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USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

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1 USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
SUBJECT GERUND ‘Flying aeroplanes could be dangerous’ REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE ‘Not knowing what to do, I… ’ DEFINING THE WHOLE ACTION ‘She sat there, waiting’ IT + ADJECTIVE + TO IN SUBJECT POSITION ‘It is dangerous to fly aeroplanes’ USING A POSSESSIVE ‘I was surprised by his going.’ ‘His going surprised me.’ REDUCTION OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE ‘The man living next-door is...’ IT + ADJECTIVE OF ☻ TO ‘It was stupid of you to let others use you.’ BARE INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE ‘The castle is said to be haunted.’ PASSIVE GERUND VERBS OF PERCEPTION ‘I saw her crying.’ I saw her cry.’ PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE ‘Picasso is believed to have been a genius.’ PASSIVE INFINITIVE TOO adj. TOO NOT ENOUGH adj. TO ‘It was too hot to drink’ ‘It wasn’t cold enough to drink’’ CAUSATIVE VERBS Have / get sth done Get ☻ to do sth Be made to do, Make ☻ do sth PAST INFINITIVE

2 SUBJECT GERUND THIS IS DANGEROUS THIS AND PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES.
HOME PAGE It is possible to convert the first sentence into a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the next sentence in place of ‘THIS’ HMM, WHAT… IS DANGEROUS? THIS IS DANGEROUS THE SUBJECT PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE + ADJ PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES. THIS AND IS DANGEROUS. The subject pronoun ‘THIS’ stands for the previous sentence, ‘PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES’

3 This is possible in two ways.
SUBJECT GERUND HOME PAGE It is possible to convert the first sentence into a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the next sentence in place of ‘THIS’ THIS IS DANGEROUS THE SUBJECT PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE + ADJ This is possible in two ways. NOW CLICK TWICE! PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES. THIS IS DANGEROUS.

4 SUBJECT GERUND THIS PEOPLE FLY FLYING FLYING AEROPLANES AEROPLANES.
DON’T YOU AGREE?! HOME PAGE FLYING AEROPLANES PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES. FLYING THIS IS DANGEROUS. If the subject in the first clause denotes a general group,… Now CLICK and REPLACE ‘THIS’ with the new Gerund Subject. …OMIT the subject,... … and ADD a gerund. The Phrase ‘FLYING AEROPLANES’ is ready to be used as a Gerund Subject in the second clause.

5 Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds
and Infinitives’.

6 IT IS DANGEROUS TO FLY AEROPLANES
THERE IS YET ANOTHER WAY TO USE A SENTENCE IN THE SUBJECT POSITION IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES THIS IS DANGEROUS IT TO THE SUBJECT PRONOUN ‘THIS’ STANDS FOR THE FIRST CLAUSE PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE + ADJ If the subject in the first clause denotes a general group,… IT IS DANGEROUS TO FLY AEROPLANES …and if there is a predicative adjective in the second clause,… …OMIT the subject,... … and LINK the remaining predicate ‘FLY AEROPLANES’ to the predicative adjective with ‘TO’.. …START the predicative adjective with ‘IT’

7 IT IS TO ADJECTIVE EVENT IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE CLICK TO SEE THE RULE IT IS TO ADJECTIVE EVENT IT IS CLEVER TO SAVE SOME MONEY IT IS STUPID NOT TO SAVE SOME MONEY IT IS EXCITING TO VISIT OTHER COUNTRIES IT IS BORING NOT TO BE ABLE TO TRAVEL IT IS REASONABLE TO EAT IN MODERATION IT IS UNREASONABLE NOT TO EAT IN MODERATION

8 Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds
and Infinitives’.

9 OF ☻ TO IT IS ADJECTIVE EVENT IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT
HOME PAGE CLICK TO SEE THE RULE OF ☻ TO IT IS ADJECTIVE EVENT IT WAS CONSIDERATE HELP US DO THE WORK OF HIM TO IT WAS INCONSIDERATE HELP US DO THE WORK OF HIM NOT TO IT WAS STUPID WAIT OUTSIDE OF US TO IT WAS STUPID WAIT INDOORS OF US NOT TO IT WAS FUNNY WEAR THE SHIRT INSIDE OUT OF ME TO IT WAS FUNNY WEAR THE T-SHIRT PROPERLY OF ME NOT TO SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

10 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
SUBJECT GERUND, IT + INFINITIVE HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. She didn’t come on time, which was irresponsible. HER It was irresponsible of her to come late. It is crucial if you are in the right place and at the right time. PLACE Being in the right place and in the right time is crucial. There is no point in going on discussing this issue. IT It is pointless to go on discussing this topic. People need to develop effective listening skills. SKILLS Developing effective listening skills is necessary. You danced in women’s garments, which was very funny. IT It was funny of you to dance in women’s clothes.

11 Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds
SUBJECT GERUND HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

12 A B B A A A B B VERBS OF PERCEPTION You witness the whole action.
SEE HEAR STH HAPPEN FEEL SEE HEAR STH HAPPENING FEEL You witness the whole action. You witness only a part of the whole action. A I HEARD THEM SPEAKING ABOUT YOU B AND I BELIEVE I MUST TELL YOU WHAT IT WAS ALL ABOUT Click and match! B I HEARD THEM SPEAK ABOUT YOU A THEN, THEY WENT SOMEWHERE ELSE TO GOSSIP A TESS HAD SEEN HER BOYFRIEND KISS A GIRL A JUST BEFORE HE PHONED TO TELL HER HE WAS TOO ILL TO GO OUT THAT DAY Click and match! B TESS SAW HER BOYFRIEND KISSING A GIRL B WHEN SHE ENTERED THE ROOM TO SAY ‘SURPRISE’ SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

13 We watched the train disappear in the president’s pocket.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Because she was crying, we stopped minding our own business. WE When we saw her crying we stopped to look at her. We watched the train until it disappeared in the skyline. WE We watched the train disappear in the horizon. I saw a man who slipped a secret note in the president’s pocket. NOTE I saw a man slip a secret note in the president’s pocket. When I woke, my mother’s snoring was audible. MUM When I woke I heard mum snoring. I was unable to sleep as mum kept snoring until the crack of dawn. I I heard mum snore the night out.

14 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

15 CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES ANIMATED RULE HOME PAGE IT IS TOO ADJECTIVE TO EVENT IT IS TOO DANGEROUS TO APPROACH IT IS NOT ADJECTIVE ENOUGH TO EVENT IT IS NOT SAFE ENOUGH TO APPROACH

16 CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE IT IS TOO ADJECTIVE TO EVENT IT IS NOT ADJECTIVE ENOUGH TO EVENT IT IS TOO FAR TO REACH IT IS NOT CLOSE ENOUGH TO REACH CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES IT IS TOO COMPLICATED TO SOLVE IT IS NOT SIMPLE ENOUGH TO SOLVE

17 CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES ANIMATED RULE HOME PAGE IT IS TOO ADJECTIVE FOR ☻ TO EVENT IT IS TOO COSTLY FOR Jim TO BUY IT IS NOT ADJECTIVE ENOUGH FOR ☻ TO EVENT IT IS NOT CHEAP ENOUGH FOR Jim TO BUY

18 CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES
IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE IT IS TOO ADJECTIVE FOR ☻ TO EVENT IT IS NOT ADJECTIVE ENOUGH FOR ☻ TO EVENT SHE IS TOO STUBBORN FOR US TO CONVINCE SHE IS NOT LENIENT ENOUGH FOR US TO CONVINCE CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES I AM TOO BAD FOR YOU TO BE A FRIEND I AM NOT GOOD ENOUGH FOR YOU TO BE A FRIEND SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

19 was not smooth enough for was not tender enough for
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION IT + INFINITIVE HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. It was such fine weather that he couldn’t stay indoors. GOOD The weather was too good to stay indoors. The flight was so bumpy that the baby couldn’t sleep. SMOOTH The flight was not smooth enough for the baby to sleep. My essay was so incoherent that the teacher couldn’t understand it. TOO My essay was too incoherent for the teacher to understand. The steak was so tough that the old man couldn’t chew it. NOT The steak was not tender enough for the old man to chew. The food was so delicious that Carol couldn’t stop eating. YUMMY The food was too yummy for Carol to stop.

20 Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION SUBJECT GERUND, IT + INFINITIVE HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

21 AFTER REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE AFTER DOING THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC After checking if all the windows were shut, I left the house. The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Who checked all the windows in the RAC? Main Clause (MC) FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) After I HAD checkED if all the windows were shut, I left the house. Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form CHANGES After I had checked... → After checking... Omit the Subject in the RAC After I had checked... → After checking...

22 CONVERSION PRACTICE Smith After Smith had listened to her,
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Smith After Smith had listened to her, he could better understand why she had behaved so. listen listening OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! ADD A GERUND! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! After Smith had listened to her, he could better understand why she had behaved so. After listening to her, Smith could better understand why she had behaved so.

23 BEFORE REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE BEFORE DOING THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC Before leaving the house, I had checked if all the windows were shut. The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Who left the house in the RAC? Main Clause (MC) FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) Before I leFT the house, I had checked if all the windows were shut. Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form CHANGES Before I left → Before leaving... Omit the Subject in the RAC Before I left... → Before leaving...

24 CONVERSION PRACTICE Smith Before Smith could understand why
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Smith Before Smith could understand why she had behaved that way, he had listened to her twice. understanding understand OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! ADD A GERUND! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! Before Smith could understand why she had behaved that way, he had listened to her. Before understanding why she had behaved so, Smith had listened to her twice.

25 REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
BECAUSE HOME PAGE BECAUSE DOING THE SUBJECT OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DROPS WITH THE ADVERB ‘BECAUSE’, AND THE VERB TENSE ALTERS INTO A GERUND TO REDUCE THE ADVERB CLAUSE TO A MODIFYING CLAUSE. REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC NOT waning to offend him, Amber weighed her words carefully. The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Who didn’t want to offend him in the RAC? Main Clause (MC) FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) BECAUSE Amber DIDn’t want to offend him, SHE weighed her words carefully. Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form CHANGES Because Amber didn’t want to... → NOT wanting to... Omit the Subject and the adverb ‘BECAUSE’ in the RAC Because Amber didn’t want to..., she... → Not wanting to..., Amber...

26 CONVERSION PRACTICE Janet Because Janet had nowhere to go, Having have
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION Janet HOME PAGE Because Janet had nowhere to go, she spent the whole night in an abandoned car. Having have OMIT BECAUSE! OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! ADD A GERUND! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! Because Janet had nowhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car. Having nowhere to go, Janet spent the night in an abandoned car.

27 CONVERSION PRACTICE Janet Because Janet didn’t have anywhere to
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Janet Because Janet didn’t have anywhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car. not have Not having OMIT BECAUSE! OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! ADD A GERUND! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! Because Janet didn’t have anywhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car. Not having anywhere to go, Janet spent the night in an abandoned car.

28 CONVERSION PRACTICE Craig Because Craig is a snob, he looks
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Craig Because Craig is a snob, he looks down on other people. be Being OMIT BECAUSE! OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! Because Craig is a snob, he looks down on other people. Being a snob, Craig looks down on other people.

29 CONVERSION PRACTICE Hugh Because Hugh was asked a most
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Hugh Because Hugh was asked a most inappropriate question, he was at a loss for words. be Being OMIT BECAUSE! OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE! ADD A GERUND! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! Because Hugh was asked a most inappropriate question, he was at a loss for words. Being asked a most inappropriate question, Hugh was at a loss for words.

30 REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
SINCE HOME PAGE SINCE DOING THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC Since moving to the big city, Heather has made many new friends. The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Who moved to the big city the RAC? Main Clause (MC) FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) Since she movED to the big city, HEATHER has made many new friends. Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form CHANGES Since she moved... → Since moving... Omit the Subject in the RAC Since she moved... → Since moving...

31 CONVERSION PRACTICE Cheryl Since Cheryl met him, she has
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION Cheryl HOME PAGE Since Cheryl met him, she has changed beyond recognition. meeting meet OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! Since Cheryl met him, she has changed beyond compare. Since meeting him, Cheryl has changed beyond compare.

32 WHILE REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE
HOME PAGE WHILE DOING THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC W h i l e f i s h i n g , T o m f e l l a s l e e p . Main Clause (MC) The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Who was fishing in the RAC? FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) While Tom WAS fishing, he fell asleep. Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form While Tom was fishing... → While fishing... CHANGES Omit the Subject in the RAC and make it definite in the MC While Tom was fishing..., he... → While fishing..., Tom...

33 CONVERSION PRACTICE Chantal While Chantal was daydreaming in
CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION Chantal HOME PAGE While Chantal was daydreaming in class, she fell asleep. daydream daydreaming OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! ADD A GERUND! MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! While Chantal was daydreaming in class, she fell asleep. While daydreaming in class, Chantal fell asleep. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

34 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. He prayed, and then he asked her for a dance. HER He prayed before asking her for a dance. Because Wilma was a working mother, she was so busy. A Being a working mother, Wilma was so busy. The child was flipping through the pages, when he found the note. THE The child found the note while flipping through the pages. Carla panicked in the exam because she didn’t have enough time. NOT Not having enough time, Carla panicked in the exam. Hilary has been unable to sleep since she unearthed the secret. THE Since unearthing the secret Hilary’s been sleepless.

35 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

36 POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
IN SUBJECT POSITION HOME PAGE S E N T E N C E O R D E R NEXT SENTENCE JOHN MOVED TO A VILLAGE THIS SURPRISED US CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE CLICK! JOHN’S MOVING TO A VILLAGE JOHN MOVED TO A VILLAGE Subject+’s Verb+ing S E N T E N C E O R D E R JOHN’S MOVING TO A VILLAGE SURPRISED US SURPRISED US S U B J E C T

37 POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
IN SUBJECT POSITION HOME PAGE S E N T E N C E O R D E R NEXT SENTENCE TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT THIS CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE CLICK! TRACY’S HANDING IN HER RESIGNATION TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION Subject+’s Verb+ing S E N T E N C E O R D E R TRACY’S HANDING IN HER RESIGNATION EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT O B J E C T SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

38 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Paula left Tommy, and this has scathed him. HAS Paula’s leaving Tommy has hurt him deeply. We were outraged by the fact that Velma had betrayed us. SHOCKED Velma's betraying us shocked everyone. He keeps insulting everyone, which is inexcusable. HIS We can’t excuse his insulting everyone. Laureen got admitted to Harvard, and we celebrated this. GETTING We celebrated Laureen’s getting admitted to Harvard. Zach keeps bunking off work, which is intolerable. OFF We can’t tolerate Zach’s bunking off work all the time.

39 POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND
HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

40 A B B C C A CAUSATIVE VERBS MAKE ☻ DO sth HAVE ☻ DO sth
WITH ZERO INFINITIVE MAKE ☻ DO sth TO FORCE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AGAINST THEIR WILL HAVE ☻ DO sth TO PERSUADE sb TO DO sth TO PAY AND ASK sb TO DO sth GET ☻ TO DO sth TO PERSUADE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AFTER SOME DIFFICULTY A It was not easy, but Tim’s mother, at last, saw a point in buying him a motorbike. B TIM HAD HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE. B Tim gave his mom a reason to buy him a motorbike, and she said yes. C TIM MADE HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE. C Tim was so hard on his mother that she had to buy that motorbike. A TIM GOT HIS MOTHER TO BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE. She wanted him to stay longer, but she couldn’t bend him to her will. She couldn’t have him stay longer. HAVE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

41 have an electrician repair wanted even with a smallest smile.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION CAUSATIVE VERBS WITH ZERO INFINITIVE HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. We were forced to walk barefoot all the way. US They made us walk barefoot all the way. The teacher failed to achieve silence in the classroom. BE The teacher couldn’t get the students to be silent. Zoey will call an electrician to repair the damage REPAIR Zoey will have an electrician repair the damage. You can’t influence me to play truant again. TO You can’t get me to play truant again. Even a faintest smile of hers would be enough for us to do what she wanted. She could have us do what she wanted even with a smallest smile. US

42 I’VE GOT THE REPORT FINISHED I HAD / GOT THE CAR REPAIRED
CAUSATIVE VERBS GET sth DONE TO MANAGE SOMETHING OFTEN DIFFICULT TO HAVE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING FOR YOU HAVE sth DONE TO SUFFER FROM SOMETHING UNFORTUNATE MATCHING CAUSATIVE SENTENCE A My arm got broken. B GET STH DONE GET STH DONE I’VE GOT THE REPORT FINISHED B Phew! I’ve finished the report. C HAVE STH DONE GET STH DONE HAVE STH DONE GET STH DONE I HAD / GOT THE CAR REPAIRED C I had somebody repair the car. A HAVE STH DONE HAVE STH DONE I HAD MY ARM BROKEN Someone is cutting her hair at the moment. CUT She is having her hair cut right now. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

43 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
CAUSATIVE VERBS HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. A tailor is taking in her dresses around the waist now. HER Presently, she is having / getting her dresses taken in. Have you finished decorating the new house? THE Have you got the new house decorated? I wonder when you will go to a dentist to check your teeth. REPAIR I wonder when you will have / get your teeth checked. His ankle was badly sprained while playing football. BADLY He had his ankle badly sprained during a game of football. Somebody broke into the garage yesterday. THE We had the garage broken into yesterday.

44 Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds
CAUSATIVE VERBS HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

45 BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
S E N T E N C E A- S E N T E N C E B- PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING SOMETHING CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION SUBJECT VERB OBJECT O B J E C T SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ► THE SUBJECT OF SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ► PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION CAROL O B J E C T P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E CAROL CAROL IS SAID TO LOVE HER PROFESSION P R E S E N T P R E S E N T THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST

46 is thought to be planning
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE S E N T E N C E A- S E N T E N C E B- PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING SOMETHING CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION SUBJECT VERB P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E CAROL IS SAID TO LOVE HER PROFESSION P R E S E N T P R E S E N T People think that the manager has a terrible secret. BELIEVED The manager is believed to have a terrible secret. People think that Irene is planning to leave. BE Irene is thought to be planning to leave. THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST

47 sales are believed to drop a big threat to the nature.
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE present - TO - present present - TO - future past - TO - past TO P R E S E N T P R E S E N T IT IS SAID THAT BE SHE IS A SPY SHE S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E 1► Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseshe replaces the subject of the sentenceit 2► Broken Object Connector: The infinitive ‘TO’ replaces THAT 3► Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive ‘TO’ It is believed that the sales will drop dramatically. ARE The sales are believed to drop dramatically. It is thought that urbanization poses a great threat to the nature. IS Urbanization is thought to pose a big threat to the nature.

48 BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
S E N T E N C E A- S E N T E N C E B- PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING SOMETHING KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS SUBJECT VERB OBJECT O B J E C T SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ► SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ► PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS KATE O B J E C T P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E KATE KATE WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE SUPERPOWERS P A S T P A S T THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST

49 a great authority in his field.
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE S E N T E N C E A- S E N T E N C E B- PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING SOMETHING KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION SUBJECT VERB P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E KATE WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE SUPERPOWERS P A S T P A S T People claimed that he possessed a terrible secret. POSSES He was claimed to possess a terrible secret. People acknowledged that he was a great authority in his field. BE He was acknowledged to be a great authority in his field. THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST

50 skeleton in the cupboard.
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE present - TO - present present - TO - future past - TO - past TO P A S T P A S T IT WAS SAID THAT Amy HATE AMY HATED CHILDREN S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E 1► Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseAmy replaces the subject of the sentenceit 2► Broken Object Connector: The infinitive ‘TO’ replaces THAT 3► Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive ‘TO’ It was said that Tom had an embarrassing secret. WAS Tom was said to have a skeleton in the cupboard. It was thought that Jim didn’t trust anyone. WAS Jim was thought to trust no one.

51 to another country next year. Rising carbondioxide levels
BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE present - TO - present present - TO - future past - TO - past TO P R E S E N T F U T U R E IT IS BELIEVED THAT TOM MARRY TOM WILL MARRY NO ONE S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E 1► Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseTom replaces the subject of the sentenceit 2► Broken Object Connector: The infinitive ‘TO’ replaces THAT 3► Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive ‘TO’ It is said that Phil will move to another country next year. IS Phil is said to move to another country next year. It is believed that rising corbondioxide levels will cause calamities. ARE Rising carbondioxide levels are believed to cause calamities soon.

52 BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE
HOME PAGE Return to the home page to link to another use of ‘Gerunds and Infinitives’.

53 OBJECT + BE + V3 SHAKESPEARE IS SAID TO HAVE INVENTED NEW WORDS
PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE S E N T E N C E A- S E N T E N C E B- PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING SOMETHING SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS SUBJECT VERB OBJECT O B J E C T SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ► SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ► PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS SHAKESPEARE O B J E C T P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 ‘T O H A V E’ P e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e P A S T P A R T I C I P L E SHAKESPEARE SHAKESPEARE IS SAID TO HAVE INVENTED NEW WORDS P R E S E N T P A S T THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO HAVE’ IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE FURTHER BACK IN TIME PRESENT PAST PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT PAST PAST PERFECT

54 People believed that he had taken alcohol before driving. HAVE He
‘TO HAVE’ PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE S E N T E N C E A- S E N T E N C E B- PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING SOMETHING SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION SUBJECT VERB P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 ‘T O H A V E’ P e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e P A S T P A R T I C I P L E SHAKESPEARE IS SAID TO HAVE INVENTED NEW WORDS P R E S E N T P A S T People believed that he had taken alcohol before driving. HAVE He was believed to have taken alcohol before driving. People say that she has graduated from Harvard. HAVE She is said to have graduated from Harvard. THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO HAVE’ IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE FURTHER BACK IN TIME PRESENT PAST PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT PAST PAST PERFECT

55 are thought to have lived
PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE - present perfect past - TO HAVE - past PERFECT TO HAVE P R E S E N T P A S T IT IS CLAIMED THAT MARS POSSESSED MARS POSSESSED LIFE S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E 1► Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseMars replaces the subject of the sentenceit 2► Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive ‘TO HAVE’ replaces THAT 3► Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive ‘TO’ It is thought that old civilizations lived in insecurity. ARE Old civilizations are thought to have lived in insecurity. It is believed that Salvador Dali had many quirks. IS Salvadaor Dali is believed to have had many quirks.

56 is believed to have been
PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE - present perfect past - TO HAVE - past PERFECT TO HAVE P R E S E N T P R E S E N T P E R F E C T IT GOT IS SAID THAT RON RON HAS GOT A DIVORCE S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E 1► Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseRon replaces the subject of the sentenceit 2► Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive ‘TO HAVE’ replaces THAT 3► Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive ‘TO’ It is said that Seth has come back from Africa. IS Seth is said to have come back from Africa. It’s thought that the murder has been committed because of jealousy. IS The murder is believed to have been caused by jealousy.

57 It was believed that Prometheus had stolen the fire from Titans. WAS
‘TO HAVE’ PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE - present perfect past - TO HAVE - past PERFECT TO HAVE P A S T P A S T P E R F E C T IT WAS CLAIMED THAT I CHEATED I HAD CHEATED S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E 1► Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseI replaces the subject of the sentenceit 2► Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive ‘TO HAVE’ replaces THAT 3► Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive ‘TO’ It was believed that Prometheus had stolen the fire from Titans. WAS Prometheus was believed to have stolen the fire from Titans. It was claimed that the he had embezzled the funds of the company. WAS He was claimed to have embezzled the funds of the company.

58 LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM
TO IT IS BELIEVED THAT Amy BE AMY IS PRETENDING S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION TO HAVE IT IS BELIEVED THAT Amy BEEN AMY WAS PRETENDING S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E It is thought that the world is getting worse each day IS The world is thought to be getting worse each day. It is believed that Dan was keeping a secret from us. IS Dan is believed to have been keeping a secret from us.

59 LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM
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