy - 1 boy, ideas - 7 B. The villagers lived in a constant state of fear owing to tigers villagers, tigers - 3 villagers, state, fear, tigers - 5 c. Sir Walter Scott, the novelist, wrote 'The Fair Maid of Perth'. Sir Walter Scott, novelist, 'The Fair Maid of Perth' - 2 Scott, novelist, Maid, Perth - 8 D. Tokyo is a large city. Tokyo - 4 Tokyo, city - 6 All correct - well done! 1, 3, 2 and 4 1, 5, 2 and 4 1, 3, 8 and 4 1, 5, 8 and 4 1, 3, 2 and 6 1, 5, 2 and 6 1, 3, 8 and 6 1, 5, 8 and 6 7, 3, 2 and 4 7, 5, 2 and 4 7, 3, 8 and 4 7, 5, 8 and 4 7, 3, 2 and 6 7, 5, 2 and 6 7, 3, 8 and 6 7, 5, 8 and 6 Exercise 15 - Nouns

18 When we are speaking or writing, we should take care to avoid using nouns unnecessarily; otherwise we shall have a great deal of repetition and this can be tedious: John and Martha hurried home. The caretaker had told John and Martha that, if John and Martha arrived back early, John and Martha would receive a pleasant surprise. After the first mention of 'John and Martha', substitute 'they', 'them', etc. John and Martha hurried home. The caretaker had told them that, if they arrived back early, they would receive a pleasant surprise. In the above passage the words they' and' them' stand in place of the nouns 'John' and 'Martha'. That is their task. When the task of words is to stand in place of nouns, we call them pronouns. Select suitable pronouns to replace the italicised nouns and click on the correct button. A. Mary is here. she - 1 it - 3 B. The dog bit Henry. he, it - 5 it, him - 7 C. Henry bit the dog. he, it- 2 him, it - 4 D. Edna and Eleanor Purdew saw Edna and Eleanor Purdew in the mirror. they, themselves - 6 they, them - 8 All correct - well done! 1, 5, 2 and 6 1, 7, 2 and 6 1, 5, 4 and 6 1, 7, 4 and 6 1, 5, 2 and 8 1, 7, 2 and 8 1, 5, 4 and 8 1, 7, 4 and 8 3, 5, 2 and 6 3, 7, 2 and 6 3, 5, 4 and 6 3, 7, 4 and 6 3, 5, 2 and 8 3, 7, 2 and 8 3, 5, 4 and 8 3, 7, 4 and 8 Exercise 16 - Pronouns

19 Pronouns are sometimes difficult to recognize because the nouns they stand for are often unstated: Many were left. (Many could stand for men, girls, apples, etc.) Each was examined. (Each could stand for 'boy', 'bank - note', etc.) This was examined. (This could stand for 'a banknote', 'an apple', etc, but not for a person.) Mine is sold. (Mine could stand for bicycle, 'book', etc.) Who goes there? (We do not know for what person Who stands, until an answer is made.) You said so. (Presumably the person speaking knows who You is, even if we do not. It could stand for any person, from a king or president to a dustman.) Decide how many pronouns there are and click on the correct button. A. What did you say to them? three - 1two - 8 B. This was discussed by each of us while we were talking among ourselves. five - 3four - 6 C. I have borrowed yours as you yourself are not using it. five - 2three - 7 D. Which is the key you want? one - 4two - 5 All correct - well done! 1, 3, 2 and 4 1, 6, 2 and 4 1, 3, 7 and 4 1, 6, 7 and 4 1, 3, 2 and 5 1, 6, 2 and 5 1, 3, 7 and 5 1, 6, 7 and 5 8, 3, 2 and 4 8, 6, 2 and 4 8, 3, 7 and 4 8, 6, 7 and 4 8, 3, 2 and 5 8, 6, 2 and 5 8, 3, 7 and 5 8, 6, 7 and 5 Exercise 17 - Pronouns

20 For the time being we shall leave the pronoun and turn to a word whose task is to qualify or limit a noun or pronoun: the adjective. When we qualify or limit something we narrow down that something. Suppose you are at a library and are trying to find a book. You have borrowed the book before but you have forgotten the title and author. The librarian asks you to describe it. A thin book. (There are 5,000 thin books.) A thin red book. (There are 500 thin red books.) A thin, red tattered book. (The librarian produces 10 such books. ) That book. Pick out the adjectives and click on the correct button. A. This boy has a black eye and a swollen lip. This, black, swollen - 1 black, swollen - 4 B. It was a cold, wet day. cold, wet day - 5 cold, wet - 8 C. I have seen those ugly little dogs before. ugly little - 2 those ugly little - 3 D. The sweet young child screamed furiously. sweet - 6 sweet young - 7 All correct - well done! 1, 5, 2 and 6 1, 8, 2 and 6 1, 5, 3 and 6 1, 8, 3 and 6 1, 5, 2 and 7 1, 8, 2 and 7 1, 5, 3 and 7 1, 8, 3 and 7 4, 5, 2 and 6 4, 8, 2 and 6 4, 5, 3 and 6 4, 8, 3 and 6 4, 5, 2 and 7 4, 8, 2 and 7 4, 5, 3 and 7 4, 8, 3 and 7 Exercise 18 - Adjectives By the aid of four words qualifying or limiting the noun 'book' you have found the item you want from among thousands. These words - 'thin', 'red', 'tattered', 'that' - are adjectives. Note that, although the first three adjectives also describe the noun' book', the word' that' does not describe. It is pointing something out. It is not sufficient to say that an adjective describes. It qualifies or limits.

21 Adjectives are usually found by asking the questions 'What kind of?' 'Which?' 'How many?' 'How much?' Apple tree (What kind of tree?) This house (Which house?) Five spanners (How many spanners?) Some sugar (How much sugar?) Some adjectives, instead of answering questions, ask them: What car is that? Which street do you mean? Adjectives do not always come before the words they qualify; sometimes they follow the verb - usually the verb 'to be': Pick out the adjectives and click on the correct button. A. My young sister was lucky. My, young - 1 My, young, lucky - 5 B. We ordered fourteen new cricket balls. fourteen, new, cricket - 3 new, cricket - 7 C. That wooden bridge is unsafe. That, wooden - 4 That, wooden, unsafe - 8 D. Which cake did your mother choose? your - 2 Which, your -6 All correct - well done! 1, 3, 4 and 2 1, 7, 4 and 2 1, 3, 8 and 2 1, 7, 8 and 2 1, 3, 4 and 6 1, 7, 4 and 6 1, 3, 8 and 6 1, 7, 8 and 6 5, 3, 4 and 2 5, 7, 4 and 2 5, 3, 8 and 2 5, 7, 8 and 2 5, 3, 4 and 6 5, 7, 4 and 6 5, 3, 8 and 6 5, 7, 8 and 6 Exercise 19 - Adjectives The boy is stupid. (What kind of boy? - A stupid boy) He is stupid. (What kind of he? - A stupid he) The second of the above examples shows the usual way in which an adjective qualifies a pronoun. Note that the words 'a' and 'an' (usual1y called the 'indefinite articles') and 'the' (usually called the 'definite article') are really adjectives.

22 Sometimes confusion arises between adjectives and nouns: I love to study grammar. I have a grammar book. In the first of the above sentences we have no trouble in realizing that' grammar' is a noun, since it is the name of something. In the second example the problem is not quite so simple. Here the word' grammar' is still the name of something, but its real task in the sentence is to qualify the noun 'book' -to distinguish it from other kinds of book. Decide if the italicised words are adjectives or nouns and click on the correct button. A. The pirates sailed on the Spanish main. noun - 1 adjective -6 B. The main attraction was a jazz quartet. noun - 3 adjective - 8 C. The horse race was cancelled. adjective - 4 noun - 7 D. The cart horse was ill. noun - 2 adjective - 5 All correct - well done! 1, 3, 4 and 2 1, 8, 4 and 2 1, 3, 7 and 2 1, 8, 7 and 2 1, 3, 4 and 5 1, 8, 4 and 5 1, 3, 7 and 5 1, 8, 7 and 5 6, 3, 4 and 2 6, 8, 4 and 2 6, 3, 7 and 2 6, 8, 7 and 2 6, 3, 4 and 5 6, 8, 4 and 5 6, 3, 7 and 5 6, 8, 7 and 5 Exercise 20 - Nouns and Adjectives What kind of book? - A grammar book. Therefore, in the second of the above examples, the word 'grammar' is an adjective - not a noun. The fact that we may use the word' grammar' more often as a noun than as an adjective does not matter. It is its task in its sentence that is the deciding factor. NB Nouns showing possession do the work of adjectives but are still treated as nouns, eg Jill's pen.

23 Let us briefly consider what we have learned so far: 1. A verb expresses action, doing or being. 2. A verb has three main tenses: present, past, future. 3. A finite verb is a verb that takes a subject ('Who?' or 'What?' in front of the verb). 4. Without a finite verb there can be no subject and no sentence; only a phrase (Exercises 6 and 7). 5. When the subject is the doer of the action the verb is in the Active Voice. 6. When the subject is the receiver of the action the verb is in the Passive Voice. Answer the following and click on the correct button. A. A non-finite verb (cannot - 1 can - 7) take a subject. B. The Voices of the verb are: Subject and Object - 3 Active and Passive - 5 C. A sentence (always contains - 4 does not always contain - 6) an Object. D. A verb that takes an object is called: Active - 2 Transitive - 8 All correct - well done! 1, 3, 4 and 2 1, 5, 4 and 2 1, 3, 6 and 2 1, 5, 6 and 2 1, 3, 4 and 8 1, 5, 4 and 8 1, 3, 6 and 8 1, 5, 6 and 8 7, 3, 4 and 2 7, 5, 4 and 2 7, 3, 6 and 2 7, 5, 6 and 2 7, 3, 4 and 8 7, 5, 4 and 8 7, 3, 6 and 8 7, 5, 6 and 8 Exercise 21 - Summary 7. Active Voice verbs can (and sometimes do) take objects. ('Whom?' or 'What?' after the verb.) 8. Verbs taking objects are called Transitive verbs. 9. Passive Voice verbs cannot take objects because the subject is already receiving the action (Exercise 9). 10. A noun is the name of a person, place or thing. 11. A pronoun is a word which stands in place of a noun. 12. An adjective limits or qualifies a noun or pronoun.

24 If you were to approach a friend who lived on the coast and say to him, 'Your house is near the sea', he would probably nod his head absent-mindedly in agreement. If, however, you said to him, 'Your house is in the sea', he would doubtless become highly excited and rush home at great speed. By changing the word 'near' to the word 'in' we have changed the relationship between 'house' and 'sea' in a very important manner. Such words as these, which show the relationship between one thing and another, are called prepositions. 'Preposition' simply means 'positioned in front of' or 'placed before'. Pick out the prepositions and click on the correct button. A. A bag of wool was lying on the table.on - 1 of, on - 3 B. A knock at the door caused him to leap from his chair. at, to, from - 5 at, from - 7 C. Into the darkness came a stream of light. into, of - 6 of - 8 D. They jumped through the hedge and won through. through, through - 2 through - 4 All correct - well done! 1, 5, 6 and 2 1, 7, 6 and 2 1, 5, 8 and 2 1, 7, 8 and 2 1, 5, 6 and 4 1, 7, 6 and 4 1, 5, 8 and 4 1, 7, 8 and 4 3, 5, 6 and 2 3, 7, 6 and 2 3, 5, 8 and 2 3, 7, 8 and 2 3, 5, 6 and 4 3, 7, 6 and 4 3, 5, 8 and 4 3, 7, 8 and 4 Exercise 22 - Prepositions Prepositions are so called because they are always placed before nouns or pronouns. They are said to 'govern' the nouns or pronouns that follow them: Your house is in the sea. ('in' - preposition, governing the noun 'sea') Here is a short list of common prepositions, followed by nouns or pronouns for example purposes: of the ship, to the corner, for the milkman, with my uncle, from him, by the sports field, over the wall.

25 Sometimes a phrase can do the work of an adjective. When it does so, we call it an adjective phrase: A courageous man. (What kind of man?) Adjective A man of courage. (What kind of man?) Adjective phrase It is important to note that, in the second example above, neither the word of nor the word 'courage' is an adjective. 'Of' is a preposition, and' courage' is the noun it governs. So we may see that an adjective phrase is not a phrase made up of adjectives, but a phrase doing the work of an adjective. Pick out the adjective phrases and click on the correct button. A. The girl from next door brought me a box of chocolates. (1 of chocolates) (8 from next door, of chocolates) B. The man in that car has a face like a poodle. (3 in that car) (6 in that car, like a poodle) C. He worked hard by the light of an old lamp. (4 by the light, of an old lamp) (5 of an old lamp) D. A refreshing swim in the sea is better than ten boxes of pills. (2 in the sea, of pills) (7 refreshing swim, ten boxes) All correct - well done! 1, 3, 4 and 2 1, 6, 4 and 2 1, 3, 5 and 2 1, 6, 5 and 2 1, 3, 4 and 7 1, 6, 4 and 7 1, 3, 5 and 7 1, 6, 5 and 7 8, 3, 4 and 2 8, 6, 4 and 2 8, 3, 5 and 2 8, 6, 5 and 2 8, 3, 4 and 7 8, 6, 4 and 7 8, 3, 5 and 7 8, 6, 5 and 7 Exercise 23 - Adjective Phrase Note that the adjective phrase above comes directly after the noun it qualifies. This is usual. However, you may find it useful to think of it as coming before the noun when you are looking for an adjective phrase -just as though it were an adjective. (What kind of man? - An of-courage man.) Often an adjective phrase can be re-expressed in one word as an adjective: An occasionfor festivity - A festive occasion.

26 Let us take a look at the sentence in the light of what we have learned so far: The man with the bow tie kicked the stable door. The verb is 'kicked'. The subject ('Who or what kicked?') is 'The man with the bow tie'. The object ('Kicked whom or what?') is 'the stable door'. Expressed in one word, the subject is 'man'. Expressed in one word, the object is 'door'. The subject word of a sentence and the object word (if any) of a sentence will always be nouns or pronouns. The remainder (if any) of the subject or object will always be adjectives or adjective phrases limiting or qualifying the subject words or object words. Subject LimitationVerbObject WordLimitation Wordof Subject of ObjectWord manthe, withkickeddoorthe, the bow tiestable Answer the following and click on the correct button. A. The Limitation of a Subject or Object is made up of (adjectives/adjective phrases - 1 nouns/pronouns - 4). B. The Subject Word or Object Word will always be a (noun or pronoun - 5 noun - 8). C. Subject and Object Words (always - 6 do not always - 7) have adjectives or adjective phrases to limit or qualify them. D. Sentences (do not always - 2 always - 3) contain Objects. All correct - well done! 1, 5, 6 and 2 1, 8, 6 and 2 1, 5, 7 and 2 1, 8, 7 and 2 1, 5, 6 and 3 1, 8, 6 and 3 1, 5, 7 and 3 1, 8, 7 and 3 4, 5, 6 and 2 4, 8, 6 and 2 4, 5, 7 and 2 4, 8, 7 and 2 4, 5, 6 and 3 4, 8, 6 and 3 4, 5, 7 and 3 4, 8, 7 and 3 Exercise 24 - Subjects and Objects

27 Observe how the following sentences are broken down: He can run. Any intelligent man can run a shop. Any man of intelligence can run that shop on the corner. SubjectLimitationObjectLimitation Wordof Subject WordVerbWordof Object Word Hecan run manany, intelligentcan runshopa manany, of intelligencecan runshopthat, on the corner Answer the questions on the following sentences: One of the boys will bring the picnic basket. Follow that car! This little mongrel has found an old bone. A large bag of sweets may be lost. Will she help us? Click on the correct button. A. The Subject Words are: boys: (You): mongrel: sweets: she1 One: (You): mongrel: bag: she5 B. The Limitations of of the boys: -: this, little: a large, of sweets: -4 Subject are: one of the: -: this, little: a large bag of: - 8 C. The Object Words are:basket: car: bone: -: us2 picnic: car: bone: bag: she 6 D. The Limitations of Object are:the, picnic: that: an, old: -: - 3 the, basket: that: an, old: large: help7 All correct - well done! 1, 4, 2 and 3 1, 8, 2 and 3 1, 4, 6 and 3 1, 8, 6 and 3 1, 4, 2 and 7 1, 8, 2 and 7 1, 4, 6 and 7 1, 8, 6 and 7 5, 4, 2 and 3 5, 8, 2 and 3 5, 4, 6 and 3 5, 8, 6 and 3 5, 4, 2 and 7 5, 8, 2 and 7 5, 5, 6 and 7 5, 8, 6 and 7 Exercise 25 - Sentence Structure

28 The wheel is breaking. The wheel is broken. In each of the above sentences the full verb is made up of two words: 'is breaking' in the first; 'is broken' in the second. The words' breaking' and' broken' - although verbs -are therefore not complete verbs. (You cannot sensibly say, 'The wheel breaking' or 'The wheel broken'.) They are both non-finite verbs (see Exercise 7). Pick out the participles and click on the correct button. A. They started off again, although they were exhausted. started, exhausted - 1 exhausted - 6 B. We shall be walking to the town of Woking. walking - 4 Woking - 7 c. The potatoes are boiling and the beans are burnt. boiling - 2 boiling, burnt - 5 D. John helped Peggy, and Montmorency was assisted by Jean. helped, assisted - 3 assisted -8 All correct - well done! 1, 4, 2 and 3 1, 7, 2 and 3 1, 4, 5 and 3 1, 7, 5 and 3 1, 4, 2 and 8 1, 7, 2 and 8 1, 4, 5 and 8 1, 7, 5 and 8 6, 4, 2 and 3 6, 7, 2 and 3 6, 4, 5 and 3 6, 7, 5 and 3 6, 4, 2 and 8 6, 7, 2 and 8 6, 4, 5 and 8 6, 7, 5 and 8 Exercise 26 - Participles However, they are not just non-finite verbs. Each word also does the work of an adjective since each qualifies a noun: What kind of wheel? -A breaking wheel. What kind of wheel ? -A broken wheel. Such words as these - non-finite verbs doing the work of adjectives - are sometimes called verbal adjectives, but they are better known as participles.

29 The participle often appears separately from the finite verb of a sentence, and works purely as an adjective: Smiling, the girl walked away.(What kind of girl?-A smiling girl) I watched the men working.(What kind of men?-Working men) Terrified, the rabbit ran for shelter.(What kind of rabbit?-A terrified rabbit) They brought him home exhausted.(What kind of him?-An exhausted him) In the above sentences, 'smiling' and working' tell us of actions still going on at the time. These are Present (or Continuous) Participles. 'Terrified' and 'exhausted' tell us of actions that are finished and done with (ie 'Terrified' really means 'having been terrified'). These are Past (or Perfect) Participles. Participles may also be in the Future Tense, as you can see from the table below: ActivePassive Present: callingbeing called Perfect: having called(having been) called Future:about to callabout to be called Pick out the participles and click on the correct button. A. Excited, he ran to the chatting group. Excited, chatting - 1 Excited - 7 B. Excitedly he ran to the chatting group. Chatting - 4 Excitedly, chatting - 6 C. Henry, about to be birched by the headmaster, lined his trousers with paper. birched -2 about to be birched - 8 D. We saw him being chased. being chased - 3 chased - 5 All correct - well done! 1, 4, 2 and 3 1, 6, 2 and 3 1, 4, 8 and 3 1, 6, 8 and 3 1, 4, 2 and 5 1, 6, 2 and 5 1, 4, 8 and 5 1, 6, 8 and 5 7, 4, 2 and 3 7, 6, 2 and 3 7, 4, 8 and 3 7, 6, 8 and 3 7, 4, 2 and 5 7, 6, 2 and 5 7, 4, 8 and 5 7, 6, 8 and 5 Exercise 27 - Participles

30 Sometimes a phrase is introduced by a participle. Such a phrase does the work of an adjective phrase (Exercise 23) and qualifies the noun or pronoun nearest to it: Humming quietly to himself, the boy closed the door. The boy, humming quietly to himself, closed the door. What kind of boy? -A humming-quietly- to-himself boy. N.B. 1 A participial phrase is usually marked off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or commas. Pick out the participial phrases and click on the correct button. A. Delighted with her present, my mother kissed me. Delighted with her present - 1 Delighted - 3 B. I like my bread buttered on both sides. buttered on both sides - 6 buttered on - 8 C. John, being grumpy as usual, kept quiet. being grumpy as usual - 2 being grumpy - 4 D. Crouching quietly, he watched the men. Crouching - 5 Crouching quietly - 7 All correct - well done! 1, 6, 2 and 5 1, 8, 2 and 5 1, 6, 4 and 5 1, 8, 4 and 5 1, 6, 2 and 7 1, 8, 2 and 7 1, 6, 4 and 7 1, 8, 4 and 7 3, 6, 2 and 5 3, 8, 2 and 5 3, 6, 4 and 5 3, 8, 4 and 5 3, 6, 2 and 7 3, 8, 2 and 7 3, 6, 4 and 7 3, 8, 4 and 7 Exercise 28 - Participial Phrases N.B.2 The participial phrase is almost the only kind of adjective phrase not to be introduced by a preposition. N.B.3 When we analyse sentences the participial phrase is treated exactly as though it were an adjective phrase and, like the normal adjective phrase, it will go in Limitation of Subject or Limitation of Object columns : Subject Limitation Verb Object Limitation Word of S. W. Word of O. W. boy the, closed door the humming quietly to himself

31 When writing a story or essay one should strive after compactness of expression. This can often be achieved by turning sentences into participial phrases, particularly when two events are related in time. He closed the door. Then he took off his coat. Preserve the sentence expressing the later event. Remove the verb and subject of the other sentence, since we are going to turn it into a phrase: He closed the door. Now substitute a suitable participle from the verb 'to close': Answer the following and click on the correct button. A. When writing a story or essay one should strive after: compactness of expression - 1 participial phrases - 8 B. One can employ the participial phrase: only when one event succeeds another - 4 for simultaneous events and for events which succeed one another - 5 C. The participle (is not - 2 is - 7) formed from the removed verb. D. Other words are (never - 3 sometimes - 6) removed. All correct - well done! 1, 4, 2 and 3 1, 5, 2 and 3 1, 4, 7 and 3 1, 5, 7 and 3 1, 4, 2 and 6 1, 5, 2 and 6 1, 4, 7 and 6 1, 5, 7 and 6 8, 4, 2 and 3 8, 5, 2 and 3 8, 4, 7 and 3 8, 5, 7 and 3 8, 4, 2 and 6 8, 5, 2 and 6 8, 4, 7 and 6 8, 5, 7 and 6 Exercise 29 - Participial Phrases Having closed the door Join the participial phrase to the preserved sentence: Having closed the door. he took off his coat. NB 1 The word 'then' is now unnecessary. Such omissions often occur when blending sentences together. NB 2 If the two events happened at the same time, use the Present Participle. If one event was completed before the other began, use the Past (or Perfect) Participle.

32 Blend the following pairs of sentences by using the participial phrase: 1. She smiled quietly. At the same time she replied. 2. He drew a gun. He fired at the same time. 3. First he took his gun from the drawer. Then he began to clean it. 4. The cat screeched loudly. At the same time it fled. 5. He answered the question. Then he sat down again. 6. We finished the job. Then we joined the others. 7. The driver braked furiously. At the same time he swung his wheel hard over to the right. 8. They knocked on the door. Then they waited patiently. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 30 Practice Exercise 5

33 The participial phrase can also be used to express a causal relationship: He felt tired. Therefore he went to bed. Preserve the more significant sentence (remember that this will usually contain an action rather than a thought or feeling). Turn to the other sentence (which gives cause or reason for the action in the significant sentence) and remove its verb and subject: Answer the following and click on the correct button. A. When blending sentences by means of a participial phrase we preserve the (less - 1 more - 4) significant sentence. B. When a sentence is 'significant' it is more likely to express: a thought or feeling - 6 an action - 7 C. When we have blended two sentences by means of the participial phrase, we are left with (two - 2 one - 3) finite verb(s) D. Participial phrases can express a relationship of: Time and Cause or Reason - 5 Cause or Reason only - 8 All correct - well done! 1, 6, 2 and 5 1, 7, 2 and 5 1, 6, 3 and 5 1, 7, 3 and 5 1, 6, 2 and 8 1, 7, 2 and 8 1, 6, 3 and 8 1, 7, 3 and 8 4, 6, 2 and 5 4, 7, 2 and 5 4, 6, 3 and 5 4, 7, 3 and 5 4, 6, 2 and 8 4, 7, 2 and 8 4, 6, 3 and 8 4, 7, 3 and 8 Exercise 30 - Participial Phrases Therefore he went to bed. (Significant-preserve) He felt tired. Substitute a suitable participle from the verb 'to feel'. (Present Participle in this case, since the feeling of tiredness still continued in bed presumably.) Link the phrase to the preserved sentence: Feeling tired, he went to bed.

34 The participial phrase may also qualify an object, or a noun or pronoun governed by a preposition: We saw a man. He was carrying a ladder. By blending: We saw a man carrying a ladder. Here the participial phrase qualifies the noun' man', which is object to the verb saw (Exercise 9). We spoke to a man. He was carrying a ladder. By blending: We spoke to a man carrying a ladder. Here the participial phrase qualifies the noun' man', which is governed by the preposition 'to' (Exercise 22). Consider this sentence, answer the following and click on the correct button: Having done their work, the children watched their father playing cricket and chatted to the man keeping the score. A. In the above there are (1 four) (5 three) participial phrases. B. The first qualifies (4 a subject) (8 an object). C. The second qualifies (3 a subject) (7 an object). D. The third qualifies (2 an object) (6 a noun governed by a preposition). All correct - well done! 1, 4, 3 and 2 1, 8, 3 and 2 1, 4, 7 and 2 1, 8, 7 and 2 1, 4, 3 and 6 1, 8, 3 and 6 1, 4, 7 and 6 1, 8, 7 and 6 5, 4, 3 and 2 5, 8, 3 and 2 5, 4, 7 and 2 5, 8, 7 and 2 5, 4, 3 and 6 5, 8, 3 and 6 5, 4, 7 and 6 5, 8, 7 and 6 Exercise 31 - Participial Phrases

35 Two participial phrases may be linked together with and if - and only if - they both qualify the same noun or pronoun. The method is basically the same as before, the significant sentence being preserved: He picked up a walking-stick. Then he called his dog. Then he went out. Since the first two events were complete before the last one occurred we use the perfect participle: Having picked up a walking-stick and called his dog, he went out. Note that the word 'having' is omitted before 'called' in order to avoid clumsy repetition. We have now turned three sentences into one, both participial phrases qualifying the pronoun 'he'. The above example shows time relationship, but the same method could have been used to show cause or reason. Consider this sentence, answer the following and click on the correct button: Feeling bored and lonely, Jane went along to watch the cows being brought in and milked. A. In the above there are (three - 1 four - 6) participial phrases. B. The first two express a (time - 4 causal - 7) relationship. C. 'Being brought in' qualifies (a subject - 3 an object - 8). D. There is a word omitted before 'milked' in order to avoid clumsiness. This word is (being - 2 having - 5). All correct - well done! 1, 4, 3 and 2 1, 7, 3 and 2 1, 4, 8 and 2 1, 7, 8 and 2 1, 4, 3 and 5 1, 7, 3 and 5 1, 4, 8 and 5 1, 7, 8 and 5 6, 4, 3 and 2 6, 7, 3 and 2 6, 4, 8 and 2 6, 7, 8 and 2 6, 4, 3 and 5 6, 7, 3 and 5 6, 4, 8 and 5 6, 7, 8 and 5 Exercise 32 - Participial Phrases

36 We are now going to blend sentences by using a mixture of participial AND appositional phrases. To refer back to appositional phrases, look at Exercises 10, 11 and 12. Examine the following: John had his breakfast. Then he went for a run. John is my eldest brother. Look for the significant sentence that is to be preserved, remembering that it is likely to contain an action. There are two sentences expressing action: John had his breakfast. Then he went for a run. As there is a time relation between them, we can probably Answer the following and click on the correct button: A. An appositional phrase (re-expresses - 1 describes - 7) a noun or pronoun. B. One (cannot - 4 can - 6) link two appositional phrases together with 'and'. C. A participial phrase is (introduced by a participle - 3 made up of participles - 5). D. In the blended sentence in bold in the yellow box there is/are (two - 2 one - 8) subject(s). All correct - well done! 1, 4, 3 and 2 1, 6, 3 and 2 1, 4, 5 and 2 1, 6, 5 and 2 1, 4, 3 and 8 1, 6, 3 and 8 1, 4, 5 and 8 1, 6, 5 and 8 7, 4, 3 and 2 7, 6, 3 and 2 7, 4, 5 and 2 7, 6, 5 and 2 7, 4, 3 and 8 7, 6, 3 and 8 7, 4, 5 and 8 7, 6, 5 and 8 Exercise 33 - Blending Sentences employ a participial phrase, preserving the sentence expressing the later event, as usual: Having had his breakfast, John went for a run. Since the third sentence clearly re-expresses 'John we can turn it into an appositional phrase: Having had his breakfast, John, my eldest brother, went for a run. We have now blended three sentences into one.

37 Blend the following groups of sentences by using both the appositional phrase and participial phrase : 1. Anne looked across the stream. She saw Miss Brown. Miss Brown was her games mistress. 2. John espied the man. The man was hiding in a wood. John is my next- door neighbour. 3. Lefty was an old-timer from Kansas. Lefty reached a town. The town was called Upper Creek. 4. Both friends were good walkers. Therefore they hoped to reach Finger Point by noon. Finger Point was a small peninsula up north. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 34 Practice Exercise 9

38 There are two kinds of non-finite verb (i.e. verb not taking a subject). One is the participle, which we have just been studying. The other is the infinitive. The infinitive is the root from which all verbs are formed: to run, to jump, to see, to be helped, to have thought, etc. Now examine the table to the right. We have already dealt with the Active and Passive Voice of the verb in Exercise 8. Pick out the infinitives and click on the correct button: A. I love to study English None - 1 to study - 3 B. They ought to have come to help us long ago. to have, to help - 6 to have come, to help - 8 C. We are hoping to be taken to London to see a pantomime. to be taken, to see - 5 to be taken, to London, to see - 7 D. A call to arms warned them to arm themselves. to arms, to arm- 2 to arm - 4 All correct - well done! 1, 6, 5 and 2 1, 8, 5 and 2 1, 6, 7 and 2 1, 8, 7 and 2 1, 6, 5 and 4 1, 8, 5 and 4 1, 6, 7 and 4 1, 8, 7 and 4 3, 6, 5 and 2 3, 8, 5 and 2 3, 6, 7 and 2 3, 8, 7 and 2 3, 6, 5 and 4 3, 8, 5 and 4 3, 6, 7 and 4 3, 8, 7 and 4 Exercise 34 - Infinitives Active Passive Present: to call to be called Perfect: to have called to have been called Future: to be about to call to be about to be called It will be noticed that all infinitives start with 'to'; but do not forget that 'to' can also be a preposition introducing an ordinary phrase: a walk to the park (Adjective phrase qualifying 'walk') an attempt to park the car (Present infinitive, Active)

39 Now we come to a word whose task is to modify the verb and certain other words. This is called an adverb. It is important to understand the meaning of the word 'modify' (not to be confused with 'qualify' which means to 'narrow down' – Exercise 18). When we modify something, we alter that something. Take a sentence: 'The car moves.' Try to draw a picture in your mind of a vehicle with its wheels turning, presumably forward. By adding various adverbs we can alter - that is, modify - the picture in our mind: The car moves fast.(The car is speeding.) The car moves slowly.(The car is now crawling.) The car moves backwards. (The car is now reversing.) The car does not move. (The car is now stationary.) Note that, when a verb contains more than one word, the adverb sometimes splits it in two: The car was slowly skidding. (Verb - 'was skidding') Count the adverbs in each sentence and click on the correct button: A. The man jumped sideways. (1 one) (8 none) B. We trotted easily; they ran hard. (4 one) (5 two) C. They always help; you will never bother. (3 one) (6 two) D. The panther crept smoothly, silently and gracefully. (2 one) (7 three) All correct - well done! 1, 4, 3 and 2 1, 5, 3 and 2 1, 4, 6 and 2 1, 5, 6 and 2 1, 4, 3 and 7 1, 5, 3 and 7 1, 4, 6 and 7 1, 5, 6 and 7 8, 4, 3 and 2 8, 5, 3 and 2 8, 4, 6 and 2 8, 5, 6 and 2 8, 4, 3 and 7 8, 5, 3 and 7 8, 4, 6 and 7 8, 5, 6 and 7 Exercise 35 - Adverbs

40 There are six kinds of adverbs that modify the verb. Three of them can be found by asking questions after the verb: The man walks (How?) clumsily - Manner The man walks (When?) today - Time The man walks (Where?) there - Place Note that, although we ask the question after the verb, the adverb itself does not necessarily come after the verb: He is coming now (Coming when?) He is now coming (Coming when?) Now he is coming (Coming when?) Look at the adverbs and decide their kinds. Click on the correct button: A. If we walk steadily we shall soon get there. Manner, Place - 1 Manner, Time, Place - 4 B. Go home immediately! Time - 6Place, Time - 7 C. Down she fell, screaming loudly. Place, Place, Manner - 5 Place, Manner - 8 D. He turned right and stopped at the right house. Place, Place - 2 Place - 3 All correct - well done! 1, 6, 5 and 2 1, 7, 5 and 2 1, 6, 8 and 2 1, 7, 8 and 2 1, 6, 5 and 3 1, 7, 5 and 3 1, 6, 8 and 3 1, 7, 8 and 3 4, 6, 5 and 2 4, 7, 5 and 2 4, 6, 8 and 2 4, 7, 8 and 2 4, 6, 5 and 3 4, 7, 5 and 3 4, 6, 8 and 3 4, 7, 8 and 3 Exercise 36 - Adverbs Adverbs and adjectives sometimes have the same form. Take care not to confuse them: That is a fast plane (What kind of plane?) Adjective That plane travels fast (Travels how?) Adverb of Manner

41 Here are the three remaining kinds of adverb that modify the verb. They cannot be found by asking questions after the verb: {certainly }{Asserting that The man{positively } walks. {something does - Affirmation {assuredly } {happen The man does not walk.- Negation How}{These ask When}{questions, Why } does the man walk?{not answer - Interrogation Where}{them Now we have six kinds of adverb modifying the verb: Manner, Time, Place, Affirmation, Negation, Interrogation. Verbs and adverbs of Negation are sometimes joined together, or even shortened: cannot (can not); won't (will not); hadn't (had not) ; etc. Decide which kinds of adverb are being used and click on the correct button: A. Why will she not do her work properly? (2 Interrogation, Negation, Manner) (6 Interrogation, Manner) B. The package will definitely be arriving today, but we will not be allowed to open it immediately. (1 Manner, Time, Negation, Manner) (5 Affirmation, Time, Negation, Time) C. There they go again, boasting stupidly! (3 Time, Manner) (7 Place, Time, Manner) D. How did you manage? I can't do it. (4 Manner) (8 Interrogation, Negation) All correct - well done! 2, 1, 3 and 4 2, 5, 3 and 4 2, 1, 7 and 4 2, 5, 7 and 4 2, 1, 3 and 8 2, 5, 3 and 8 2, 1, 7 and 8 2, 5, 7 and 8 6, 1, 3 and 4 6, 5, 3 and 4 6, 1, 7 and 4 6, 5, 7 and 4 6, 1, 3 and 8 6, 5, 3 and 8 6, 1, 7 and 8 6, 5, 7 and 8 Exercise 37 - Adverbs

42 One kind of adverb remains: the adverb of Degree or Extent. Unlike the adverbs we have been studying it does not modify the verb. It modifies adjectives (Exercise 18), prepositions (Exercise 22) or other adverbs. It always comes before the word it modifies, and we find it by asking the question 'To what extent?' A very strong stick. (To what extent strong?) ('very adverb modifying adjective 'strong') Almost on the edge. (To what extent on the edge?) ('almost', adverb modifying preposition' on') He walks fairly quickly. (To what extent quickly?) ('fairly', adverb modifying adverb 'quickly') Note that in the last of the above examples the adverb 'fairly' does not modify the verb. 'He' does not walk 'fairly' - 'he' walks 'quickly'. Decide how many adverbs of Degree or Extent and click on the correct button: A. It was much too wonderful to be true. two - 2 one - 5 B. They went calmly right into the thick of it.one - 1 two - 6 C. The girls were very well pleased with their work. one - 3 two - 8 D. She writes exceptionally fast, but almost illegibly. two - 4 four - 7 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 3 and 4 2, 6, 3 and 4 2, 1, 8 and 4 2, 6, 8 and 4 2, 1, 3 and 7 2, 6, 3 and 7 2, 1, 8 and 7 2, 6, 8 and 7 5, 1, 3 and 4 5, 6, 3 and 4 6, 1, 8 and 4 5, 6, 8 and 4 5, 1, 3 and 7 5, 6, 3 and 7 5, 1, 8 and 7 5, 6, 8 and 7 Exercise 38 - Adverbs

43 So we have seven kinds of adverb in all: Manner, Time, Place, Affirmation, Negation, Interrogation and Degree or Extent. Here is a useful sequence for finding them all: 1. Find any verbs and ask 'How?' 'When?' 'Where?' after them. (Also remember Affirmation, Interrogation and Negation, which cannot be found by asking questions.) Answer the questions on the following passage and click on the correct button: Then I watched the riders descend the slope. Most of them came slowly and carefully, guiding their very tired horses skilfully; but a few trotted down far too fast and three of them definitely landed right in the ditch. A. The adverbs of Manner are: slowly, carefully, down, definitely - 2 slowly, carefillly, skilfully, fast - 8 B. The adverbs of Place are: down, far, right- 1 down - 7 C. The adverbs of Degree or Extent are: very, too - 3 very, far, too, right - 5 D. Apart from the kinds in A, B and C, there is/are (two - 4 one - 6) other adverb(s) in the above passage. All correct - well done! 2, 1, 3 and 4 2, 7, 3 and 4 2, 1, 5 and 4 2, 7, 5 and 4 2, 1, 3 and 6 2, 7, 3 and 6 2, 1, 5 and 6 2, 7, 5 and 6 8, 1, 3 and 4 8, 7, 3 and 4 8, 1, 5 and 4 8, 7, 5 and 4 8, 1, 3 and 6 8, 7, 3 and 6 8, 1, 5 and 6 8, 7, 5 and 6 Exercise 39 - Adverbs 2. Find any adjectives and ask 'To what extent?' before them. 3. Find any prepositions and do the same. 4. Look at the adverbs you have already found and ask 'To what extent?' before them, too. NB Obviously adverbs of degree or extent modifying other adverbs must be dealt with last, since one must first be sure that all other adverbs have been picked out.

44 Now we come to the adverb phrase. An adverb phrase is a phrase doing the work of an adverb. It does not necessarily contain any adverbs. It modifies the verb only and can be found by a method similar to that for finding adverbs. As with the adjective phrase, it is introduced by a preposition: He walks (How?) in a slovenly way.Manner He walks (When?) at lunch time.Time He walks (Where?) to the shops.Place He has to walk (Why?) because of the strike. Reason He was scared (By what?) by the noise. Instrument He was scared (By whom?) by his friend.Agent NB 1 In the above, 'in', 'at', 'to', 'by' are prepositions: 'because of' is a preposition phrase. NB 2 Sometimes the introducing preposition is understood; eg Each day (on each day). NB 3 Two adverbs coming together do not make an adverb phrase: eg very fast ('fast', adverb of Manner; 'very', adverb of Extent). Decide what kind of adverb phrases are being used and click on the correct button: A. He is helped by his father every evening. (Agent - 2 Agent, Time - 4) B. The girl was taken to school by taxi. (Place, Instrument - 1 Place, Manner - 3) C. Owing to the traffic jam, the cars crawled at a snail's pace along the high street. (Reason, Manner, Place - 5 Instrument, Time, Place - 7) D. They were breathing rather heavily. ( None - 6 Manner - 8) All correct - well done! 2, 1, 5 and 6 2, 3, 5 and 6 2, 1, 7 and 6 2, 3, 7 and 6 2, 1, 5 and 8 2, 3, 5 and 8 2, 1, 7 and 8 2, 3, 7 and 8 4, 1, 5 and 6 4, 3, 5 and 6 4, 1, 7 and 6 4, 3, 7 and 6 4, 1, 5 and 8 4, 3, 5 and 8 4, 1, 7 and 8 4, 3, 7 and 8 Exercise 40 - The Adverb Phrase

45 Compare the following: He had to run (Why?) owing to the time. He ran daily (Why?) to keep fit. Although both the adverb phrases above are found by asking 'Why? after the verb, there is a distinction between them. 'Owing to the time' simply provides a reason, but the phrase 'to keep fit expresses more than reason - it expresses a planned intention or purpose: He ran daily to keep fit - Adverb Phrase of Purpose Note that the word 'to' in this instance is not a preposition - it is part of the infinitive 'to keep' (Exercise 7). This is the one exception to the rule. For this reason the adverb phrase of Purpose is sometimes referred to as the Infinitive Phrase of Purpose. Identify the adverb phrases in italics and click on the correct button: A. They came all this way to the fair. (2 Purpose) (7 Place) B. They came all this way to see the fair. (1 Purpose) (8 Place) C. We are staying indoors because of the weather. (3 Purpose) (6 Reason) D. We are staying indoors to finish our homework (4 Reason) ( 5 Purpose) All correct - well done! 2, 1, 3 and 4 2, 8, 3 and 4 2, 1, 6 and 4 2, 8, 6 and 4 2, 1, 3 and 5 2, 8, 3 and 5 2, 1, 6 and 5 2, 8, 6 and 5 7, 1, 3 and 4 7, 8, 3 and 4 7, 1, 7 and 4 7, 8, 6 and 4 7, 1, 3 and 5 7, 8, 3 and 5 7, 1, 6 and 5 7, 8, 6 and 5 Exercise 41 - The Adverb Phrase

46 The adverb phrase of Purpose, always introduced by an infinitive, is a useful means of blending sentences when some kind of intention is involved. Examine the following: He worked hard. He wanted to win the prize. The first sentence expresses an action. The second sentence expresses the purpose of that action. Leave the action sentence intact. Remove the subject and finite verb orthe other sentence, but preserve the infinitive and remainder. Jain the phrase to the sentence: He worked hard to win the prize. Identify the phrase in italics and click on the correct button: A. The time to take a holiday is now. adjective phrase - 2 adverb phrase of Purpose - 3 B. I am saving up to take a holiday. noun phrase - 1 adverb phrase of Purpose - 4 C. I wish to take a holiday. noun phrase - 5 adverb phrase of Purpose - 8 D. I have come to see your brother. adverb phrase of Purpose - 6 adjective phrase - 7 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 5 and 6 2, 4, 5 and 6 2, 1, 8 and 6 2, 4, 8 and 6 2, 1, 5 and 7 2, 4, 5 and 7 2, 1, 8 and 7 2, 4, 8 and 7 3, 1, 5 and 6 3, 4, 5 and 6 3, 1, 8 and 6 3, 4, 8 and 6 3, 1, 5 and 7 3, 4, 5 and 7 3, 1, 8 and 7 3, 4, 8 and 7 Exercise 42 - The Adverb Phrase of Purpose As with other phrases, these infinitive phrases of Purpose can be linked together with 'and' : e.g. He worked hard to get top marks and (to) win the prize. NB Not all infinitive phrases are adverb phrases of Purpose. They can also be Adjective or Noun Phrases: I want (What?) to win a prize. Noun phrase The way to win a prize (What kind of way?). Adjective phrase

47 Employing the methods we have practised so far, we shall now blend four sentences into one: 1. John had his tea. 2. He then went to a concert. 3. He wanted to hear his favourite symphony. 4. He is a keen music lover. Look for significant (ie 'action') sentences. Both (1) and (2) express action but, whereas (1) tells us of an ordinary everyday event, (2) tells about a rather particular event. Therefore we shall preserve (2) intact as a sentence and turn the others into phrases by removing their finite verbs and subjects. Based on the completed sentence above, click on the correct button: A. 'Having had' is a (perfect - 2 present - 6) participle. B. The finite verb is:went - 1 went to hear - 5 C. The subject word/words is/are: John - 4 John, lover - 8 D. The sentence contains (two - 3 one - 7) non-finite verb(s). All correct - well done! 2, 1, 4 and 3 2, 5, 4 and 3 2, 1, 8 and 3 2, 5, 8 and 3 2, 1, 4 and 7 2, 4, 4 and 7 2, 1, 8 and 7 2, 5, 8 and 7 6, 1, 4 and 3 6, 5, 4 and 3 6, 1, 8 and 3 6, 5, 8 and 3 6, 1, 4 and 7 6, 5, 4 and 7 6, 1, 8 and 7 6, 5, 8 and 7 Exercise 43 - Sentences There is a time relationship between (1) and (2) - so turn (1) into a participial phrase. There is an infinitive in (3) and it expresses purpose - so turn it into an adverb phrase of Purpose. (4) re-expresses 'John' - so turn it into an appositional phrase. Arrange them suitably: Having had his tea, John, a keen music lover, went to a concert to hear his favourite symphony.

48 When breaking the sentence down into divisions we group adverbs and adverb phrases modifying the verb under the heading Extension of the Verb'. Examine the following: In the morning we will take you quickly to the old farm. He galloped hard to avoid capture. Subject Verb ObjectExtension of Verb We will takeyouquickly, to the old farm, in the morning Hegallopedhard, to avoid capture Decide what the Extension to the Verb in each of the following is and click on the correct button: A. In future we are not going to be bullied by you. In future, not, by you - 2 In future - 5 B. I should really like that book of yours. really - 1 really, of yours -6 C. The man with the top hat closed the gates with a flourish. with a flourish - 4 with the top hat. with a flourish - 7 D. Why are you going there? there - 3 Why, there - 8 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 4 and 3 2, 6, 4 and 3 2, 1, 7 and 3 2, 6, 7 and 3 2, 1, 4 and 8 2, 6, 4 and 8 2, 1, 7 and 8 2, 6, 7 and 8 5, 1, 4 and 3 5, 6, 4 and 3 5, 1, 7 and 3 5, 6, 7 and 3 5, 1, 4 and 8 5, 6, 4 and 8 5, 1, 7 and 8 5, 6, 7 and 8 Exercise 44 - Extensions of the Verb

49 Sometimes, owing to the omission of the preposition 'to' or 'for', a noun or pronoun appears to be the object of a verb when it is not: I sent him fruit. At first glance, 'him' appears to be the object of the verb. A moment's thought, however, shows this to be wrong. 'I' did not send 'him' - 'I' sent 'fruit' to him. Pick out the indirect objects (if any) and click on the correct button: A. She gave us a shilling. shilling - 2 us - 8 B. She gave a shilling to us. None - 1 shilling - 7 C. This saved everyone a good deal of trouble. everyone - 4 deal - 6 D. The accident taught Mary a lesson. Mary - 3 lesson - 5 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 4 and 3 2, 7, 4 and 3 2, 1, 6 and 3 2, 7, 6 and 3 2, 1, 4 and 5 2, 7, 4 and 5 2, 1, 6 and 5 2, 7, 6 and 5 8, 1, 4 and 3 8, 7, 4 and 3 8, 1, 6 and 3 8, 7, 6 and 3 8, 1, 4 and 5 8, 7, 4 and 5 8, 1, 6 and 5 8, 7, 6 and 5 Exercise 45 - Indirect Objects The word' fruit' is therefore the object. What, then, is 'him'? In English, rather meaninglessly, it is called the indirect object. Strictly speaking it is a phrase with the introducing preposition omitted. Indirect Extension SubjectVerb Object Object of Verb Isent fruit him - Isent fruit to him (Place)

50 Certain verbs, sufficient by themselves to convey one meaning, are not sufficient to convey another meaning unless they are helped by an additional word or words. The most common of these verbs is the verb 'to be' which, by itself, simply means 'to exist'. Compare the following: He is.(He exists) He is dead. (He no longer exists) In the first of the above examples the verb is sufficient to convey the meaning intended in the sentence. In the second example it is not sufficient to convey the meaning intended in the sentence, but requires an additional word ('dead' Decide whether the italicised words are complements and click on the correct button: A. They were rich. Yes - 2 No - 4 B. They were captured. No - 1 Yes - 3 C. She will be waiting. No - 6 Yes - 8 D. She will be miserable. No - 5 Yes - 7 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 6 and 5 2, 3, 6 and 5 2, 1, 8 and 5 2, 3, 8 and 5 2, 1, 6 and 7 2, 3, 6 and 7 2, 1, 8 and 7 2, 3, 8 and 7 4, 1, 6 and 5 4, 3, 6 and 5 4, 1, 8 and 5 4, 3, 8 and 5 4, 1, 6 and 7 4, 3, 6 and 7 4, 1, 8 and 7 4, 3, 8 and 7 Exercise 46 - Complements in this case) to help it. Such additional words are called complements (ie 'completing words'). Take care not to confuse complements with participles: He is coming. The verb here is not to be'. The verb is 'to come'. 'coming' is the essence of the verb - 'is' is simply an additional verb helping the verb to form its tense. Such words which help verbs to form their tenses are called auxiliary verbs.

51 A complement can be an adjective, an adverb, or a noun. If it is a noun it may also be qualified by an adjective - in which case it will be more than one word. They made him furious. (Adjective) They made him up.(Adverb) They made him a sergeant. (Noun) The object in each of the above sentences is 'him' - but in none of them is 'him' object to the verb 'made' alone. 'They' did not 'make' (ie 'construct') him. They 'made furious' (infuriated) him. They 'made up' (grease-painted) him. They 'made sergeant' (promoted) him. Identify the words in italics and click on the correct button: A. He looked everywhere. Complement - 2 Extension of Verb - 7 B. He looked an absolute fool. Object - 1 Complement - 8 C. They drove the cattle home.Extension of Verb - 4 Complement - 5 D. They drove their parents mad. Extension of Verb - 3 Complement - 6 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 4 and 3 2, 8, 4 and 3 2, 1, 5 and 3 2, 8, 5 and 3 2, 1, 4 and 6 2, 8, 4 and 6 2, 1, 5 and 6 2, 8, 5 and 6 7, 1, 4 and 3 7, 8, 4 and 3 7, 1, 5 and 3 7, 8, 8 and 3 7, 1, 4 and 6 7, 8, 4 and 6 7, 1, 5 and 6 7, 8, 5 and 6 Exercise 47 - Complements A useful way to check whether a word is a complement or not is to remove it mentally. If its removal entirely alters the meaning of the verb in the sentence then it is likely to be a complement. NB In our last exercise we learned that the verb 'to be' nearly always takes a complement. The same applies to any verb followed by 'to be', even when 'to be' is understood: to seem (to be) ill, to appear (to be) tired, etc.

52 In the first lesson of this book we said that, although there are many thousands of words in the English Language, the tasks performed by these words are very few. Every individual sentence or phrase we have so far considered has been made up of one of the six following units, each representing a different task: verb, noun, pronoun, adjective, preposition, adverb. These task units are called parts of speech. There are eight parts of speech in all. The seventh part of speech is the interjection - a 'thrown in' word which breaks the normal flow of expression. It usually indicates some kind of Identify the words in italics and click on the correct button: A. Files round off sharp edges. preposition - 2 verb - 3 B. The man with the round hat played a round of golf. adverb, adjective - 1 adjective, noun - 4 C. She swung round. preposition - 6 adverb - 7 D. The boy ran round the track.preposition - 5 adverb - 8 All correct - well done! 2, 1, 6 and 5 2, 4, 6 and 5 2, 1, 7 and 5 2, 4, 7 and 5 2, 1, 6 and 8 2, 4, 6 and 8 2, 1, 7 and 8 2, 4, 7 and 8 3, 1, 6 and 5 3, 4, 6 and 5 3, 1, 7 and 5 3, 4, 7 and 5 3, 1, 6 and 8 3, 4, 6 and 8 3, 1, 7 and 8 3, 4, 7 and 8 Exercise 48 - Interjection emotion and is nearly always followed by a mark of exclamation: Oh! Mm! Hey! Yippee! Ugh! Hurray! Alas! The eighth and last part of speech is the conjunction, used to join two sentences to each other. We shall be dealing with this after a little revision work. When deciding on the part of speech of a word, always remember that it is its task in the sentence that settles the matter - not what it usually is.

53 1. A sentence is a group of words making complete sense. 2. Seven Parts of Speech go to make up a simple sentence: verb, noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition, interjection. 3. The eighth Part of Speech - the conjunction - comes between sentences. It does not belong to any one sentence. 4. The verb expresses action, doing or being (Exercise 3) - past, present or future. 5. No sentence can exist without a finite verb (Exercise 6, etc.). Choose the right answers and click on the correct button: A. Without a (finite verb - 2 verb - 6) we cannot make up a sentence. B. A finite verb is a verb which takes (an object - 3 a subject - 7). C. The subject of a verb is found by asking ('Whom?' or 'What?' after the verb - 1 'Who?' or 'What?' before the verb - 5). D. A simple, unlinked sentence may contain up to (eight - 4 seven - 8) different Parts of Speech. All correct - well done! 2, 3, 1 and 4 2, 7, 1 and 4 2, 3, 5 and 4 2, 7, 5 and 4 2, 3, 1 and 8 2, 7, 1 and 8 2, 3, 5 and 8 2, 7, 5 and 8 6, 3, 1 and 4 6, 7, 1 and 4 6, 3, 5 and 4 6, 7, 5 and 4 6, 3, 1 and 8 6, 7, 1 and 8 6, 3, 5 and 8 6, 7, 5 and 8 Exercise 49 - Simple Sentences (Revision) 6. A noun is the name of a person, place or thing (Exercise 15). It may be the subject word (Exercise 24), the object word (Exercise 24), complement to the verb (Exercise 47). It may be governed by a preposition (Exercise 22) or it may do the work of an adjective by showing possession (Exercise 20 NB). 7. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. Like the noun, it may be subject word, object word, complement to the verb, governed by a preposition, or used adjectivally to show possession.

54 8. A preposition is a word which shows the relationship between two things (Exercise 22). 9. An adjective is a word that qualifies a noun or pronoun (Exercise 18). 10. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, preposition, or another adverb (Exercise 35, etc). 11. A verb that cannot take a subject is called a non-finite verb. There are two forms of non-finite verb: the infinitive and the participle. 12. The infinitive is the root from which every verb is taken (Exercise 34). 13. The participle is a verbal adjective (Exercise 26, etc). Choose the right answers and click on the correct button: A. A preposition is (sometimes - 2 always - 5) followed by a noun or pronoun. B. An adjective (qualifies - 3 describes - 8) a noun or pronoun. C. An adverb modifies (only - 1 not only - 6) the verb. D. The words 'modify' and 'qualify' (do - 4 do not - 7) mean the same thing. All correct - well done! 2, 3, 1 and 4 2, 8, 1 and 4 2, 3, 6 and 4 2, 8, 6 and 4 2, 3, 1 and 7 2, 8, 1 and 7 2, 3, 6 and 7 2, 8, 6 and 7 5, 3, 1 and 4 5, 8, 1 and 4 5, 3, 6 and 4 5, 8, 6 and 4 5, 3, 1 and 7 5, 8, 1 and 7 5, 3, 6 and 7 5, 8, 6 and 7 Exercise 50 - Simple Sentences (Revision)

55 14. A group of words without a finite verb is called a phrase if it does the work of a Part of Speech. If it does not do the work of a Part of Speech, it is not called a phrase - it is just 'a group of words'. 15. With the exception of the appositional phrase (Exercise 10) the phrase is always introduced by a preposition, participle, or an infinitive. 16. Phrases introduced by prepositions always do the work of adjectives (Exercise 23) or adverbs (Exercise 40). Choose the right answers and click on the correct button: A. A group of words without a finite verb will (not always - 2 always - 8) be a phrase. B. A phrase (cannot -3 can - 5) do the work of every Part of Speech. C. Phrases are (always - 1 not always - 7) introduced by prepositions. D. The appositional phrase (is - 4 is not - 6) the only phrase not introduced by a preposition, participle or infinitive. All correct - well done! 2, 3, 1 and 4 2, 5, 1 and 4 2, 3, 7 and 4 2, 5, 7 and 4 2, 3, 1 and 6 2, 5, 1 and 6 2, 3, 7 and 6 2, 5, 7 and 6 8, 3, 1 and 4 8, 5, 1 and 4 8, 3, 7 and 4 8, 5, 7 and 4 8, 3, 1 and 6 8, 5, 1 and 6 8, 3, 7 and 6 8, 5, 7 and 6 Exercise 51 - Simple Sentences (Revision) 17. Phrases introduced by participles always do the work of adjectives (Exercise 28). 18. Phrases introduced by infinitives can do the work of adverbs (Exercise 41) or noum or adjectives (Exercise 42 NB). 19. No phrase can ever make complete sense by itself. Its sense will always depend upon its work in the sentence which contains it.

56 Now look at the following: The twins played. The twins played and then they slept. Consider the first group of words above. Does it contain a finite verb and subject? Yes - 'twins played'. So it is a sentence. And what about the second group of words above? This contains not just one, but more than one finite verb and subject - 'twins played', 'they slept'. So this group of words is a sentence made up of two sentences linked together by the word 'and'. 'Twins played' and 'they slept' are, so to speak, sentences-within-a-sentence. Identify the italicised words and click on the correct button: A. The pig escaped and we chased it.Sentence - 2 Clause - 4 B. The pig escaped. Sentence - 5 Clause - 7 C. The pig escaped and we chased it. Clause - 1 Sentence - 3 D. The pig escaped and we chased it. Sentence - 6 Clause - 8 All correct - well done! 2, 5, 1 and 6 2, 7, 1 and 6 2, 5, 3 and 6 2, 7, 3 and 6 2, 5, 1 and 8 2, 7, 1 and 8 2, 5, 3 and 8 2, 7, 3 and 8 4, 5, 1 and 6 4, 7, 1 and 6 4, 5, 3 and 6 4, 7, 3 and 6 4, 5, 1 and 8 4, 7, 1 and 8 4, 5, 3 and 8 4, 7, 3 and 8 Exercise 52 - Sentences Obviously it is confusing to use the word' sentence' for sentences-within-a-sentence, as well as for groups of sentences. From now on, therefore, we shall use the term 'sentence' for any group of words that starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop - provided that it contains at least one finite verb and subject. And we shall use the word 'clause' (which simply means 'closed in') for any sentence-within-a- sentence: The twins played. - SENTENCE The twins played (CLAUSE) and } then they slept. (CLAUSE) } - SENTENCE

57 The twins played and then they slept. Let us see how each of the above clauses breaks down: Subject Verb ObjectIndirectComplementExtension Objectof Verb the twins played theysleptthen (Exercise 44) The word and' joins the two clauses together. It is therefore a conjunction. Note that it does not belong to either clause - not subject, verb, object, etc. It is purely a link. There are four conjunctions which are pure links and which do not belong to the clauses they link: and, but, either-or, neither-nor The rain stopped and the sun shone. The sun shone, but it remained cold. Neither the rain (could stop them) nor the cold could stop them. Choose suitable conjunctions and click on the correct button: A. Joyce went. I went too. (2 but) (7 and) B. Joyce went. I could not go. (3 but) (6 and) C. You can live forever. He can live forever. (1 either... or) (8 neither... nor) D. Peter rested. John worked. I worked as well. (4 and, but) (5 but, and) All correct - well done! 2, 3, 1 and 4 2, 6, 1 and 4 2, 3, 8 and 4 2, 6, 8 and 4 2, 3, 1 and 5 2, 6, 1 and 5 2, 3, 8 and 5 2, 6, 8 and 5 7, 3, 1 and 4 7, 6, 1 and 4 7, 3, 8 and 4 7, 6, 8 and 4 7, 3, 1 and 5 7, 6, 1 and 5 7, 3, 8 and 5 7, 6, 8 and 5 Exercise 53 - Conjunctions

58 The pig escaped and we chased it. Look at these two questions again. In each of them you have decided that the italicized words make up a sentence. In a manner of speaking you are perfectly correct since both groups contain a finite verb and a subject. However, you have not paid sufficient attention to what was said in the last lesson. The term 'sentence' now applies to any group of words beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full-stop, provided that the group contains at least one finite verb and subject. It may contain more than one finite verb and subject - in other words a sentence may be made up of several sentences. Identify the italicised words and click on the correct button: A. The gun fired and the race began. Sentence - 2 Clause - 4 B. The gun fired and the race began. Clause - 5 Sentence - 7 C. The gun fired. Sentence - 1 Clause - 3 D. The gun fired and the race began. Sentence - 6 Clause - 8 Two errors - fairly good. 2, 5, 1 and 6 2, 7, 1 and 6 2, 5, 3 and 6 2, 7, 3 and 6 2, 5, 1 and 8 2, 7, 1 and 8 2, 5, 3 and 8 2, 7, 3 and 8 4, 5, 1 and 6 4, 7, 1 and 6 4, 5, 3 and 6 4, 7, 3 and 6 4, 5, 1 and 8 4, 7, 1 and 8 4, 5, 3 and 8 4, 7, 3 and 8 Exercise 52b - Clauses To avoid confusion of terms these 'contained' sentences - these sentences-within-a-sentence - are now called clauses. So each of the italicized groups of words above is now called a clause. On the other hand 'The pig escaped and we chased it.' is a sentence since it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full-stop. It is a sentence made up of two clauses linked together.

59 1. The twins played / and / then they slept. 2. The twins played / before they slept. In (1) above, the word 'and' is a pure conjunction. It links two clauses and belongs to neither clause. But the word 'before' in (2) is different. It links two clauses, but it cannot be separated from the clause it introduces. The reason for this is that 'before they slept' does the work of a single part of speech - an adverb of Time (layout 2183) in this case, modifying 'played' in the other clause: The twins played when? - 'before they slept' The whole clause is, in effect, a single part of speech and we cannot sensibly break it apart any more than we could break an adverb apart. Decide whether or not the italicized words belong to the clauses that follow them and click on the correct button: A. She ran because she was frightened. No - 2 Yes - 3 B. She was frightened and she ran. Yes - 5 No - 8 c. She was weary, but she continued. No - 1 Yes - 4 D. When she was weary she stopped. No - 6 Yes - 7 All correct - well done! 2, 5, 1 and 6 2, 8, 1 and 6 2, 5, 4 and 6 2, 8, 4 and 6 2, 5, 1 and 7 2, 8, 1 and 7 2, 5, 4 and 7 2, 8, 4 and 7 3, 5, 1 and 6 3, 8, 1 and 6 3, 5, 4 and 6 3, 8, 4 and 6 3, 5, 1 and 7 3, 8, 1 and 7 3, 5, 4 and 7 3, 8, 4 and 7 Exercise 54 - Clauses There are many words like before' which link two clauses together and which cannot be separated from the clause they introduce. Only the pure conjunctions -' and, 'but', 'either-or', 'neither-nor' - can be treated separately from the clauses they link. Linking words such as 'before' do not necessarily come between the sentences they link - it depends entirely upon the position of the clause they introduce: Before they slept, the twins played.

60 (1) The twins played and (2) we worked. (3) The twins played (4) after they had worked. Look at the four clauses in the two sentences above. (1), (2) and (3) can all stand by themselves and require no other clause to give them sense. The same cannot be said of (4) even though, being a clause, it contains a finite verb and subject: after they had worked. Identify the second clause and click on the correct button: A. They ran off before we had a chance to stop them. (2 Dependent) (6 Main) B. They ran off and we did not have a chance to stop them. (3 Dependent) (7 Main) C. We took our time, but we were late. (4 Main) (8 Dependent) D. We took our time, although we were late. (1 Dependent) (5 Main) All correct - well done! 2, 3, 4 and 1 2, 7, 4 and 1 2, 3, 8 and 1 2, 7, 8 and 1 2, 3, 4 and 5 2, 7, 4 and 5 2, 3, 8 and 5 2, 7, 8 and 5 6, 3, 4 and 1 6, 7, 4 and 1 6, 3, 8 and 1 3, 7, 8 and 1 6, 3, 4 and 5 6, 7, 4 and 5 6, 3, 8 and 5 6, 7, 8 and 5 Exercise 55 - Clauses Automatically one waits for more words. This is because the linking word 'after' - unlike 'and' - cannot be separated from the clause it introduces (see Exercise 54). Clauses which, like (1), (2) and (3), can stand by themselves are called Main Clauses. Clauses which, like (4), cannot stand by themselves are called Dependent Clauses.

61 There are three kinds of sentence: Simple: One finite verb and subject. Compound: Two or more main clauses - no dependent clauses. Complex: At least one main clause and at least one dependent clause. Sometimes sentences are a combination of Compound and Complex - that is, they contain not only two or more main clauses, but also at least one dependent clause. Such sentences are sometimes called 'Compound-Complex'. We shall simply treat them as Complex. Identify the sentence and click on the correct button: A. The crowd cleared after they had left. Compound - 2 Complex - 5 B. The crowd cleared and afterwards they left. Compound - 3 Complex - 8 C. After they had left, the crowd cleared and the traffic began to move again. Complex - 4 Compound - 7 D. The crowd cleared after their departure. Simple - 1 Complex - 6 All correct - well done! 2, 3, 4 and 1 2, 8, 4 and 1 2, 3, 7 and 1 2, 8, 7 and 1 2, 3, 4 and 6 2, 8, 4 and 6 2, 3, 7 and 6 2, 8, 7 and 6 5, 3, 4 and 1 5, 8, 4 and 1 5, 3, 7 and 1 5, 8, 7 and 1 5, 3, 4 and 6 5, 8, 4 and 6 5, 3, 7 and 6 5, 8, 7 and 6 Exercise 56 - Sentences He went away. Simple He went away and they stayed. Compound He went away, although they stayed. Complex NB When a Compound sentence contains three or more main clauses in sequence, the conjunction 'and' is sometimes left out as 'understood': They ran (and), they jumped and they sang.

62 They ran before we had a chance to stop them. We took our time, although we were late. Look at these two sentences again. You have decided that the second clause in each of them is a main clause - that is a clause that makes complete sense on its own. There is only one way in which you could have made this mistake. You have said that the second clauses are we had a chance to stop them' and 'we were late'. In other words you have separated these clauses from the words that introduce them. You have treated 'before' and Identify the second clause and click on the correct button: A. They came after we had gone. Dependent - 2 Main - 6 B. They came, but we had already gone. Dependent - 3 Main - 7 C. After we had gone, they came. Main - 4 Dependent - 8 D. They came because they were curious. Dependent - 1 Main - 5 Two errors - not bad. 2, 3, 4 and 1 2, 7, 4 and 1 2, 3, 8 and 1 2, 7, 8 and 1 2, 3, 4 and 5 2, 7, 4 and 5 2, 3, 8 and 5 2, 7, 8 and 5 6, 3, 4 and 1 6, 7, 4 and 1 6, 3, 8 and 1 3, 7, 8 and 1 6, 3, 4 and 5 6, 7, 4 and 5 6, 3, 8 and 5 6, 7, 8 and 5 Exercise 55b - Dependent Clauses although' as pure links. However, as we have already seen (Exercise ), only and', 'but', 'either-or', 'neither - nor' are pure links; all other linking words belong to the clause they introduce. So the two second clauses above are... before we had a chance to stop them.... although we were late. Clearly neither of these clauses can stand by itself. They are both dependent clauses.

63 1. Compile eight Simple sentences. 2. Write down these eight Simple sentences again. Add another Simple sentence to each of them linked with' and', 'but', 'either-or' or 'neither-nor' so as to make up a Compound sentence. 3. Write down your eight Simple sentences once again. Add a dependent clause to each so as to turn them into Complex sentences. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 57 Practice Exercise 12

64 Jack and Jill went up the hill. I like bacon and eggs. He played in the wind and the rain. Each of the above appears to be a Simple sentence, because each appears to contain only one finite verb. However, this is only because words have been omitted and, in each case, the omitted words include another verb: Jack (went up the hill) and Jill went up the hill. I like bacon and (I like) eggs. He played in the wind and (he played in) the rain. Identify these sentences and click on the correct button: A. You can go. (2 Simple) (8 Compound) B. Either you or she can go. (3 Compound) (5 Simple) C. We arrived, but rather late unfortunately. (4 Compound) (6 Simple) D. Unfortunately, we arrived rather late. (1 Compound) (7 Simple) All correct - well done! 2, 3, 4 and 1 2, 5, 4 and 1 2, 3, 6 and 1 2, 5, 6 and 1 2, 3, 4 and 7 2, 5, 4 and 7 2, 3, 6 and 7 2, 5, 6 and 7 8, 3, 4 and 1 8, 7, 4 and 1 8, 3, 6 and 1 8, 5, 6 and 1 8, 3, 4 and 7 8, 5, 4 and 7 8, 3, 6 and 7 8, 5, 6 and 7 Exercise 57 - Compound Sentences So we may see that each of these sentences, although appearing to be Simple, is really Compound since each contains two main clauses. NB1 Omission of words to avoid repetition is called 'ellipsis'. NB2 Although 'and', 'but', 'either-or', 'neither-nor' often seem to join two words or two phrases, they always join two clauses.

65 Clause - a sentence-within-a-sentence. Main Clause - a clause that stands by itself. Dependent Clause - a clause that does not stand by itself. Simple Sentence - a sentence that contains only one finite verb and subject. Compound Sentence - a sentence made up of two or more main clauses and no dependent clauses. These main clauses will always be linked by the pure conjunctions 'and', 'but', 'either-or', 'neither-nor'. Answer the following and click on the correct button: A. A Simple sentence is: an easy sentence - 2 a sentence containing only one finite verb and subject - 4 B. A Compound sentence contains at least one dependent clause - 5 two linked main clauses - 7 C. A Complex sentence (will always - 6 can sometimes - 8) contain a dependent clause. D. Two linked main clauses (may sometimes - 1 will always - 3) be joined by 'and', 'but', 'either/or', 'neither/nor'. All correct - well done! 2, 5, 6 and 1 2, 7, 6 and 1 2, 5, 8 and 1 2, 7, 8 and 1 2, 5, 6 and 3 2, 7, 6 and 3 2, 5, 8 and 3 2, 7, 8 and 3 4, 5, 6 and 1 4, 7, 6 and 1 4, 5, 8 and 1 4, 7, 8 and 1 4, 5, 6 and 3 4, 7, 6 and 3 4, 5, 8 and 3 4, 7, 8 and 3 Exercise 58 - Sentences and Clauses (Revision) Complex Sentence - a sentence containing at least one main clause and at least one dependent clause. The word that links the dependent clause (or clauses) to the rest of the sentence is the word that introduces the dependent clause. It cannot be separated from the clause it introduces. NB No sentence can make full sense unless it contains a main clause. The Simple sentence is, in effect, a main clause - only there is no need to use the term' clause' for it, since there is only one sentence to be considered and no possible confusion of terms.

66 We have seen that a dependent clause can do the work of an adverb. When it does so we call it an Adverb Clause. Compare the following: John arrived late. (Arrived when?) Adverb John arrived at a late hour.(Arrived when?) Adverb Phrase John arrived when it was late.(Arrived when?) Adverb Clause NB 1 The first two sentences above are Simple sentences since they each contain only one finite verb and subject. The third sentence is Complex since the adverbial work is done by a dependent clause linked to the main clause 'John arrived'. NB 2 Whereas 'late' and at a late hour' modify verbs in their own sentence, 'when it was late' modifies a verb in another sentence - that is, in another clause. Decide whether the italicized groups of words are adverb phrases or adverb clauses and click on the correct button: A. At sunset she went home. (2 Adverb Clause) (7 Adverb Phrase) B. As the sun set she went home. (3 Adverb Clause) (6 Adverb Phrase) C. Bats fly after dark. (4 Adverb Clause) (5 Adverb Phrase) D. Bats fly after night hasfallen. (1 Adverb Phrase) (8 Adverb Clause) All correct - well done! 2, 3, 4 and 1 2, 6, 4 and 1 2, 3, 5 and 1 2, 6, 5 and 1 2, 3, 4 and 8 2, 6, 4 and 8 2, 3, 5 and 8 2, 6, 5 and 8 7, 3, 4 and 1 7, 6, 4 and 1 7, 3, 5 and 1 7, 6, 5 and 1 7, 3, 4 and 8 7, 6, 4 and 8 7, 3, 5 and 8 7, 6, 5 and 8 Exercise 59 - The Adverb Clause

67 Each of the italicized groups of words is an adverb clause. Turn each into an adverb phrase: 1. Although he had succeeded, he was not satisfied. 2. One cannot improve unless one practises. 3. They stopped where the two roads meet. 4. They left when the clock struck four. 5. He walks as a duck walks. 6. I am saving money so that I may have a holiday. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 60 Practice Exercise 13

68 Re-read Exercises 39 and 40. Then look at the following adverb clauses: MANNER: He fights (How?) as a lion fights. TIME:He fights (When?) when he is angry. PLACE:He fights (Where?) where the master cannot see. REASON:He fights (Why?) because he likes to (fight). PURPOSE:He fights (Why?) so that he may remain free. CONCESSION:He fights, although he hates it. CONTRAST:He fights, whereas we do not. CONDITION:He fights if he is allowed to (fight). NB 1 Each of the above sentences is Complex, with the adverb clause modifying the verb in the main clause. NB 2 Concession, Contrast and Condition will be dealt with later. Here are the words that introduce them: Concession: although, though, even though, whilst. Contrast: whereas. Condition: if, unless, whether... or. Identify the adverb clauses in order and click on the correct button: A. As he was hungry he hurried home, even though he was tired. Reason, Concession - 2 Manner, Contrast - 3 B. He walked as though he was tired so that he could put them off their guard. Concession, Reason - 5 Manner, Purpose - 8 C. Unless you help me, I shall stay where I am. Time, Contrast - 6 Condition, Place - 7 D. When he was finishing he broke off suddenly because he heard a noise. Reason, Time - 1 Time, Reason - 4 All correct - well done! 2, 5, 6 and 1 2, 8, 6 and 1 2, 5, 7 and 1 2, 8, 7 and 1 2, 5, 6 and 4 2, 8, 6 and 4 2, 5, 7 and 4 2, 8, 7 and 4 3, 5, 6 and 1 3, 8, 6 and 1 3, 5, 7 and 1 3, 8, 7 and 1 3, 5, 6 and 4 3, 8, 6 and 4 3, 5, 7 and 4 3, 8, 7 and 4 Exercise 60 - Adverb Clauses

69 Re-read Exercise 38 and then compare the following: 1. The plane travels ) ( Adverb of Degree very fast. ) To what ( or Extent ) extent ( 2. The plane travels ) fast? ( Adverb Clause of as fast as sound travels ) (Degree or Extent Just as the adverb 'very' modifies the adverb' fast' in (1), so does the clause 'as sound travels' modify the adverb 'fast' in (2). After all, if you know the speed of sound you will have some idea of the speed of the plane - the extent of its 'fast-ness'. Note that the adverb clause here does not modify the verb in the main clause - it modifies the adverb' fast' in the main Identify the adverb clause and click on the correct button: A. She swims as smoothly as a fish. Degree - 2 Manner - 6 B. He is madder than a hatter.Comparison - 4 Degree - 8 C.. They ran so fast that they fell over. Result - 3 Comparison - 7 D. He walks as slowly as a tortoise. Manner - 1 Degree - 5 All correct - well done! 2, 4, 3 and 1 2, 8, 3 and 1 2, 4, 7 and 1 2, 8, 7 and 1 2, 4, 3 and 5 2, 8, 3 and 5 2, 4, 7 and 5 2, 8, 7 and 5 6, 4, 3 and 1 6, 8, 3 and 1 6, 4, 7 and 1 6, 8, 7 and 1 6, 4, 3 and 5 6, 8, 3 and 5 6, 4, 7 and 5 6, 8, 7 and 5 Exercise 61 - Adverbs clause. We can see that the word 'fast' belongs to the main clause by asking 'How?' after the main clause verb: The plane travels (How?) - fast. There are three adverb clauses like this: DEGREE OR EXTENT: He runs as quickly as a hare (runs). COMPARISON: He runs more quickly than a hare (runs). RESULT: He slept so soundly that he did not hear them knock.

70 Variety of expression, as we have already said, is very important in speech or writing. So it is always necessary to practise expressing the same idea in different ways. See how the following adverb clauses can be re-expressed as adverb phrases: while she was on holiday - during her holiday although she was ill- despite her illness because it was snowing - because of the snow when you like- in your own time as if he was mad- like a madman so that he can eat- to eat where we used to live - at our old house Identify the italicised words and click on the correct button: A. They swim every day when on holiday. Adverb Phrase - 2 Adverb Clause - 5 B. They swim every day on holiday. Adverb Clause - 4Adverb Phrase - 7 C. The job was done as requested. Adverb Clause - 3Adverb Phrase - 8 D. We will come if called. Adverb Phrase - 1Adverb Clause - 6 All correct - well done! 2, 4, 3 and 1 2, 7, 3 and 1 2, 4, 8 and 1 2, 7, 8 and 1 2, 4, 3 and 6 2, 7, 3 and 6 2, 4, 8 and 6 2, 7, 8 and 6 5, 4, 3 and 1 5, 7, 3 and 1 5, 4, 8 and 1 5, 7, 8 and 1 5, 4, 3 and 6 5, 7, 3 and 6 5, 4, 8 and 6 5, 7, 8 and 6 Exercise 62 - Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses can also be compressed by ellipsis (see Exercise 57, NB 1). Take care not to confuse them with adverb phrases (Exercise 40). Always remember that a clause is a sentence: I shall come as soon as (it is) possible (to come). I fell asleep while (I was) reading. Although (he was) hurt, he carried on.

71 Pick out the adverb phrase in each of these Simple sentences. Turn each adverb phrase into an adverb clause so as to make a Complex sentence: 1. In spite of the cold he carried on. 2. Come at your pleasure. 3. I am dieting to keep slim. 4. They arrived during our dinner. 5. He ran like a hunted man. 6. She was delayed because of the railway strike. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 63 Practice Exercise 14

72 Examine the following: Although he was poor, he still had to pay the bill. Now we compress by ellipsis: Although poor, he still had to pay the bill. Since the omitted pronoun he' refers to the same person indicated by 'he' in the main clause, this elliptical structure is clear in meaning. But see what Decide whether or not the italicised adverb clauses can be intelligently Compressed and click on the correct button: A. While he was dancing, the bed collapsed beneath him. Yes - 2 No - 8 B. While he was dancing on the bed, he fell to the floor. Yes - 4 No - 6 C. If I am wanted I am always available. No - 3 Yes - 5 D. If I am wanted my door is always open. Yes - 1 No - 7 All correct - well done! 2, 4, 3 and 1 2, 6, 3 and 1 2, 4, 5 and 1 2, 6, 5 and 1 2, 4, 3 and 7 2, 6, 3 and 7 2, 4, 5 and 7 2, 6, 5 and 7 8, 4, 3 and 1 8, 6, 3 and 1 8, 4, 5 and 1 8, 6, 5 and 1 8, 4, 3 and 7 8, 6, 3 and 7 8, 4, 5 and 7 8, 6, 5 and 7 Exercise 63 - Ellipsis happens when the noun or pronoun omitted is not the same as that in the main clause: Although poor, the bill had still to be paid. This gives the impression that the bill was poor, which is nonsensical and not the intended meaning. So we see that one cannot always apply ellipsis.

73 Adverb clauses can often be re-expressed by participial phrases (Exercise 29): After I had done the job, I went home. Having done the job, I went home. I went home because I was feeling tired. Feeling tired, I went home. Since the verb and subject have to be removed to turn a clause into a participial phrase, the same danger of confusion arises as with elliptical clauses (Exercise 63). Decide whether or not the italicized adverb clauses can intelligently be re-expressed as participial phrases and click on the correct button: A. While we were walking along the road a thought suddenly occurred to us. Yes - 2 No - 4 B. While we were walking along the road we were suddenly struck by a thought.No - 6 Yes - 8 C. Since it was stuck fast the garage door had to be forced open. Yes - 5 No - 7 D. Since the garage door was stuck fast, my father had to take a train. Yes - 1 No - 3 All correct - well done! 2, 6, 5 and 1 2, 8, 5 and 1 2, 6, 7 and 1 2, 8, 7 and 1 2, 6, 5 and 3 2, 8, 5 and 3 2, 6, 7 and 3 2, 8, 7 and 3 4, 6, 5 and 1 4, 8, 5 and 1 4, 6, 7 and 1 4, 8, 7 and 1 4, 6, 5 and 3 4, 8, 5 and 3 4, 6, 7 and 3 4, 8, 7 and 3 Exercise 64 - Participial Phrases Examine the following: Since the driver was ill, the car was towed away. This cannot be re-expressed - Being ill, the car was towed away. - because the participial phrase now relates to 'car'. This faulty construction is common and is usually referred to as the 'unrelated participle'.

74 Re-express the participial phrases as adverb clauses: 1. Having finished early, she was allowed to go home. 2. Walking to the post this morning, I saw Mrs. Smith. 3. I saw Mrs. Smith walking to the post this morning. 4. Feeling drowsy, they slept for a while. 5. Having finished for the day, we each took a bath. Re-express, wherever possible, the adverb clauses as participial phrases. Leave a blank wherever this would produce an unrelated participle: 6. After we had received our instructions we quietly dispersed. 7. After we had received our instructions the officer dismissed us. 8. Since the road was iced up we could not get through. 9. Since it was iced up the road was impassable. 10. While I was resting on the bench I heard the first cuckoo. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 65 Practice Exercise 15

75 I changed my clothes and then I went to see my friend and after that I fell over and twisted my ankle, but someone helped me home and my mother put me to bed. The above sentence is very poorly constructed for two reasons: 1. It is made up entirely of main clauses. This conveys the idea that all the events are of equal importance and that no one event depends on another. A careful look at the passage shows that this is not so. 2. Main clauses can be linked to one another only by the pure conjunctions 'and', 'but', 'either-or', Decide whether these clause are linked and click on the correct button: A. I was late, so I went home. (2 Yes) (7 No) B. I was late and so I went home. (4 Yes) (5 No) C. I tried, but I could not do it. (3 No) (6 Yes) D. I tried, yet I could not do it. (1 Yes) (8 No) All correct - well done! 2, 4, 3 and 1 2, 5, 3 and 1 2, 4, 6 and 1 2, 5, 6 and 1 2, 4, 3 and 8 2, 5, 3 and 8 2, 4, 6 and 8 2, 5, 6 and 8 7, 4, 3 and 1 7, 5, 3 and 1 7, 4, 6 and 1 7, 5, 6 and 1 7, 4, 3 and 8 7, 5, 3 and 8 7, 4, 6 and 8 7, 5, 6 and 8 Exercise 65 - Sentences 'neither-nor'. So these conjunctions - particularly 'and' - constantly repeat themselves monotonously. Before seeing how to overcome this repetition, we shall see how not to overcome it: I changed my clothes, then I went to see my friend in hospital, after that... etc. All that has been done here is to remove the conjunctions and run the main clauses together. This is no solution. Unlinked main clauses must not be run together with commas between them, except when and' is understood to be there. (Exercise 56 NB)

76 When we write or speak we express ideas, relate events, ask questions and so on. Unless we are just babbling like a child that has just learned to talk, there should be a connecting thread that leads us through from sentence to sentence. Our ideas should be related one to another. To express these relationships clearly is most important. Below is a list of the most common relationships. The words and phrases against each one of them are the most commonly used to show these relationships between sentences that are not linked. They are not conjunctions. That is why they are given capital letters - to remind you that they normally come at the beginning of fresh sentences. Cause (or Reason):So, Therefore, Thus, Accordingly, Owing to this, On account of this, etc Purpose:(As' Cause' above.) Result:Consequently, Inevitably, As a result, etc. Concession:Yet, Nevertheless, However, Despite this, etc. Contrast:On the other hand, In contrast to this, etc. Time:Then, Before this, At the same time, etc. Condition:(Seldom shown between unlinked sentences.) Select the suitable word or phrase and click on the correct button: A. It was late. (So - 2 Yet- 3) we went to bed. B. He finished his letter. (Afterwards - 6 At the same time - 7) he posted it. c. Steel is stronger. (On the other hand - 5 As a result - 8) wood is less brittle. D. She refused to work. (Then - 1 Consequently - 4) she failed her test. All correct - well done! 2, 6, 5 and 1 2, 7, 5 and 1 2, 6, 8 and 1 2, 7, 8 and 1 2, 6, 5 and 4 2, 7, 5 and 4 2, 6, 8 and 4 2, 7, 8 and 4 3, 6, 5 and 1 3, 7, 5 and 1 3, 6, 8 and 1 3, 7, 8 and 1 3, 6, 5 and 4 3, 7, 5 and 4 3, 6, 8 and 4 3, 7, 8 and 4 Exercise 66 - Relationships

77 The words and phrases listed in the last exercise show relationship between sentences but, since they do not link those sentences, they do not help us to give flow to our writing. So we must also learn to show relationship between sentences by linking or blending them. CAUSE Sheila lost her temper. So she was sent home. Here is a clear causal relation. The fact that Sheila lost her temper provides the cause or reason for her being sent home. Now we will show this by linking. Answer the following and click on the correct button: A. The first example above is a (Simple - 2 Complex - 6) sentence. B. The second example above is a (Simple - 4 Complex - 8) sentence. C. The third example above is a (Compound - 1 Simple - 5) sentence. D. 'Cause' and 'Reason' (are not - 3 are - 7) the same. All correct - well done! 2, 4, 1 and 3 2, 8, 1 and 3 2, 4, 5 and 3 2, 8, 5 and 3 2, 4, 1 and 7 2, 8, 1 and 7 2, 4, 5 and 7 2, 8, 5 and 7 6, 4, 1 and 3 6, 8, 1 and 3 6, 4, 5 and 3 6, 8, 5 and 3 6, 4, 1 and 7 6, 8, 1 and 7 6, 4, 5 and 7 6, 8, 5 and 7 Exercise 67 - Linking Sentences 1. By adverb clause (Exercise 60) : Since (because, as) she had lost her temper, Sheila was sent home OR Sheila was sent home because By adverb phrase (Exercise 40): Because of her temper Sheila was sent home. 3. By participial phrase (Exercise 30): Having lost her temper, Sheila was sent home.

78 As we have already seen (Exercise 41), Purpose differs from Cause in that Purpose expresses planned or deliberate action, whereas Cause does not necessarily do so. PURPOSE They wanted to see the show. Therefore they remained. Here we have a deliberate action intended to achieve a given end -a wish to see a show, in this case. This Purpose relationship can be shown by linking or blending in two different ways. Decide whether the relationship between the sentences is Cause or Purpose and click on the correct button: A. They arrived early. They had mistaken the time. Cause - 2 Purpose - 5 B. They arrived early. They wanted to be in good time. Purpose - 4 Cause - 7 C. We cannot come today. So we will call on you tomorrow. Purpose - 1 Cause - 6 D. We have something to discuss with you. So we will call upon you tomorrow. Purpose - 3 Cause - 8 All correct - well done! 2, 4, 1 and 3 2, 7, 1 and 3 2, 4, 6 and 3 2, 7, 6 and 3 2, 4, 1 and 8 2, 7, 1 and 8 2, 4, 6 and 8 2, 7, 6 and 8 5, 4, 1 and 3 5, 7, 1 and 3 5, 4, 6 and 3 5, 7, 6 and 3 5, 4, 1 and 8 5, 7, 1 and 8 5, 4, 6 and 8 5, 7, 6 and 8 Exercise 68 - Purpose 1. By adverb clause (Exercise 60): They remained so that they could see the show. 2. By adverb phrase (Exercise 41): They remained to see the show OR They remained in order to see the show. NB The negative form of 'so that is lest': They hid in the barn lest they should be seen.

79 It was very dark. Consequently we lost our way. Apart from the loose joining of two main clauses with 'and so', 'and consequently', etc, there is only one way to show Result by linkage. By adverb clause (Exercise 61): It was so dark that we lost our way. The only difference between a Result relationship and a Cause relationship is one of emphasis. Take Decide the relationship and click on the correct button: A. They could not see as it was foggy. Cause - 2 Result - 8 B. It was so foggy that they could not see. Cause - 4 Result - 6 C. She sat quietly so that she could hear. Result - 1 Purpose - 7 D. She sat so quietly that no one noticed her. Purpose - 3 Result - 5 All correct - well done! 2, 4, 1 and 3 2, 6, 1 and 3 2, 4, 7 and 3 2, 6, 7 and 3 2, 4, 1 and 5 2, 6, 1 and 5 2, 4, 7 and 5 2, 6, 7 and 5 8, 4, 1 and 3 8, 6, 1 and 3 8, 4, 7 and 3 8, 6, 7 and 3 8, 4, 1 and 5 8, 6, 1 and 5 8, 4, 7 and 5 8, 6, 7 and 5 Exercise 69 - Result the second main clause above and put it first, turning the first main clause into a dependent clause, and we will have a Cause relation: We lost our way because it was very dark. NB Take care not to confuse Result with Purpose: I trained hard so that I could win. -Purpose I trained so hard that I fell ill. -Result

80 This is a very important relationship to grasp. It is used mainly to show an exception to what might have been reasonably expected. As such, it is in a sense the opposite of Cause or Reason. Compare the following: It was raining. So we stayed indoors. It was raining. Yet we still went out. In the first of the above, one event follows reasonably and logically upon the other - Cause. In the second it is the opposite - Concession. Concession can be shown by linking in three different ways. Decide the relationship and click on the correct button: A. We put on light clothes. It was hot. Concession - 2 Cause - 4 B. We kept on heavy clothes, It was hot. Cause - 6 Concession - 8 C. I did not eat the food. I was hungry. Cause - 1 Concession - 3 D. I ate the food. I was hungry. Cause - 5 Concession - 7 All correct - well done! 2, 6, 1 and 5 2, 8, 1 and 5 2, 6, 3 and 5 2, 8, 3 and 5 2, 6, 1 and 7 2, 8, 1 and 7 2, 6, 3 and 7 2, 8, 3 and 7 4, 6, 1 and 5 4, 8, 1 and 5 4, 6, 3 and 5 4, 8, 3 and 5 4, 6, 1 and 7 4, 8, 1 and 7 4, 6, 3 and 7 4, 8, 3 and 7 Exercise 70 - Concession 1. By adverb clause (Exercise 60) : Although it was raining, we went out OR We went out although it was raining 2. By adverb phrase (Exercise 40) : Despite the rain, we went out OR We went out despite the rain 3. Two main clauses linked with 'but': It was raining, but we still went out.

81 Blend or link the following pairs of sentences in as many ways as you can so as to show concession relationship: 1. He knew the truth. However, he said nothing. 2. It was hot. Nevertheless, we still went on. 3. Jean remained behind. Yet she should have gone with the others. 4. We had a map. Yet we lost our way. 5. The house was centrally heated. Nevertheless, it was still cold. 6. Harry lacked experience. However, he managed somehow. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 71 Practice Exercise 19

82 This, as its name suggests, is employed to stress the difference between two facts by placing them side by side and weighing them against each other - as in a pair of scales. It is not the same as Concession, which expresses an exception to what one might logically expect. The porcupine uses its quills for protection. On the other hand the chameleon relies on camouflage. Here are two ways in which Contrast may be shown when linking sentences. 1. By adverb clause (Exercise 60) : The porcupine uses its quills for protection, whereas the chameleon relies on camouflage. 2. Two main clauses linked with 'but': The porcupine uses its quills for protection, but the chameleon relies on camouflage. NB 'but' is loose and overworked. Do not rely on it too much. Decide the relationship between these sentences and click on the correct button: A. The first boy was nervous. He did very well. (2 Concession) (7 Contrast) B. My brother is very shy. He has many friends. (4 Coutrast) (5 Concession) C. The first boy did very well. The second did very badly. (1 Contrast) (8 Concession) D. My brother is very shy. I am sociable. (3 Contrast) (6 Concession) All correct - well done! 2, 4, 1 and 3 2, 5, 1 and 3 2, 4, 8 and 3 2, 5, 8 and 3 2, 4, 1 and 6 2, 5, 1 and 6 2, 4, 8 and 6 2, 5, 8 and 6 7, 4, 1 and 3 7, 5, 1 and 3 7, 4, 8 and 3 7, 5, 8 and 3 7, 4, 1 and 6 7, 5, 1 and 6 7, 4, 8 and 6 7, 5, 8 and 6 Exercise 71 - Contrast

83 Link the following pairs of sentences in as many ways as you can so as to show contrast relationship: 1. One of the wrestlers was very fast on his feet. On the other hand, the other was more experienced. 2. One tribe lived by hunting. On the other hand, its neighbours lived by agriculture. 3. Yellow is very cheerful. On the other hand, green is more restful to the eye. 4. The townsman has many amenities at his disposal. Against this, the countryman has the benefits of natural surroundings. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 72 Practice Exercise 20

84 Time relationship needs scarcely any explanation. Though scientists may disagree, for everyday purposes we know that - given any two events - those two events will either happen at the same time, or else one will happen after the other. There are three ways in which Time relationship may be shown when we are linking or blending sentences. He finished his meal. Then he went out. Decide the relationship and click on the correct button: A. He laughed as he was happy. Cause - 2 Time - 3 B. He laughed as he spoke. Time - 6 Cause - 7 C. Have some coffee whilst you are waiting. Concession - 1 Time - 4 D. Whilst I sympathize, nevertheless I cannot help you. Concession - 5 Time - 8 All correct - well done! 2, 6, 1 and 5 2, 7, 1 and 5 2, 6, 4 and 5 2, 7, 4 and 5 2, 6, 1 and 8 2, 7, 1 and 8 2, 6, 4 and 8 2, 7, 4 and 8 3, 6, 1 and 5 3, 7, 1 and 5 3, 6, 4 and 5 3, 7, 4 and 5 3, 6, 1 and 8 3, 7, 1 and 8 3, 6, 4 and 8 3, 7, 4 and 8 Exercise 72 - Time 1. By adverb clause (Exercise 60) : He went out after he had finished his meal. 2. By adverb phrase (Exercise 40) : He went out after his meal. 3. By participial phrase (Exercise 29): Having finished his meal, he went out. NB Do not confuse 'as' (Time) with 'as' (Cause); or 'while' or 'whilst' (Time) with 'while' or 'whilst' (Concession).

85 Up in the sky floated the red balloon. Nonsense!' retorted the chief. Look at these questions again. In the first you incorrectly chose the word' sky' as subject of the verb' floated', simply because 'sky' comes before the verb. However, as we stated in the last lesson, the subject does not necessarily come in front of the verb, although we ask the questions 'Who?' or 'What?' in front of the verb in order to find it. What floated? - The red balloon. Subject. Similarly 'the chief' is the subject of the verb in the second sentence. Who retorted? - The chief. Pick out the subjects and click on the correct button: A. The two girls ran out of the house. house - 1 The two girls - 8 B. Out of the house ran the two girls. the two girls - 2 the house - 7 C. Last came my father. Last - 3 my father - 6 D. Silence!' whispered the detective. Silence! - 4 the detective - 5 Two errors - fairly good. 1, 2, 3 and 4 1, 7, 3 and 4 1, 2, 6 and 4 1, 7, 6 and 4 1, 2, 3 and 5 1, 7, 3 and 5 1, 2, 6 and 5 1, 7, 6 and 5 8, 2, 3 and 4 8, 7, 3 and 4 8, 2, 6 and 4 8, 7, 6 and 4 8, 2, 3 and 5 8, 7, 3 and 5 8, 2, 6 and 5 8, 7, 6 and 5 Exercise 5b - Subjects

86 Blend the following pairs of sentences by using the appositional phrase: 1. John is an old friend of ours. John is very ill. 2. Yo-Yo is our Siamese cat. Last week we lost Yo-Yo. 3. Jersey is the largest of the Channel Islands. We visited Jersey. 4. Mary is a tiresome child. She screams all the time. 5. The new bridge is a steel structure. It is safer than the old one. 6. Aunt Muriel is a university lecturer. She comes to visit every Spring. 7. Beethoven was deaf before the completion of his Ninth Symphony. He was the great German composer. 8. Geoffrey Chaucer was the father of English poetry. He wrote the Canterbury Tales. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 13 Practice Exercise 1 Either write this exercise on paper or word process it and print it out. Hand in your finished exercise to your teacher to mark. Do the same for all the other practice exercises when you come to them.

87 We sleep. Stop! Look at these questions again. Despite what was said in the last lesson, you have fallen into the trap of thinking that short groups of words are always phrases. Both of the examples above are sentences, even though they are short. In the first, the verb is 'sleep'. Who sleep? - We. So we have a finite verb and its subject. Sentence. Similarly, the second is also a sentence. The verb is 'Stop!' and its subject, as often happens in commands, is the word 'You' which is 'understood' to be there. Who stop? (You) stop! Decide whether the following are sentences or phrases and click on the correct button: A. Up at the first light of dawn in order to start early and to finish before the others. Sentence - 1 Phrase - 5 B. Charge! Phrase - 2 Sentence - 6 C. We struggled hard. Phrase - 4Sentence - 8 D. Struggling hard. Phrase - 3 Sentence - 7 Two errors - fairly good. 1, 2, 4 and 3 1, 6, 4 and 3 1, 2, 8 and 3 1, 6, 8 and 3 1, 2, 4 and 7 1, 6, 4 and 7 1, 2, 8 and 7 1, 6, 8 and 7 5, 2, 4 and 3 5, 6, 4 and 3 5, 2, 8 and 3 5, 6, 8 and 3 5, 2, 4 and 7 5, 6, 4 and 7 5, 2, 8 and 7 5, 6, 8 and 7 Exercise 7b - Sentences and Phrases

88 My young sister was lucky. That wooden bridge is unsafe. Look at these two sentences again. You have made the same mistake in both of them. You have forgotten that an adjective can sometimes follow the verb (usually the verb 'to be') and yet qualify a noun before the verb.... sister was lucky. (What kind of sister?-A lucky sister.)... bridge is unsafe. (What kind of bridge?-An unsafe bridge.) So, in the two sentences above, 'lucky' and 'unsafe' are both adjectives. Remember that adjectives do not always come immediately before or after the nouns (or pronouns) they qualify. Sometimes they follow the verb. Pick out the adjectives and click on the correct button: A. Your friends will be happy to hear it. Your - 1 Your, happy - 5 B. Those roads were rough. Those, rough - 3 Those - 7 C. They are mad. no adjectives - 4 mad - 8 D. Every lion is dangerous. Every - 2 Every, dangerous - 6 Two errors - fairly good. 1, 3, 4 and 2 1, 7, 4 and 2 1, 3, 8 and 2 1, 7, 8 and 2 1, 3, 4 and 6 1, 7, 4 and 6 1, 3, 8 and 6 1, 7, 8 and 6 5, 3, 4 and 2 5, 7, 4 and 2 5, 3, 8 and 2 5, 7, 8 and 2 5, 3, 4 and 6 5, 7, 4 and 6 5, 3, 8 and 6 5, 7, 8 and 6 Exercise 19b - Adjectives

89 Plum pudding we just adore! 'John!' my father shouted. Look at these two sentences again. You have made the same mistake in both of them. They both have objects. In the first the verb is 'adore' and the subject is 'we'. We adore what? - Plum pudding. Object. Pick out the objects (if any) and click on the correct button: A. English lessons I always await eagerly. No object - 1 English lessons - 7 B. I always await English lessons eagerly. No object - 2 English lessons - 8 C. English lessons come too often. No object - 4 English lessons - 6 D. Treasure Island we have read many times. No object - 3 Treasure Island - 5 Two errors - fairly good. 1, 2, 4 and 3 1, 8, 4 and 3 1, 2, 6 and 3 1, 8, 6 and 3 1, 2, 4 and 5 1, 8, 4 and 5 1, 2, 6 and 5 1, 8, 6 and 5 7, 2, 4 and 3 7, 8, 4 and 3 7, 2, 6 and 3 7, 8, 6 and 3 7, 2, 4 and 5 7, 8, 4 and 5 7, 2, 6 and 5 7, 8, 6 and 5 Exercise 9b - Objects In the second the verb is shouted and the subject is 'my father'. My father shouted what? - John!. Object. Remember that, although we ask the questions ' Whom? or 'What?' after the verb to find the object, the object (if any) does not necessarily come after the verb. Now try the following exercise.

90 Blend the following groups of sentences by using the infinitive phrase of Purpose: 1. The captain encouraged his team. He wanted them to do better still. 2. They took the short route. They intended to be there in good time. 3. She saved up her money. She wished to buy some presents. 4. I have called. I want to return your book. I also wish to borrow another. 5. The rescuers worked hard all night. They were trying to reach the trapped victims. 6. We have remained behind. We intend to clear up the mess. We intend to see you home safely. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 43 Practice Exercise 10

91 Blend or link the following groups of sentences in as many ways as you can so as to show purpose relationship: 1. She went a different way. She wanted to be alone. 2. I have stayed behind. I wish to ask you a favour. 3. The engineers worked night and day. They intended to complete the bridge on time. 4. He kept out of the way. He did not want to be questioned. 5. She switched on her torch. She wished to signal to the others. She also wished to let them know her position. 6. She wanted to be alone. So she went a different way. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 69 Practice Exercise 17

92 Blend the following pairs of sentences by using the participial phrase: 1. She was scared of the dark. So she ran all the way home. 2. She had lost her purse. Accordingly she went back to look for it. 3. They thought the house to be empty. Therefore they walked straight in. 4. He had pulled a muscle. So he went to the doctor. 5. They hoped to be first. So they took a short cut. 6. The otter heard her mate call. Therefore she swam upstream to the pool. 7. We received a caution. So we did not do it again. 8. Pamela did not wish to be early. Therefore she took her time. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 31 Practice Exercise 6

93 This boy has a black eye and a swollen lip. I have seen those ugly little dogs before. Look at these sentences again. In the first you missed the adjective' this' and in the second you missed the adjective 'those'. In other words, you are still thinking of the adjective as a purely 'describing' word, instead of as a word that limits or narrows down. Both 'this' and 'those' are adjectives because they single out the nouns they describe. Pick out the adjectives and click on the correct button: A. We believe it is the same black cat. (1 same, black) (4 black) B. I first saw the old badger last week. (5 old) (8 old, last) C. These yellow flowers arrived just now. (2 yellow) (3 These, yellow) D. Hand me that large steel spanner. (6 large, steel) (7 that, large, steel) Two errors - fairly good. 1, 5, 2 and 6 1, 8, 2 and 6 1, 5, 3 and 6 1, 8, 3 and 6 1, 5, 2 and 7 1, 8, 2 and 7 1, 5, 3 and 7 1, 8, 3 and 7 4, 5, 2 and 6 4, 8, 2 and 6 4, 5, 3 and 6 4, 8, 3 and 6 4, 5, 2 and 7 4, 8, 2 and 7 4, 5, 3 and 7 4, 8, 3 and 7 Exercise 18b - Adjectives

94 Blend the following groups of sentences by using two appositional phrases linked with' and' : 1. My father refereed the game. He is a fine player. He is also a former captain. 2. William Shakespeare was a great dramatist. He was also a great poet. He is acknowledged throughout the world. 3. The old tower is sanctuary for birds. It is also a famous landmark. It is going to be demolished. 4. I gave my brother two presents. One was a tie. The other was a box of handkerchiefs. 5. The house was a large building. The house was a ramshackle building. It was said to be haunted. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 14 Practice Exercise 2

95 Blend the following pairs of sentences by using the participial phrase: 1. They watched him. He was digging in the garden. 2. We told the policeman. He was standing at the corner. 3. They avoided the sentry. He was coming in their path. 4. Swans were feeding at the water's edge. The children paused to admire them. 5. I followed the band. The band was marching down the main street. 6. Snakes slither through long grass. We were told to imitate them. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 32 Practice Exercise 7

96 Blend or link the following groups of sentences in as many ways as you can so as to show causal relationship: 1. It was cold. So we stayed indoors. 2. My sister was the senior member. Therefore she was made president. 3. My sister was the senior member. Therefore we made her president. 4. The truck was overloaded. Thus it broke down. 5. The house was old. It was also badly constructed. So it was demolished. 6. The horse was frightened. It bolted. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 68 Practice Exercise 16

97 Blend or link the following groups of sentences in as many ways as you can so as to show time relationship: 1. He completed the job. Then he went home. 2. The performance ended. Everyone rushed for the exit. 3. You are leaving this morning. Before this you should speak to your uncle. 4. You are leaving this morning. Before this I should like to speak to you. 5. They walked along the corridor. At the same time they whistled. 6. Rosalie waited for the others. Meanwhile she read a newspaper. 7. The detective entered the flat. He locked the door behind him. Then he carefully searched the rooms. 8. They howled. They wept. At the same time they begged for mercy. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 73 Practice Exercise 21

98 With the help of re-expression, blend the following pairs of sentences by using the appositional phrase: 1. Jane shoots accurately. She won first prize. 2. Harry captains our cricket team. He has taken more than sixty wickets this season. 3. I am going to join my brother. He farms in Australia. 4. My brothers both swim competently. They are training for the 200 metres free-style. 5. Mr Williams teaches us geography. He has just bought a new car. 6. We have been to hear Banski. He plays the piano very badly. 7. This is Eric. He is employed to bring our papers every day. 8. Mr. Overblast was in a temper. He runs the local inn. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 15 Practice Exercise 3

99 Turn the italicized adjective phrases into adjectives: 1. A man of wealth. 2. A stitch in time. 3. A boy from London. 4. A person with tact. 5. A drive in the country. 6. A situation without hope. 7. A dress with pleats. 8. A moment for anxiety. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 24 Practice Exercise 4

100 Blend the following groups of sentences by using two participial phrases linked with 'and' : 1. The man faced his enemy. He howled defiance. He fought to the last. 2. I wanted peace. I wanted solitude. Therefore I went for a long walk in the countryside. 3. He put on some pads. He selected a bat. Then he went into the practice nets. 4. They laughed. They shouted. They ran through the hall. 5. We observed some fishermen. They were sitting in the sun. They were mending their nets. 6. They washed up the crockery. They dried it. After that they put it away. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 33 Practice Exercise 8

101 Blend the following groups of sentences by using the appositional phrase, the participial phrase and the infinitive phrase of Purpose. Only one finite verb and subject should be preserved: 1. We visited Little Tumbling. Little Tumbling is a village in the south. We intended to watch the inhabitants. The inhabitants were dancing in the market square that day. 2. Mrs Jones finished the dining room. Then she went to the kitchen. She had to clean the silver. She had to polish the floor. Mrs Jones is our daily help. 3. First he rested. Then he went back to the old garden. He intended to keep an eye on the intruder. The intruder was a tall man. The intruder was dressed in grey. 4. We heard the music. So we rushed out of doors. We wanted to see the regiment. The regiment was marching past the mayoress. The mayoress is Mrs Soames. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 44 Practice Exercise 11

102 Blend or link the following groups of sentences to show a result relationship. Then re-arrange to show causal relationship: 1. He was very bad tempered. Consequently no-one spoke to him. 2. The picture was exceedingly rare. Consequently all the dealers tried to outbid one another. 3. The day was very cold. Consequently we packed up. Consequently we went home. 4. She was hysterical. Consequently she had to be given a sedative. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 70 Practice Exercise 18

103 Link the following pairs of sentences by using suitable relative adverbs: 1. We found the wallet in a corner. Here is the corner. 2. They chose a special time. Everyone was away at that time. 3. You did not go to school. We know the reason. 4. The old man returned to the forest. He had originally come from this forest. Now link (1), (2) and (4) again, using relative pronouns with suitable prepositions. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 84 Practice Exercise 22

104 Link the following groups of sentences by turning one (or more, if necessary) into adjective clauses: 1. The girl lives down the road. She is always in trouble. 2. Albert looks out of place in his form. He is a tall boy for his age. 3. Here is the torch. You wanted it. 4. The torch was eaten with rust inside. It would not work. 5. My elbow was already sore. I then banged it against the window sill. 6. There are the gypsies. We were telling you about them yesterday. 7. I have met someone. We all know her. We all like her. 8. That new record has disappeared. I borrowed it yesterday. You had it this morning. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 86 Practice Exercise 23

105 Blend or link these groups of sentences in as many ways as you can: 1. John is a useful batsman. He scored thirty-five. 2. We examined the snowflakes. They were melting on the window pane. 3. Mr. Faversham is very interested in wild life. He goes out on the moors every weekend. 4. My elder sister dances well. She also sings well. She hopes to go on the stage after leaving school. 5. We heard some late revellers. They were shouting. They were making every kind of noise imaginable. 6. There is the man. You found his hat. Using the adjective clause, link these pairs of sentences so as to show causal relationship: 7. Jane is very small. Therefore she crept in first. 8. The car had a broken half-shaft. So it was towed away. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 87 Practice Exercise 24

106 Punctuate the following sentences: 1. Then needless to say we were three hours late. 2. The dress that you wanted has as I feared been sold. 3. Eleanor who is very impulsive left immediately to call on the rev aloysius mullins our local vicar. 4. However we called upon them and though it was not really convenient for us we stayed to help. 5. The dress which had taken four weeks and three days to complete was finally packed and as requested sent by registered post. 6. He worked very hard for when it came to gardening he really enjoyed himself by teatime he had finished. 7. They were moreover very tired so they went indoors to rest. 8. The others if they had waited might have seen mr ellis the family solicitor coming across the park consequently they missed the news. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 94 Practice Exercise 25

107 Punctuate the following sentences: 1. We like cycling but we prefer to travel by car. 2. We like cycling but if it comes to the choice we prefer to travel by car we realize however that not everyone would agree with us. 3. They ran jumped crawled and slithered all the way down the icy slope although they had been told to stay away. 4. Peering round the corner very cautiously Natalie noticed two men striding along the quayside. 5. Hurry up she said we shall be late. 6. Hurry up she said or we shall be late. 7. However he continued we must do what we can. 8. Be quiet he said fiercely we must do what we can. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 97 Practice Exercise 26

108 Punctuate the following sentences: 1. I could not see a thing it was too dark. 2. I could not see because it was too dark. 3. I could see everything the bridge the sawmill the sentry post and even the braid on their uniforms. 4. I could see the bridge the sawmill the sentry post and whenever the men turned in my direction even the braid on their uniforms. 5. You take the high road I'll take the low one. 6. You take the high road we shall meet again at dusk. 7. You take the high road it is fairly short and meet me again at dusk. 8. You may go now and remember to close the door this time. All correct - well done! Go to Exercise 100 Practice Exercise 27

109 The relation of Condition simply shows a condition which governs some intended action. Is the weather going to dear? In that case I will come. Condition is usually shown by linking and there is only one way in which this can be done. By adverb clause (layout 7358) : I will come if the weather clears. I will not come unless the weather clears. I will come whether the weather clears or (whether it does) not. Decide the relationship and click on the correct button: A. He will play when he is fit. Time - 3 Condition - 7 B. He will play if he is fit. Concession - 1 Condition - 5 C. They left early lest they should be delayed on the way. Purpose - 2 Condition - 6 D. They will leave early unless they are delayed. Condition - 4 Purpose - 8 All correct - well done! 3, 1, 2 and 4 3, 5, 2 and 4 3, 1, 6 and 4 3, 5, 6 and 4 3, 1, 2 and 8 3, 5, 2 and 8 3, 1, 6 and 8 3, 5, 6 and 8 7, 1, 2 and 4 7, 5, 2 and 4 7, 1, 6 and 4 7, 5, 6 and 4 7, 1, 2 and 8 7, 5, 2 and 8 7, 1, 6 and 8 7, 5, 6 and 8 Exercise 73 - Condition NB 1 'whether... or' is a double Conditional clause. NB 2 Do not confuse 'unless' (Condition) with 'lest' (Purpose). 'lest' means 'so that... not'.

110 We have said that the dependent clause does the work of a part of speech and we have seen this with the adverb clause. The next kind of dependent clause is the noun clause which, as its name suggests, does the work of a noun. 1. Subject to the verb (Exercise 5, Exercise 24): What you say is true. (What is true?) Since it does the work of a noun, the removal of a noun clause will often leave the clause on which it depends incomplete. If we were to call the noun clause A, then the main clause in the above example would be 'A is true' or - if you prefer it - 'Something is true'. Decide what work the noun clause is doing in each of the following sentences and click on the correct button: A. We wonder what they did. (3 Subject) (8 Object) B. We were pleased with what they did. (1 Governed by a preposition) (6 Object) C. What they did was remarkable. (2 Object) (5 Subject) D. We asked whether she was ill. (4 Governed by a preposition) (7 Object) All correct - well done! 3, 1, 2 and 4 3, 6, 2 and 4 3, 1, 5 and 4 3, 6, 5 and 4 3, 1, 2 and 7 3, 6, 2 and 7 3, 1, 5 and 7 3, 6, 5 and 7 8, 1, 2 and 4 8, 6, 2 and 4 8, 1, 5 and 4 8, 6, 5 and 4 8, 1, 2 and 7 8, 6, 2 and 7 8, 1, 5 and 7 8, 6, 5 and 7 Exercise 74 - Noun Clauses 2. Object to the verb (Exercise 9, Exercise 24) : I know that he is here. (I know what?) 3. Governed by a preposition (Exercise 22): We laughed at what they told us. (At what?) Again, with the removal of the noun clause the main clause would be left incomplete: 'We laughed at B.' or 'We laughed at something'.

111 There are two more jobs that the noun clause - like the noun itself - can do. It may be: 4. In apposition to a noun or pronoun (Exercise 10): The news that they had won delighted us all. Here that they had won' is re-expressing 'news'. The news delighted us all. That they had won delighted us all. So 'that they had won' is a noun clause in apposition to the subject' news'. The most common form of appositional noun clause is to be found in impersonal Decide what work the noun clause is doing and click on the correct button: A. Whether he can come is doubtful. Apposition to subject - 3 Subject - 5 B. It is doubtful whether he can come. Apposition to subject - 1 Subject - 7 C. We doubt whether he can come. Object - 2 Apposition to object - 8 D. Our worry is whether he can come. Complement - 4 Object - 6 All correct - well done! 3, 1, 2 and 4 3, 7, 2 and 4 3, 1, 8 and 4 3, 7, 8 and 4 3, 1, 2 and 6 3, 7, 2 and 6 3, 1, 8 and 6 3, 7, 8 and 6 5, 1, 2 and 4 5, 7, 2 and 4 5, 1, 8 and 4 5, 7, 8 and 4 5, 1, 2 and 6 5, 7, 2 and 6 5, 1, 8 and 6 5, 7, 8 and 6 Exercise 75 - Noun Clauses constructions - that is, sentences beginning with 'It': It is possible that we shall stay. (It is possible. That we shall stay is possible.) 5. Complement to the verb (Execises 46 and 47): Life is what you make it. Here, once again, the removal of the noun clause leaves the other clause incomplete: 'Life is (something)'.

112 1. 'I will come,' he said. 2. He said that he would come. Both italicized clauses are noun clauses object to 'said in the main clause (Said what?). The words I will come' in (1) are the actual words of the speaker, and the inverted commas are used to show this. Direct Speech. In (2) the words that he would come are not the actual words used by the speaker - they are the substance of his words as reported by someone else after he had spoken. Indirect (or Reported) Speech. Choose the appropriate tense of verb and click on the correct button: A. He has promised that he (5 would) (7 will) come. B. She answered that she (1 may) (3 might) be ready. C. They have said that they (2 could) (4 can) do it. D. He had suggested he (6 might) (8 may) help us. All correct - well done! 5, 1, 2 and 6 5, 3, 2 and 6 5, 1, 4 and 6 5, 3, 4 and 6 5, 1, 2 and 8 5, 3, 2 and 8 5, 1, 4 and 8 5, 3, 4 and 8 7, 1, 2 and 6 7, 3, 2 and 6 7, 1, 4 and 6 7, 3, 4 and 6 7, 1, 2 and 8 7, 3, 2 and 8 7, 1, 4 and 8 7, 3, 4 and 8 Exercise 76 - Speech Note the changes involved when re-expressing direct speech as indirect speech: 1. After verbs of 'saying', 'stating', etc, the noun clause is introduced by 'that', although this is sometimes omitted as 'understood'. 2. 'I' becomes 'he' or 'she'. 'We' becomes 'they', etc - unless the subject of the main clause happens to be 'I' or we, etc. 3. The verb in the noun clause changes to match the tense of the verb in the main clause. The rule is simple: Primary Tense follows Primary Tense; Historic Tense follows Historic Tense.

113 Examine the following: 1. 'Where are we?' she asked. 2. 'What do you want?' my mother said to us. 3. Will they understand?' I wondered. Each of the direct questions above is a noun clause, object to the main clause verb. (Asked what? Said what?) When turning questions from direct to indirect speech, we must observe three things. The question mark disappears. The verb follows the subject - it does not come entirely or partly before the subject (see above). When, as in (3), there is no interrogative word -' How', 'When', 'Where', 'Why', 'Who', 'Whom', 'Whose', 'Which', etc - then the word 'if' or 'whether' must be supplied. 1. She asked where we were. 2. My mother asked us what we wanted. 3. I wondered if they would understand. Choose the correct construction and click on the correct button: A. We asked when (it was - 3 was it - 6). B. They asked why (we were - 1 were we - 8) going. C. She doubted if she (can - 2 could - 7) do it. D. I wonder (what they are hiding. - 4 what they are hiding ? - 5) All correct - well done! 3, 1, 2 and 4 3, 8, 2 and 4 3, 1, 7 and 4 3, 8, 7 and 4 3, 1, 2 and 5 3, 8, 2 and 5 3, 1, 7 and 5 3, 8, 7 and 5 6, 1, 2 and 4 6, 8, 2 and 4 6, 1, 7 and 4 6, 8, 7 and 4 6, 1, 2 and 5 6, 8, 2 and 5 6, 1, 7 and 5 6, 8, 7 and 5 Exercise 77 - Noun Clauses

114 We shall now leave the noun clause. Examine the following: I saw the man. The man arrived yesterday. By substituting the word 'who' for 'the man' in the second sentence we can link the two sentences: I saw the man who arrived yesterday. Since 'who' replaces a noun (ie 'man') it is a pronoun. But 'who' does not only replace the noun 'man' in the second sentence - it also refers to, or relates to, the noun 'man' in the first sentence. We call such pronouns relative pronouns. Choose a pronoun and click on the correct button: A. The boy (he - 5 who - 8) was here has now left. B. I am wearing a tie (which - 1 it - 4) my sister gave me. C.. These are the boxes (who - 2 that - 3) came just now. D. The pencils, (who - 6 which - 7) were on the table, are now gone. All correct - well done! 5, 1, 2 and 6 5, 4, 2 and 6 5, 1, 3 and 6 5, 4, 3 and 6 5, 1, 2 and 7 5, 4, 2 and 7 5, 1, 3 and 7 5, 4, 3 and 7 8, 1, 2 and 6 8, 4, 2 and 6 8, 1, 3 and 6 8, 4, 3 and 6 8, 1, 2 and 7 8, 4, 2 and 7 8, 1, 3 and 7 8, 4, 3 and 7 Exercise 78 - Relative Pronouns There are six relative pronouns altogether. For the moment we shall deal with three of them: who relates to humans which) that ) relate to animals and things NB Do not confuse the relative pronouns 'who' and 'which' with interrogative (ie question-asking) pronouns.

115 Let us look at the last example again: 1. I saw the man. The man arrived yesterday. 2. I saw the man who arrived yesterday. In the second sentence of (1) 'man' is the subject of the verb 'arrived' (Who arrived?). Therefore in (2) the relative pronoun 'who', which replaces the subject 'man', will also be a subject. Now look at the following: 1. I saw a man. You know the man. 2. I saw a man whom you know. Observe that the relative pronoun 'who' has Select the correct relative pronoun and click on the correct button: A. This is the lady (whom - 3 who - 7) we asked. B. A person (who - 1 that - 5) deals in stamps is called a philatelist. C. I have the pen (whom - 4 that - 8) you want. D. Here is someone (whom - 2 who - 6) you must meet. All correct - well done! 3, 1, 4 and 2 3, 5, 4 and 2 3, 1, 8 and 2 3, 5, 8 and 2 3, 1, 4 and 6 3, 5, 4 and 6 3, 1, 8 and 6 3, 5, 8 and 6 7, 1, 4 and 2 7, 5, 4 and 2 7, 1, 8 and 2 7, 5, 8 and 2 7, 1, 4 and 6 7, 5, 4 and 6 7, 1, 8 and 6 7, 5, 8 and 6 Exercise 79 - Relative Pronouns changed to 'whom '. This is because it is replacing an object noun. (Know whom? - Man). Thus it is also object in its own clause. Note also that 'whom' is placed at the beginning of its clause. This is so that it may come immediately after the noun or pronoun - in the other clause - to which it relates. This noun or pronoun in the other clause, to which the relative pronoun relates, is called the antecedent - that is, the 'going-before word. NB 'which' and' that' do not change their form when they are objects.

116 We have seen that the relative pronoun 'who' (subject) changes to 'whom' (object). It also changes to 'whom' when it is governed by a preposition (layout 1568): 1. I saw the man. You spoke to the man. 2. I saw the man to whom you spoke. In the second sentence of (1) 'man is governed by the preposition 'to'. So, therefore, is the relative pronoun that replaces 'man'. NB 1 In this instance the relative pronoun does not come immediately after its antecedent. This is because the relative pronoun (like all nouns and pronouns) should follow the governing preposition. Select the correct relative pronoun and click on the correct button: A. The lady to (3 whom) (8 who) you spoke... B. The film about (1 that) (6 which) they were talking... C. The table beneath (4 whom) (7 which) he hid... D. The girl near (2 who) (5 whom) they were sitting... All correct - well done! 3, 1, 4 and 2 3, 6, 4 and 2 3, 1, 7 and 2 3, 6, 7 and 2 3, 1, 4 and 5 3, 6, 4 and 5 3, 1, 7 and 5 3, 6, 7 and 5 8, 1, 4 and 2 8, 6, 4 and 2 8, 1, 7 and 2 8, 6, 7 and 2 8, 1, 4 and 5 8, 6, 4 and 5 8, 1, 7 and 5 8, 6, 7 and 5 Exercise 80 - Relative Pronouns We could write - I saw the man whom you spoke to - leaving the preposition hanging at the end of the sentence, but this is normally to be avoided. NB 2 The relative pronoun 'which' may also be governed by a preposition, but it does not change its form: I saw the house at which you stayed. NB 3 The relative pronoun 'that' is never governed by a preposition.

117 The lady to who you spoke,',. The girl near who they were sitting... You have made the same mistake in each of these questions. In each case the relative pronoun is governed by a preposition. So, as we have seen in our last lesson, the relative pronoun should be 'whom' - not 'who'. You spoke to whom (= the lady) They were sitting near whom (= the girl) Remember that this change of form applies only to who. The relative pronoun 'which' remains unaltered. Select the correct relative pronoun and click on the correct button: A. The assistant (who - 3 who - 8) served me... B. The assistant by (who - 1 whom - 6) I was served... C. The stranger from (who - 4 whom - 7) you accepted this... D. The stranger (whom - 2 who - 5) gave this to you... Two errors. Fairly good. 3, 1, 4 and 2 3, 6, 4 and 2 3, 1, 7 and 2 3, 6, 7 and 2 3, 1, 4 and 5 3, 6, 4 and 5 3, 1, 7 and 5 3, 6, 7 and 5 8, 1, 4 and 2 8, 6, 4 and 2 8, 1, 7 and 2 8, 6, 7 and 2 8, 1, 4 and 5 8, 6, 4 and 5 8, 1, 7 and 5 8, 6, 7 and 5 Exercise 81 - Relative Pronouns

118 The relative pronoun who can also take the place of a possessive noun or pronoun. In this case it changes its form to whose. I saw the man. You borrowed his book. I saw the man whose book you borrowed. Strictly speaking, the form whose is the possessive of who alone. However, it is sometimes used as a possessive of which : The book, whose title I have forgotten... Select the correct relative pronoun and click on the correct button: A. My uncle, (3 which) (5 whose) health is poor, lives in the country. B. He sold me a bicycle, the brakes of (1 which) (7 whose) were faulty. C. He sold me a bicycle (4 which) (6 whose) brakes were faulty. D. Susan, (2 that) (8 whose) house is opposite, still manages to be late for school. All correct - well done! 3, 1, 4 and 2 3, 7, 4 and 2 3, 1, 6 and 2 3, 7, 6 and 2 3, 1, 4 and 8 3, 7, 4 and 8 3, 1, 6 and 8 3, 7, 6 and 8 5, 1, 4 and 2 5, 7, 4 and 2 5, 1, 6 and 2 5, 7, 6 and 2 5, 1, 4 and 8 5, 7, 4 and 8 5, 1, 6 and 8 5, 7, 6 and 8 Exercise 82 - Relative Pronouns Otherwise we can precede which by the preposition of : The book, the title of which I have forgotten... The relative pronoun that does not take this possessive form. So now we have five relative pronouns: who (subject), whom (object or governed by a preposition), which, that, and whose (possessive).

119 The sixth and last relative pronoun is as'. It is always used when the antecedent (screen 8137) is qualified by the adjectives 'such' or 'same': Such a person as my father... The same place as we went to before... Sometimes an adverb does the work of a relative pronoun and its governing preposition. Such adverbs are called relative adverbs. Look at the italicised relative adverbs and decide the correct equivalent for each. Click on the correct button: A.We bathed in a pool where our parents used to bathe. (5 in which) (7 from which) B. They arrived at a time when the house was in chaos. (1 in which) (3 during which) C. They returned to the place whence they had come. (6 from which) (8 to which) D. That is the reason why we left. (2 for which) (4 at which) All correct - well done! 5, 1, 6 and 2 5, 3, 6 and 2 5, 1, 8 and 2 5, 3, 8 and 2 5, 1, 6 and 4 5, 3, 6 and 4 5, 1, 8 and 4 5, 3, 8 and 4 7, 1, 6 and 2 7, 3, 6 and 2 7, 1, 8 and 2 7, 3, 8 and 2 7, 1, 6 and 4 7, 3, 6 and 4 7, 1, 8 and 4 7, 3, 8 and 4 Exercise 83 - Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs Here is the list of relative adverbs: where = in which, at which when = in which, at which, during which why = for which whence = from which whither = to which

120 We are now able to deal with the third and last kind of dependent clause. It is the adjective clause, so called because it does the work of an adjective. It is always introduced by a relative pronoun or relative adverb and it always qualifies the antecedent (layout 8137) of that relative pronoun or relative adverb. 1. He is a wealthy man. (What kind of man?) ('wealthy' - adjective, qualifying 'man') 2. He is a man of wealth. (What kind of man?) ('of wealth' - adjective phrase, qualifying' man') Answer the following and click on the correct button: A. An adjective clause is (always - 3 sometime - 6) introduced by a relative pronoun or relative adverb, stated or understood ). B. An adjective clause qualifies a noun or pronoun in (another - 1 its own - 8) clause. C. An adjective clause is a (dependent - 4 main - 5) clause. D. A sentence containing an adjective clause will (sometimes - 2 always - 7) be a complex sentence. All correct - well done! 3, 1, 4 and 2 3, 8, 4 and 2 3, 1, 5 and 2 3, 8, 5 and 2 3, 1, 4 and 7 3, 8, 4 and 7 3, 1, 5 and 7 3, 8, 5 and 7 6, 1, 4 and 2 6, 8, 4 and 2 6, 1, 5 and 2 6, 8, 5 and 2 6, 1, 4 and 7 6, 8, 4 and 7 6, 1, 5 and 7 6, 8, 5 and 7 Exercise 84 - Adjective Clause 3. He is a man who is wealthy. (What kind of man?) ('who is wealthy' - adjective clause, qualifying 'man' in the main clause) Note that (1) and (2) are Simple sentences (layout 2741) while (3) is a Complex sentence made up of a main clause and a dependent clause. Sometimes the relative pronoun or relative adverb is omitted as understood: The man (whom) you asked... The last place (where) we expecled to find it...

121 Examine the following: The baby was sitting near my father. The baby was sucking his toe. Linking by means of relative pronoun: 1. The baby was sitting near my father who was sucking his toe. 2. The baby, who was sucking his toe, was sitting near my father. Imagine you are going to link each of the following pairs of sentences by means of a relative pronoun. Decide whether the adjective clause will interrupt the main clause or not and and click on the correct button: A. I spoke to the grocer. The grocer is an ex-sailor. No - 5 Yes - 8 B. The grocer was tidying his shop. The grocer is an ex-sailor. No - 1 Yes - 4 C. I waved my hand at the ship. My hand was heavily bandaged. No - 6 Yes - 7 D. Seeing the ship, I waved my hand. My hand was heavily bandag Yes - 2 No - 3 All correct - well done! 5, 1, 6 and 2 5, 4, 6 and 2 5, 1, 7 and 2 5, 4, 7 and 2 5, 1, 6 and 3 5, 4, 6 and 3 5, 1, 7 and 3 5, 4, 7 and 3 8, 1, 6 and 2 8, 4, 6 and 2 8, 1, 7 and 2 8, 4, 7 and 2 8, 1, 6 and 3 8, 4, 6 and 3 8, 1, 7 and 3 8, 4, 7 and 3 Exercise 85 - Relative Pronouns Obviously (1) is nonsense since the adjective clause 'who was sucking his toe' is qualifying 'father'. A relative pronoun or relative adverb must always follow its correct antecedent - 'baby' in this case. Since the relative pronoun cannot be separated from the rest of its clause, this often means that an adjective clause will interrupt another clause, as in (2) above. The main clause is 'The baby... was sitting near my father.'

122 1. The stamp that you are holding is rare. 2. The stamp, which is very old and very valuable, will be shown at the exhibition. In (1) the adjective clause is demonstrative - that is, it points something out. In such cases (when relating to things) use 'that'. In (2) the adjective clause is descriptive, providing additional information. In such cases (when relating to things) use which'. NB Adjective clauses are such a convenient method of giving additional information about someone or something that there is a temptation to over-use them. In order to have variety of expression, we should practise alternative methods: Choose a suitable relative pronoun and and click on the correct button: A. This is the street (which - 3 that - 7) you want. B. The ring (which - 2 that - 6) you mentioned has gone. C. The car (that - 1 which - 5) was a large silver saloon used to belong to my aunt. D. I know the feeling (that - 4 which - 8) you mean. All correct - well done! 3, 2, 1 and 4 3, 6, 1 and 4 3, 2, 5 and 4 3, 6, 5 and 4 3, 2, 1 and 8 3, 6, 1 and 8 3, 2, 5 and 8 3, 6, 5 and 8 7, 2, 1 and 4 7, 6, 1 and 4 7, 2, 5 and 4 7, 6, 5 and 4 7, 2, 1 and 8 7, 6, 1 and 8 7, 2, 5 and 8 7, 6, 5 and 8 Exercise 86 - Adjective Clause My uncle, who is a keen gardener... (Adjective Clause). My uncle, a keen gardener... (Appositional Phrase). I saw some men who were digging... (Adjective Clause). I saw some men digging... (Participle or Participial Phrase). Sometimes adjective clauses express Cause (Exercise 67) and can be re-expressed accordingly: My brother, who is frail, stayed at home. Because he is frail my brother stayed at home.

123 The pure conjunctions 'and', 'but', '(n)either-(n)or' link main clause to main clause, and dependent clause to dependent clause (noun clause to noun clause, adjective clause to adjective clause, adverb clause to adverb clause). In other words, these conjunctions link clauses that are of the same kind and of equal rank. The word for 'equal rank' is 'co-ordinate'. Therefore they are known as co-ordinating conjunctions and the clauses they link are called co-ordinate clauses. I dressed and (I) ate my meal.Main Clause to Main Clause When I had dressed and (when I had) eaten my meal...Adverb Clause to Adv.erb Clause Note the elliptical constructions. This, as we have already seen, frequently occurs with co- ordinating conjunctions (Exercise 57). This sometimes makes a dependent clause appear to be a main clause at first sight: The book, which you bought and I borrowed... Here 'I borrowed' is really 'which I borrowed'. Identify the italicised clauses and and click on the correct button: A. When the whistle had blown and the train had lift the platform, we went home. Main - 3 Adverb - 8 B. I can do it if you and she can do it. Main - 2 Adverb - 5 C. 1 know that you and she can do it. Noun - 1 Main - 6 D. This is the girl whom you and I helped. Main - 4 Adjective - 7 All correct - well done! 3, 2, 1 and 4 3, 5, 1 and 4 3, 2, 6 and 4 3, 5, 6 and 4 3, 2, 1 and 7 3, 5, 1 and 7 3, 2, 6 and 7 3, 5, 6 and 7 8, 2, 1 and 4 8, 5, 1 and 4 8, 2, 6 and 4 8, 5, 6 and 4 8, 2, 1 and 7 8, 5, 1 and 7 8, 2, 6 and 7 8, 5, 6 and 7 Exercise 87 - Conjunctions

124 Clause - a sentence-within-a-sentence. Dependent Clause - a clause which cannot stand by itself. It always does the work of an adverb (Exercise 59), a noun (Exercises74 and 75), or an adjective (Exercise 84). Whenever a dependent clause appears, the sentence that contains it will be a Complex sentence. Adverb Clause - a dependent clause doing the work of an adverb. Most valuable for showing relationships of Cause (Exercise 67), Purpose (Exercise 68), Result (Exercise 69), Concession (Exercise 70), Contrast (Exercise 71), Answer the questions on the following passage and and click on the correct button: The rain started. John and Pat decided to run for it. Though she was older, Pat, who had recently been ill, was unable to keep up with her brother unless he trotted slowly. It was obvious that they were going to be late. A. The above sentences in order are (3 Simple, Compound, Complex, Complex) ( 5 Simple, Simple, Complex, Simple). B. There is/are (2 two) (8 one) adjective clause(s). C. There is/are (1 two) (7 one) adverb clause(s). D. There is/are (4 one) (6 two) noun clause(s). All correct - well done! 3, 2, 1 and 4 3, 8, 1 and 4 3, 2, 7 and 4 3, 8, 7 and 4 3, 2, 1 and 6 3, 8, 1 and 6 3, 2, 7 and 6 3, 8, 7 and 6 5, 2, 1 and 4 5, 8, 1 and 4 5, 2, 7 and 4 5, 8, 7 and 4 5, 2, 1 and 6 5, 8, 1 and 6 5, 2, 7 and 6 5, 8, 7 and 6 Exercise 88 - Dependent Clauses (Revision) (Time (Exercise 72), Condition (Exercise 73). Noun Clause - a dependent clause doing the work of a noun. Used to convey, by direct or indirect speech (Exercise 76 etc), statements, doubts, questions, commands, etc. Is usually dependent on verbs of saying, thinking, wishing, asking, etc. Adjective Clause - a dependent clause doing the work of an adjective. Always introduced by a relative pronoun or relative adverb (Exercise 84).

125 So much for dependent clauses. We shall conclude this book with some lessons on punctuation of the sentence. Punctuation serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows us to pause for breath when we are reading. Secondly, it is used to make clear the meaning of what is written. When we speak we can raise or lower our voices to show what is important or less important, and we can also vary the lengths of our pauses between words. When we are writing we use punctuation marks to do these things. There are other uses of the punctuation mark, but these will explain themselves or be explained. Select the correctly punctuated answer and click on the correct button: A. (5 We waited. They also waited.) (7 We waited, they also waited.) B. (2 Jones and Sons, Ltd) (4 Jones and Sons, Ltd.) C. (1 I called, he stopped.) (3 I called. He stopped.) D. (6 Dr Low lives at No 9 James St) (8 Dr. Low lives at No. 9 James St.) All correct - well done! 5, 2, 1 and 6 5, 4, 1 and 6 5, 2, 3 and 6 5, 4, 3 and 6 5, 2, 1 and 8 5, 4, 1 and 8 5, 2, 3 and 8 5, 4, 3 and 8 7, 2, 1 and 6 7, 4, 1 and 6 7, 2, 3 and 6 7, 4, 3 and 6 7, 2, 1 and 8 7, 4, 1 and 8 7, 2, 3 and 8 7, 4, 3 and 8 Exercise 89 - Punctuation 1. To mark the end of a sentence. To separate two unlinked sentences: The tide was coming in fast. We hurried home. NB Had the two sentences in the above example been linked with a conjunction there would have been no need for a full-stop after' fast'. 2. To indicate an abbreviation: Mr., Sq., Rd., etc. Full-stop

126 We waited, they also waited. I called, he stopped. Look at these two sentences again. Each of them is made up of two unlinked main clauses and, with one exception (Exercise 56), unlinked main clauses should not be run together with commas. The correct punctuation for the above is We waited. They also waited. I called. He stopped. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. We stayed for a while. Then we returned to the mill. - 5 We stayed for a while, then we returned to the mill. - 7 B. I shouted, yet no one paid any attention I shouted. Yet no one paid any attention. - 4 C. She had a cold, so she stayed indoors. - 1 She had a cold. So she stayed indoors. - 3 D. The leader crouched down, we all crouched down. - 6 The leader crouched down. We all crouched down. - 8 All correct - well done! 5, 2, 1 and 6 5, 4, 1 and 6 5, 2, 3 and 6 5, 4, 3 and 6 5, 2, 1 and 8 5, 4, 1 and 8 5, 2, 3 and 8 5, 4, 3 and 8 7, 2, 1 and 6 7, 4, 1 and 6 7, 2, 3 and 6 7, 4, 3 and 6 7, 2, 1 and 8 7, 4, 1 and 8 7, 2, 3 and 8 7, 4, 3 and 8 Exercise 90 - Linking Sentences If you feel that a full-stop is too severe a break between such sentences, then you should link them with a co-ordinating conjunction: We waited and so did they. I called and he stopped. Remember that only the co-ordinating conjunctions-'and', 'but', 'either-or', 'neither- nar'-can be used to link main clauses. Words such as 'so', 'yet', 'then' are not conjunctions; they are adverbs. Re-read the second half of Exercise 65 and do this exercise below.

127 This is the most common of the punctuation marks. It is also the most difficult to use accurately. Very often commas are used in pairs to enclose a word, phrase or dependent clause that interrupts the flow or main idea of a sentence. Used in this way, the commas indicate that the reader should drop his voice. Such an interruption is called a parenthesis. 1. To mark off a parenthetic word: We did not, however, stay for lunch. Are you aware, John, that it is six o'clock? Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. Gentlemen this is, a sad occasion. - 3 Gentlemen, this is a sad occasion. - 6 B. We were, moreover, very alarmed. - 2 We were moreover, very alarmed. - 7 C. Nevertheless, Jenny, must come. - 1 Nevertheless, Jenny must come. - 8 D. It has been decided Bill, that you must come. - 4 It has been decided, Bill, that you must come. - 5 All correct - well done! 3, 2, 1 and 4 3, 7, 1 and 4 3, 2, 8 and 4 3, 7, 8 and 4 3, 2, 1 and 5 3, 7, 1 and 5 3, 2, 8 and 5 3, 7, 8 and 5 6, 2, 1 and 4 6, 7, 1 and 4 6, 2, 8 and 4 6, 7, 8 and 4 6, 2, 1 and 5 6, 7, 1 and 5 6, 2, 8 and 5 6, 7, 8 and 5 Exercise 91 - Comma Words such as however, 'moreover', etc and the names of people directly addressed (as 'John' above) are also marked off with a single comma when they come at the beginning or end of a sentence: However, we did not stay for lunch. Are you aware that it is six o'clock, John?

128 We have said that the comma is also used to mark off parenthetic (ie interrupting) phrases. A phrase is usually interrupting if it has been moved from its natural position in the sentence, or if it is expressing a personal thought of the speaker or writer. 2. To mark off a parenthetic phrase: They should, by this time, have arrived. But: They should have arrived by this time. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. Now of course, it has started to rain. - 5 Now, of course, it has started to rain. - 8 B. You should with your ability, be able to succeed. - 2 You should, with your ability, be able to succeed. - 3 C. Bronze, a combination of tin and copper, is used. - 1 Bronze, a combination of tin and copper is used. - 4 D. You should be able to succeed, with your ability. - 6 You should be able to succeed with your ability. - 7 All correct - well done! 5, 2, 1 and 6 5, 3, 1 and 6 5, 2, 4 and 6 5, 3, 4 and 6 5, 2, 1 and 7 5, 3, 1 and 7 5, 2, 4 and 7 5, 3, 4 and 7 8, 2, 1 and 6 8, 3, 1 and 6 8, 2, 4 and 6 8, 3, 4 and 6 8, 2, 1 and 7 8, 3, 1 and 7 8, 2, 4 and 7 8, 3, 4 and 7 Exercise 92 - Comma The appositional phrase (Exercise 10) is always marked off between commas when it lies in the middle of a sentence. When it comes at the end of a sentence one comma only is needed: Professor Barlow, the famous scientist, is here. We have just seen Professor Barlow, the famous scientist.

129 Dependent clauses frequently interrupt other clauses and, owing to their length, they are almost always enclosed between commas. 3. To mark off a parenthetic dependent clause: I should like, if you will permit me, to come again. So, when they had finished, they called upon us. BUT I should like to come again if you will permit me. So they called upon us when they had finished. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. They sat down, and after they had rested, they told their story. - 3 They sat down and, after they had rested they told their story. - 7 B. The man, that you want to see, has gone.) - 2 The man that you want to see has gone. - 6 C. The ship, which has been to Asia on a mission, has returned.) - 4 The ship which has been to Asia on a mission has returned. - 8 D. She worked hard, and although she was younger, she came first. - 1 She worked hard and, although she was younger, she came first. - 5 All correct - well done! 3, 2, 4 and 1 3, 6, 4 and 1 3, 2, 8 and 1 3, 6, 8 and 1 3, 2, 4 and 5 3, 6, 4 and 5 3, 2, 8 and 5 3, 6, 8 and 5 7, 2, 4 and 1 7, 6, 4 and 1 7, 2, 8 and 1 7, 6, 8 and 1 7, 2, 4 and 5 7, 6, 4 and 5 7, 2, 8 and 5 7, 6, 8 and 5 Exercise 93 - Comma Adjective clauses are frequently parenthetic (Exercise 85), but short demonstrative adjective clauses are seldom enclosed between commas (Exercise 86): The stamp that you are holding is rare.

130 So much for commas in pairs. Single commas are used to separate two clauses between which there is a relation of Contrast (Exercise 71) or Concession (Exercise 70). 4. To show Concession or Contrast: Although he was poor, everyone liked him. The west is warmer, but the east is drier. The conjunction 'but' is nearly always preceded by a comma. One of the rare exceptions is when it is itself followed by a comma which is one of a pair marking off a parenthesis: Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. We stuck at the job, whereas they went home. - 3 We stuck at the job, whereas, they went home. - 8 B. She ran, but I sat down. - 2 She ran but I sat down. - 5 C. Although it was forbidden, we climbed the fence. - 4 Although, it was forbidden we climbed the fence. - 7 D. He laughed, but, when the time came, he was the first to flee. - 1 He laughed but, when the time came, he was the first to flee. - 6 All correct - well done! 3, 2, 4 and 1 3, 5, 4 and 1 3, 2, 7 and 1 3, 5, 7 and 1 3, 2, 4 and 6 3, 5, 4 and 6 3, 2, 7 and 6 3, 5, 7 and 6 8, 2, 4 and 1 8, 5, 4 and 1 8, 2, 7 and 1 8, 5, 7 and 1 8, 2, 4 and 6 8, 5, 4 and 6 8, 2, 7 and 6 8, 5, 7 and 6 Exercise 94 - Comma He was poor but, as we came to learn, everyone liked him. To put a comma before 'but' in this case would be to overpunctuate. Also 'but' would be enclosed between a pair of commas and this would cause confusion, making it appear to be a parenthetic word.

131 5. To replace the conjunction 'and' in a series of co- ordinate clauses (Exercise 56 NB, Exercise 57 NB2): He rose from his bed, dressed, went downstairs and opened the windows. John, Mary and George arrived early. He was tall, dark and handsome. They moved slowly, sadly, quietly down the path. 6. With the conjunction 'and' to avoid confusion: I hammered at the door, and my sister waited. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. The dog growled, showed its teeth, and then attacked. - 3 The dog growled, showed its teeth and then attacked. - 5 B. I heard them singing in the valley. - 2 I heard them, singing in the valley. - 8 C. I bought a pair of jeans and some food for my cat. - 4 I bought a pair of jeans, and some food for my cat. - 6 D. Along the road we came singing at the tops of our voices. - 1 Along the road we came, singing at the tops of our voices. - 7 All correct - well done! 3, 2, 4 and 1 3, 8, 4 and 1 3, 2, 6 and 1 3, 8, 6 and 1 3, 2, 4 and 7 3, 8, 4 and 7 3, 2, 6 and 7 3, 8, 6 and 7 5, 2, 4 and 1 5, 8, 4 and 1 5, 2, 6 and 1 5, 8, 6 and 1 5, 2, 4 and 7 5, 8, 4 and 7 5, 2, 6 and 7 5, 8, 6 and 7 Exercise 95 - Comma 7. To mark off a participial phrase from the rest of its sentence: Stunned by the shock, we all sat down. We all sat down, stunned by the shock. BUT (Exercise 31) : We watched them clearing the road.

132 8. To separate direct from indirect speech (Exercise 76): They said, 'We will go.' 'We will go,' they said. Note that, when the direct speech precedes, the indirect speech, the comma is placed within the inverted commas - and vice versa. Compare the following: 'We will go,' they said, 'if you come with us.' 'We will go,' they said. 'You must come with us.' Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. (5 'Slow down,' he ordered, 'here is the place.') (7 'Slow down,' he ordered. 'Here is the place.') B. (2 'I am ready,' I replied.) (4 'I am ready', I replied.) C. (6 I replied that I was ready.) (8 I replied, that I was ready.) D. (1 'The truth is out,' she said. 'Now I can tell you too.') (3 'The truth is out,' she said, 'now I can tell you too.') All correct - well done! 5, 2, 6 and 1 5, 4, 6 and 1 5, 2, 8 and 1 5, 4, 8 and 1 5, 2, 6 and 3 5, 4, 6 and 3 5, 2, 8 and 3 5, 4, 8 and 3 7, 2, 6 and 1 7, 4, 6 and 1 7, 2, 8 and 1 7, 4, 8 and 1 7, 2, 6 and 3 7, 4, 6 and 3 7, 2, 8 and 3 7, 4, 8 and 3 Exercise 96 - Comma In the first of the above examples there is a comma after 'said'. This is because the two pieces of direct speech are linked or continuous: 'We will go if you come with us,' In the second example there is a full-stop after 'said'. This is because the two pieces of direct speech are two unlinked sentences: 'We will go. You must come with us.'

133 We have seen (Exercise 65) that no two unlinked main clauses should be run together with a comma, unless there is a series of main clauses in which the conjunction 'and' is 'understood' (Exercise 56 NB). Normally, then, we use a full stop to make the separation, but there are occasions when the full stop, which is the longest pause in punctuation, would make too decisive a break between two sentences that are closely linked in idea. In such cases we use the semicolon. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. I am going; I hope to see you sometime. - 3 I am going. I hope to see you sometime. - 6 B. I am going; I am rather tired.) - 2 I am going. I am rather tired. - 7 C. She hates pudding. We love it. - 4 She hates pudding; we love it. - 5 D. I am going; and I hope to see you sometime. - 1 I am going and I hope to see you sometime. - 8 All correct - well done! 3, 2, 4 and 1 3, 7, 4 and 1 3, 2, 5 and 1 3, 7, 5 and 1 3, 2, 4 and 8 3, 7, 4 and 8 3, 2, 5 and 8 3, 7, 5 and 8 6, 2, 4 and 1 6, 7, 4 and 1 6, 2, 5 and 1 6, 7, 5 and 1 6, 2, 4 and 8 6, 7, 4 and 8 6, 2, 5 and 8 6, 7, 5 and 8 Exercise 97 - Semicolon To separate two main clauses between which there is a close connection of ideas: We did not stay; we were late already. Some want this; others want that. Note that there is an unexpressed relationship between each of these pairs of clauses. In the first pair it is Cause. In the second pair it is Contrast. In effect, the semicolon stands instead of 'because and on the other hand' in these examples.

134 1. To introduce a list of words or a sentence or sentences expressing more fully a simple complete statement: In the garden there were various flowers: geraniums, pinks, fuchsias and asters. He gazed at the scene before him: the sea was in a ferment and the esplanade was deserted. Note that in each of the examples the colon comes after a complete sentence. 2. To introduce a long speech or quotation: He coughed twice and then began to speak: 'Gentlemen, we are gathered here tonight...' I remembered the words of Alexander Pope: 'The proper study of mankind is Man.' Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. We are sending machines, men and equipment. - 5 We are sending: machines, men and equipment. - 8 B. I am buying a new outfit: hat, coat, dress and shoes. - 2 I am buying a new outfit, hat, coat, dress and shoes. - 3 C. Always observe the proverb, 'Look before you leap.' - 6 Always observe the proverb: 'Look before you leap.' - 7 D. What we need is a rest, a change of scene and lots of fresh air. - 1 What we need is: a rest, a change of scene and lots of fresh air. - 4 All correct - well done! 5, 2, 6 and 1 5, 3, 6 and 1 5, 2, 7 and 1 5, 3, 7 and 1 5, 2, 6 and 4 5, 3, 6 and 4 5, 2, 7 and 4 5, 3, 7 and 4 8, 2, 6 and 1 8, 3, 6 and 1 8, 2, 7 and 1 8, 3, 7 and 1 8, 2, 6 and 4 8, 3, 6 and 4 8, 2, 7 and 4 8, 3, 7 and 4 Exercise 98 - Colon

135 1. To enclose a main clause parenthesis: The farm (I mentioned it to you before) is to be sold. Parenthetic dependent clauses (layout 8317) usually go between commas rather than brackets. 2. To enclose an additional piece of information: Julius Caesar ( BC) came from a patrician family which... Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. (3 The girl, who was in a state of hysteria, screamed.) (7 The girl (who was in a state of hysteria) screamed.) B. (4 I shall, if I can afford it, buy you a present.) (8 I shall - if I can afford it - buy you a present.) C. (1 My father, he is an old soldier, saluted smartly.) (5 My father (he is an old soldier) saluted smartly.) D. (2 We walked-it was a fine day-down to the market.) (6 We walked, it was a fine day, down to the market.) All correct - well done! 3, 4, 1 and 2 3, 8, 1 and 2 3, 4, 5 and 2 3, 8, 5 and 2 3, 4, 1 and 6 3, 8, 1 and 6 3, 4, 5 and 6 3, 8, 5 and 6 7, 4, 1 and 2 7, 8, 1 and 2 7, 4, 5 and 2 7, 8, 5 and 2 7, 4, 1 and 6 7, 8, 1 and 6 7, 4, 5 and 6 7, 8, 5 and 6 Exercise 99 - Brackets and Dashes 1. To mark off a main clause parenthesis (as brackets): The farm - I mentioned it to you before - is to be sold. 2. A single dash may introduce an afterthought: I am going now - would you like to come? NB There is a tendency among modern writers to use the dash more widely in place of commas, the colon and even the semicolon. This is not to be recommended unless you know what you are doing.

136 1. To indicate a direct question (Exercise 77) : 'Are you better?' they asked her. 2. To indicate a rhetorical question. A rhetorical question is one asked to obtain a particular effect rather than to seek information: 'Must we endure this tyranny?' Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. 'Will you go?' he inquired. 'If I come too?' - 3 'Will you go,' he inquired, 'if I come too?' - 8 B. 'Go away!' he roared. - 4 'Go away!,' he roared. - 7 C. They asked me if I would go? - 1 They asked me if I would go. - 6 D. 'Ouch, that was my toe!' she said severely. - 2 'Ouch! That was my toe,' she said severely. - 5 All correct - well done! 3, 4, 1 and 2 3, 7, 1 and 2 3, 4, 6 and 2 3, 7, 6 and 2 3, 4, 1 and 5 3, 7, 1 and 5 3, 4, 6 and 5 3, 7, 6 and 5 8, 4, 1 and 2 8, 7, 1 and 2 8, 4, 6 and 2 8, 7, 6 and 2 8, 4, 1 and 5 8, 7, 1 and 5 8, 4, 6 and 5 8, 7, 6 and 5 Exercise Question Marks and Exclamation Marks 1. To indicate some kind of emotion: 'Whoopee!' 'Save us!' 'Forward! 2. To indicate a voice above normal conversation level: 'Mary! Come here!' Note that the question mark and exclamation mark replace full-stops, commas, etc, which would otherwise be there.

137 1. To indicate a letter or letters omitted: Haven't (have not), it's (it is), can't (cannot). This should be employed only when writing dialogue. 2. To indicate possession (Exercise 20) : The boy's book (belonging to the boy). The boys' book (belong to the boys). Normally an apostrophe after the 's' indicates plural. However, there are exceptions. Some old English words form their plural without using 's', in which case the apostrophe comes before the 's': Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. We heard its cry. - 3 We heard it's cry. - 5 B. We didn't know they couldn't come. - 4 We did'nt know they could'nt come. - 6 C. We want a children's bicycle-not a man's. - 1 We want a childrens' bicycle-not a man's. - 7 D. That is Helen's house and this is their's. - 2 That is Helen's house and this is theirs. - 8 All correct - well done! 3, 4, 1 and 2 3, 6, 1 and 2 3, 4, 7 and 2 3, 6, 7 and 2 3, 4, 1 and 8 3, 6, 1 and 8 3, 4, 7 and 8 3, 6, 7 and 8 5, 4, 1 and 2 5, 6, 1 and 2 5, 4, 7 and 2 5, 6, 7 and 2 5, 4, 1 and 8 5, 6, 1 and 8 5, 4, 7 and 8 5, 6, 7 and 8 Exercise Apostrophe Women's dresses (belonging to women). Sometimes, with proper nouns ending in 's' in the singular, the 's' after the apostrophe is omitted to avoid ugliness of sound: Charles' (instead of Charles's). Unlike nouns, pronouns do not use the apostrophe to show possession: its, ours, etc (not it's, our's, etc)

138 1. To enclose a direct speech (see Exercise 96). 2. To enclose a quotation (see Exercise 98). 3. To indicate a word used ironically: What a lovely day; it hasn t stopped raining. 4. To indicate slang or foreign words: copper (policeman), carte blanche, uhuru, etc 5. To indicate the name or title of a book, ship, etc: Gulliver s Travels, The Rose and Crown. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. (We are reading Macbeth. - 5 We are reading Macbeth. - 7 B. Hand over the lolly, said the bandit. - 6 Hand over the lolly, said the bandit. - 8 C. What a hero ! they jeered. - 1 What a hero! they jeered. - 3 D. We have been to see A Tale of Two Cities. - 2 We have been to see A Tale Of Two Cities. - 4 All correct - well done! 5, 6, 1 and 2 5, 8, 1 and 2 5, 6, 3 and 2 5, 8, 3 and 2 5, 6, 1 and 4 5, 8, 1 and 4 5, 6, 3 and 4 5, 8, 3 and 4 7, 6, 1 and 2 7, 8, 1 and 2 7, 6, 3 and 2 7, 8, 3 and 2 7, 6, 1 and 4 7, 8, 1 and 4 7, 6, 3 and 4 7, 8, 3 and 4 Exercise Inverted Commas and Capital Letters Capital letters are used to indicate a proper noun, to begin a fresh sentence, to begin afresh line of poetry, to begin a sentence of direct speech. They are also used in titles for all words except verbs, articles or prepositions: A Journey to the Tropics. These rules are not hard and fast: modern poets sometimes do not use capitals for each fresh line, and some modern publishers avoid capitals in titles.

139 The boy had big ideas. The village lived in a constant state of fear owing to tigers. Look at these two sentences again. In the first you selected 'boy' as being the only noun. In the second you selected 'villagers' and 'tigers' as being the only nouns. However, the word 'ideas' in the first sentence, and the words 'state' and 'fear' in the second sentence are also nouns. It is true that they have no substance - they are not solid, liquid or gas. They are things of the mind or the emotions. Nevertheless they are still 'things' -or rather the names of things - and so they are also nouns. Pick out the nouns and click on the correct button: A. David had a great love of horses. David, horses - 1 David, love, horses - 7 B. They keep their house in good shape. house - 3 house, shape - 5 C. The mob was stirred to anger and then to a desire for revenge. mob, anger, desire, revenge - 2 mob - 8 D. He reached the height of his ambitions. ambitions - 4 height, ambitions - 6 Two errors. Fairly good. 1, 3, 2 and 4 1, 5, 2 and 4 1, 3, 8 and 4 1, 5, 8 and 4 1, 3, 2 and 6 1, 5, 2 and 6 1, 3, 8 and 6 1, 5, 8 and 6 7, 3, 2 and 4 7, 5, 2 and 4 7, 3, 8 and 4 7, 5, 8 and 4 7, 3, 2 and 6 7, 5, 2 and 6 7, 3, 8 and 6 7, 5, 8 and 6 Exercise 15b - Nouns

140 They started off again, although they were exhausted. John helped Angela, and Thomas was assisted by Hayley. Look at these two sentences again. In the first you have decided that' started' and' exhausted' are participles. In the second you have chosen 'helped' and 'assisted'. You are only half right in each case. 'exhausted' is part of the complete verb' were exhausted'. Since it is not the whole verb it must be non-finite. Also it does the work of an Pick out the participles and click on the correct button: A. They were annoyed because we laughed at them. laughed - 1 annoyed - 6 B. Pam was stopped by the boy who delivered the papers. stopped - 4 delivered - 7 C. My cousin tried very hard. tried - 2 no participle - 5 D. We walked back since the theatre was closing. walked - 3 closing - 8 Two errors. Fairly good. 1, 4, 2 and 3 1, 7, 2 and 3 1, 4, 5 and 3 1, 7, 5 and 3 1, 4, 2 and 8 1, 7, 2 and 8 1, 4, 5 and 8 1, 7, 5 and 8 6, 4, 2 and 3 6, 7, 2 and 3 6, 4, 5 and 3 6, 7, 5 and 3 6, 4, 2 and 8 6, 7, 2 and 8 6, 4, 5 and 8 6, 7, 5 and 8 Exercise 26b - Participles adjective, qualifying (or describing) 'they'. 'They' were an exhausted 'they'. Therefore 'exhausted' is a participle. Similarly, 'assisted' is a participle. It is part of a whole verb ('was assisted') and is therefore non-finite; and it qualifies' Montmorency'. However, although they also end in '.ed', 'started' and 'helped' are not participles since they are both finite (complete) verbs. 'Started' is not part of a verb-it is the verb, the whole verb. So is 'helped'. Therefore neither of them is a participle because a participle is non-finite.

141 One of the boys will bring the picnic basket. A large bag of sweets may be lost. Look at the first of these sentences again. The verb is 'will bring'. Who will bring? - ' One of the boys' will bring. So 'one of the boys' is the complete subject. Now express the subject in one word. 'Boys'? No. The sentence does not say that the boys (plural) will bring the basket. It says that one (ie one boy) from among the boys will bring it. So 'one' is the subject word, and the remainder of the subject is an adjective phrase qualifying 'one'. Without the phrase of the boys we should not have any knowledge of what the 'one' was - it could have been one income tax inspector for all we should know. Pick out the subject words and click on the correct button: A. A box of matches was on the table.matches - 1 box - 5 B. Two of your pencils are broken. Two - 4 pencils - 8 C. Most of the guests have arrived. Most - 2 guests - 6 D. Another bottle of ink is needed.bottle - 3 ink -7 Two errors. Fairly good. 1, 4, 2 and 3 1, 8, 2 and 3 1, 4, 6 and 3 1, 8, 6 and 3 1, 4, 2 and 7 1, 8, 2 and 7 1, 4, 6 and 7 1, 8, 6 and 7 5, 4, 2 and 3 5, 8, 2 and 3 5, 4, 6 and 3 5, 8, 6 and 3 5, 4, 2 and 7 5, 8, 2 and 7 5, 4, 6 and 7 5, 8, 6 and 7 Exercise 25b - Sentence Structure Note that the adjective phrase 'of the boys' is introduced by a preposition and that it follows the word it qualifies. Similarly, with the second sentence above. The actual subject word is 'bag'. It was the bag which was lost. The fact that the bag happened to contain sweets means, of course, that the sweets were also lost, but that is not important. The bag could have contained coal. 'Of sweets' is an adjective phrase qualifying 'bag'.

142 She ran because she was frightened. When she was weary she stopped. Look at these two sentences again. You have decided in each case that the italicized word does not belong to the clause that follows it. You are wrong. Why did she run? - Because she was frightened. When did she stop? - When she was weary. The clause 'because she was frightened' answers the question 'Why?' after the verb in the other clause. Therefore it is doing the work of a single part of speech - an adverb of Cause (Exercise 44). Similarly the clause 'when she was weary' answers the Decide whether the words in italics belong to the clauses that follow them and click on the correct button: A. You help me and I will help you. Yes - 2 No - 3 B. When you help me I will help you. No - 5 Yes - 8 C. We shall be waiting where the coaches turn round. Yes - 1 No - 4 D. I will help you, but you must help me too. Yes - 6 No - 7 Two errors. Fairly good. 2, 5, 1 and 6 2, 8, 1 and 6 2, 5, 4 and 6 2, 8, 4 and 6 2, 5, 1 and 7 2, 8, 1 and 7 2, 5, 4 and 7 2, 8, 4 and 7 3, 5, 1 and 6 3, 8, 1 and 6 3, 5, 4 and 6 3, 8, 4 and 6 3, 5, 1 and 7 3, 8, 1 and 7 3, 5, 4 and 7 3, 8, 4 and 7 Exercise 54b - Clauses question 'When?' after the verb in the other clause. Therefore it is doing the work of a single part of speech - an adverb of Time (Exercise 44). Since these clauses both do the work of a Part of Speech we cannot break them apart any more than we could break a noun or an adverb apart - at least not with any intelligent purpose. Therefore 'because' and 'when' belong to the clauses they introduce. Only 'and', 'but', 'either/or', 'neither/nor' can be treated separately as pure links.

143 They sat down, and after they had rested, they told their story. She worked hard, and although she was younger, she came first. You have made the same mistake in each of these sentences. The way to check yourself in these cases is to remove the parenthesis and to see what is left: They sat down,..., they told their story. She worked hard,..., she came first. Select the correctly punctuated sentences and click on the correct button: A. (3 They arrived, and as nothing was ready, they offered to help.) (7 They arrived and, as nothing was ready, they offered to help.) B. (2 I shall be here, and so if you want me, just call.) (6 I shall be here and so, if you want me, just call.) C. (4 He went up and, after he had read for a while, he put out the light.) (8 He went up, and after he had read for a while, he put out the light.) D. (1 She ran back to us, and though breathless, began to explain.) (5 She ran back to us and, though breathless, began to explain.) Two errors. Fairly good. 3, 2, 4 and 1 3, 6, 4 and 1 3, 2, 8 and 1 3, 6, 8 and 1 3, 2, 4 and 5 3, 6, 4 and 5 3, 2, 8 and 5 3, 6, 8 and 5 7, 2, 4 and 1 7, 6, 4 and 1 7, 2, 8 and 1 7, 6, 8 and 1 7, 2, 4 and 5 7, 6, 4 and 5 7, 2, 8 and 5 7, 6, 8 and 5 Exercise 93b - Comma In each of the above there are two unlinked main clauses run together and this, as we have seen, is to be avoided. This has happened because you have enclosed and in the parenthesis, although it does not belong there. 'and' is not part of either dependent clause. In each case its job is to link the two main clauses. So the correct punctuation is They sat down and,..., they told their story. She worked hard and,..., she came first.

144 'Slow down,' he ordered, 'here is the place.' 'The truth is out,' she said, 'now I can tell you too.' Look at these two sentences again. In each case the two pieces of direct speech are unlinked sentences: 'Slow down. Here is the place.' 'The truth is out. Now I can tell you.' So, as we saw in our last lesson, the direct speech that follows the indirect speech must be separated with a full-stop: Select the correctly punctuated sentences and click on the correct button: A. (5 'When 1 have finished,' he said. 'I shall take a holiday.') (7 'When I have finished,' he said, 'I shall take a holiday.') B. (2 '1 have finished,' he said. '1 shall take a holiday.') (4 '1 have finished,' he said, '1 shall take a holiday.') C. (6 'We know,' they answered, 'that we can trust him.') (8 'We know,' they answered. 'That we can trust him.') D. (1 'All is well,' they answered. 'We can trust him.') (3 'All is well,' they answered, 'we can trust him.') Two errors. Fairly good. 5, 2, 6 and 1 5, 4, 6 and 1 5, 2, 8 and 1 5, 4, 8 and 1 5, 2, 6 and 3 5, 4, 6 and 3 5, 2, 8 and 3 5, 4, 8 and 3 7, 2, 6 and 1 7, 4, 6 and 1 7, 2, 8 and 1 7, 4, 8 and 1 7, 2, 6 and 3 7, 4, 6 and 3 7, 2, 8 and 3 7, 4, 8 and 3 Exercise 96b - Comma 'Slow down,' he ordered. 'Here is the place.' 'The truth is out,' she said. 'Now I can tell you too.' Only when the second piece of direct speech is linked grammatically to the first do we use a comma: 'Slow down,' he ordered, 'if you wish to stay alive.'

145 1. 'I will come,' he said. 2. He said that he would come. Both italicized clauses are noun clauses object to 'said in the main clause (Said what?). The words I will come' in (1) are the actual words of the speaker, and the inverted commas are used to show this. Direct Speech. In (2) the words that he would come are not the actual words used by the speaker - they are the substance of his words as reported by someone else after he had spoken. Indirect (or Reported) Speech. Choose the appropriate tense and click on the correct button: A. He has promised that he (5 would) (7 will) come. B. She answered that she (1 may) (3 might) be ready. C. They have said that they (2 could) (4 can) do it. D. He had suggested he (6 might) (8 may) help us. Two errors. Fairly good. 5, 1, 2 and 6 5, 3, 2 and 6 5, 1, 4 and 6 5, 3, 4 and 6 5, 1, 2 and 8 5, 3, 2 and 8 5, 1, 4 and 8 5, 3, 4 and 8 7, 1, 2 and 6 7, 3, 2 and 6 7, 1, 4 and 6 7, 3, 4 and 6 7, 1, 2 and 8 7, 3, 2 and 8 7, 1, 4 and 8 7, 3, 4 and 8 Exercise 76b - Speech Note the changes involved when re- expressing direct speech as indirect speech: 1. After verbs of 'saying', 'stating', etc, the noun clause is introduced by 'that', although this is sometimes omitted as 'understood'. 2. 'I' becomes 'he' or 'she'. 'We' becomes 'they', etc - unless the subject of the main clause happens to be 'I' or we, etc. 3. The verb in the noun clause changes to match the tense of the verb in the main clause. The rule is simple: Primary Tense follows Primary Tense; Historic Tense follows Historic Tense.

146 We heard it's cry. That is Helen's house and this is their's. Look at these two sentences again. Despite what was said in the last lesson, you have forgotten that, unlike possessive nouns, possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe. We heard its cry. That is Helen's house and this is theirs. Remember that it's is simply a shortened form of it is. Now try the following exercise. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. There's a hole in ours. - 3 There's a hole in our's. - 5 B. It's a pity about its paw. - 4 Its a pity about it's paw. - 6 C. Yours is new, isn't it? - 1 Your's is new, is'nt it? -7 D. Here's her's. - 2 Here's hers. - 8 Two errors. Fairly good. 3, 4, 1 and 2 3, 6, 1 and 2 3, 4, 7 and 2 3, 6, 7 and 2 3, 4, 1 and 8 3, 6, 1 and 8 3, 4, 7 and 8 3, 6, 7 and 8 5, 4, 1 and 2 5, 6, 1 and 2 5, 4, 7 and 2 5, 6, 7 and 2 5, 4, 1 and 8 5, 6, 1 and 8 5, 4, 7 and 8 5, 6, 7 and 8 Exercise 101b - Apostrophe

147 He hates lessons. Boys love shouting. Look at these again. In the first, you wrongly chose lessons, probably saying to yourself that lessons is what someone does. But the someone in this case is He - and what he is doing is hating. Therefore hates is the verb. Similarly with the second. The verb is love - not shouting. Pick out the verbs and click on the correct button: A. We play hockey. play - 1 hockey - 5 B. John likes skating on ice. skating - 2 likes - 6 C. The girls practise dancing. practise - 3 dancing - 7 D. Cats prefer sleeping. prefer - 4 sleeping - 8 Two errors. Fairly good. 1, 2, 3 and 4 1, 6, 3 and 4 1, 2, 7 and 4 1, 6, 7 and 4 1, 2, 3 and 8 1, 6, 3 and 8 1, 2, 7 and 8 1, 6, 7 and 8 5, 2, 3 and 4 5, 6, 3 and 4 5, 2, 7 and 4 5, 6, 7 and 4 5, 2, 3 and 8 5, 6, 3 and 8 5, 2, 7 and 8 5, 6, 7 and 8 Exercise 1b - Verbs

148 She swims as smoothly as a fish. He walks as slowly as a tortoise. Look at these two sentences again. You have decided that the adverb clause in each case is Manner. Swims how? Walks how? This is an understandable mistake, but you have not taken in what we said in the last lesson. You have broken these sentences down incorrectly. 'smoothly' modifies 'swims' (Swims how?), and 'slowly' modifies' walks ' (Walks how ?). Therefore each of them belongs to the clause of the verb it modifies: Identify the adverb clause and click on the correct button: A. They talk as we do. Manner - 2 Degree - 6 B. They talk as loudly as we do. Degree - 4 Manner - 8 C. He dresses as if he were a millionaire. Manner - 3 Degree - 7 D. He dresses as expensively as a millionaire. Manner - 1 Degree - 5 Two errors. Fairly good. 2, 4, 3 and 1 2, 8, 3 and 1 2, 4, 7 and 1 2, 8, 7 and 1 2, 4, 3 and 5 2, 8, 3 and 5 2, 4, 7 and 5 2, 8, 7 and 5 6, 4, 3 and 1 6, 8, 3 and 1 6, 4, 7 and 1 6, 8, 7 and 1 6, 4, 3 and 5 6, 8, 3 and 5 6, 4, 7 and 5 6, 8, 7 and 5 Exercise 61b - Adverbs She swims as smoothly as a fish (swims). He walks as slowly as a tortoise (walks). To what extent smoothly? To what extent slowly? Both the adverb clauses here are Degree or Extent - not Manner. Do not allow the first' as' in each case to worry you. In effect, the main clauses are 'She swims smoothly' and 'He walks slowly'.

149 This is the lady who we asked. Here is someone who you must meet. You have made the same mistake in each of these sentences. In each case the relative pronoun is direct object of the verb in its clause and should therefore be 'whom' - not' who'. SubjectVerbObject weaskedwhom (= lady) youmust meetwhom (= someone) As we have already seen (Exercise 9) the object does not always come after the verb. Remember that, whether it is subject or object, the relative pronoun must come at the beginning of its clause. So it can never come after the verb in its clause. Remember that this change of form applies only to 'who'. The relative pronoun 'which' remains unaltered. Select the correct relative pronoun and click on the correct button: A. There is the boy (who - 3 whom - 7) followed us. B. There is the boy (whom - 1 who - 5) we followed. C. Where is the friend (who - 4 whom - 8) you invited? D. Where is the friend (who - 2 who - 6) invited you? Two errors. Fairly good. 3, 1, 4 and 2 3, 5, 4 and 2 3, 1, 8 and 2 3, 5, 8 and 2 3, 1, 4 and 6 3, 5, 4 and 6 3, 1, 8 and 6 3, 5, 8 and 6 7, 1, 4 and 2 7, 5, 4 and 2 7, 1, 8 and 2 7, 5, 8 and 2 7, 1, 4 and 6 7, 5, 4 and 6 7, 1, 8 and 6 7, 5, 8 and 6 Exercise 79b - Relative Pronouns

150 The girl (who was in a state of hysteria) screamed. I shall - if I can afford it - buy you a present. Look at these two sentences again. In the first the parenthetic clause is an adjective clause. In the second it is an adverb clause of Condition. In other words they are both dependent clauses and so commas are quite sufficient to enclose them. The girl, who was in a state of hysteria, screamed. I shall, if I can afford it, buy you a present. There is nothing seriously wrong with the methods you selected but, if you employ them, you will run the risk of losing marks in an external examination. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. So, since we knew all about it anyway, we smiled. - 3 So (since we knew all about it anyway) we smiled. - 7 B. The dog, which was very agile, leapt the fence. - 4 The dog-which was very agile-leapt the fence. - 8 c. The dog, it was very agile, leapt the fence. - 1 The dog-it was very agile-leapt the fence. - 5 D. So (we knew all about it anyway) we smiled. - 2 So, we knew all about it anyway, we smiled. - 6 Two errors. Fairly good. 3, 4, 1 and 2 3, 8, 1 and 2 3, 4, 5 and 2 3, 8, 5 and 2 3, 4, 1 and 6 3, 8, 1 and 6 3, 4, 5 and 6 3, 8, 5 and 6 7, 4, 1 and 2 7, 8, 1 and 2 7, 4, 5 and 2 7, 8, 5 and 2 7, 4, 1 and 6 7, 8, 1 and 6 7, 4, 5 and 6 7, 8, 5 and 6 Exercise 99b - Brackets and Dashes

151 We are sending: machines, men and equipment. What we need is: a rest, a change of scene and plenty of fresh air. Look at the first of the above sentences: 'are sending what?' - 'machines, men and equipment'. 'machines', 'men' and 'equipment' are objects of the verb 'are sending'. Therefore 'We are sending' is not a complete statement. So we do not use a colon here. Similarly, we do not use a colon for the second sentence above since 'a rest, a change of scene and plenty of fresh air' completes the incomplete statement 'What we need is'. We are sending machines, men and equipment. What we need is a rest, a change of scene and plenty of fresh air. Colons are used to introduce something which expresses more fully a complete statement already made. Select the correctly punctuated sentence and click on the correct button: A. They lost everything: house, land and cattle. - 5 They lost everything, house, land and cattle. - 8 B. They lost their house, land and cattle. - 2 They lost their: house, land and cattle. - 3 C. He wore a coat all year round, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. - 6 He wore a coat all year round: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. -7 D. He wore a coat in Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. - 1 He wore a coat in: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. - 4 Two errors. Fairly good. 5, 2, 6 and 1 5, 3, 6 and 1 5, 2, 7 and 1 5, 3, 7 and 1 5, 2, 6 and 4 5, 3, 6 and 4 5, 2, 7 and 4 5, 3, 7 and 4 8, 2, 6 and 1 8, 3, 6 and 1 8, 2, 7 and 1 8, 3, 7 and 1 8, 2, 6 and 4 8, 3, 6 and 4 8, 2, 7 and 4 8, 3, 7 and 4 Exercise 98b - Colon

152 What did you say to them? Which is the key you want? Look at these two sentences again. You have made the same mistake in both. In the first you left out 'What...?' and in the second you left out 'Which...?' Both these pronouns are question-asking pronouns and, until the question is answered, we cannot know for what they stand. Nevertheless, they do stand in place of nouns, even though we do not happen to know the noun. Therefore they are still pronouns. Decide how many pronouns there are and click on the correct button: A. To whom did you speak? two - 1 one - 8 B. What was that? two - 3 one - 6 C. Whose is it? two - 2 one - 7 D. Who is coming? none - 4 one - 5 Two errors. Fairly good. 1, 3, 2 and 4 1, 6, 2 and 4 1, 3, 7 and 4 1, 6, 7 and 4 1, 3, 2 and 5 1, 6, 2 and 5 1, 3, 7 and 5 1, 6, 7 and 5 8, 3, 2 and 4 8, 6, 2 and 4 8, 3, 7 and 4 8, 6, 7 and 4 8, 3, 2 and 5 8, 6, 2 and 5 8, 3, 7 and 5 8, 6, 7 and 5 Exercise 17b - Pronouns

153 You have reached the end of this project. You have covered the various kinds of sentence and you should now know how the sentence is made up. You should also know the importance of relating ideas clearly and you have had practice in showing relationships by blending and linking sentences. Lastly, you should now be able to understand the technical terms your teacher uses when he or she corrects your work. This is important since, if you understand the grammatical basis of any error you may make when writing, then you are not likely to make that error over and over again. All correct - well done! The End


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