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USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE Picasso is believed to have been a genius. VERBS OF PERCEPTION I saw her crying.

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Presentation on theme: "USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE Picasso is believed to have been a genius. VERBS OF PERCEPTION I saw her crying."— Presentation transcript:

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2 USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE Picasso is believed to have been a genius. VERBS OF PERCEPTION I saw her crying. I saw her cry. REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE Not knowing what to do, I… REDUCTION OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE The man living next-door is... PASSIVE GERUND PASSIVE INFINITIVE PAST INFINITIVE SUBJECT GERUND Flying aeroplanes could be dangerous IT + ADJECTIVE + TO IN SUBJECT POSITION It is dangerous to fly aeroplanes USING A POSSESSIVE I was surprised by his going. His going surprised me. IT + ADJECTIVE OF TO It was stupid of you to let others use you. BARE INFINITIVE AFTER A PASSIVE PREDICATE The castle is said to be haunted. TOO adj. TOO NOT ENOUGH adj. TO It was too hot to drink It wasnt cold enough to drink CAUSATIVE VERBS Have / get sth done Get to do sth Be made to do, Make do sth DEFINING THE WHOLE ACTION She sat there, waiting

3 HOME PAGE THISIS DANGEROUS THE SUBJECT PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE + ADJ THIS IS DANGEROUS. AND THIS The subject pronoun THIS stands for the previous sentence, PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES HMM, WHAT… IS DANGEROUS? PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES. Gerund Phrase THIS It is possible to convert the first sentence into a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the next sentence in place of THIS SUBJECT GERUND

4 Gerund Phrase THIS It is possible to convert the first sentence into a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the next sentence in place of THIS HOME PAGE THIS IS DANGEROUS. This is possible in two ways. NOW CLICK TWICE! PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES. THISIS DANGEROUS THE SUBJECT PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE + ADJ SUBJECT GERUND

5 THIS PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES. HOME PAGE IS DANGEROUS. If the subject in the first clause denotes a general group,… …OMIT the subject,... … and ADD a gerund. FLYING THIS Gerund Subject Now CLICK and REPLACE THIS with the new Gerund Subject. ING Gerund Subject The Phrase FLYING AEROPLANES is ready to be used as a Gerund Subject in the second clause. DONT YOU AGREE?! FLYING AEROPLANES SUBJECT GERUND

6 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE

7 THIS PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES HOME PAGE IS DANGEROUS If the subject in the first clause denotes a general group,… …OMIT the subject,... TO … and LINK the remaining predicate FLY AEROPLANES to the predicative adjective with TO.. IT THERE IS YET ANOTHER WAY TO USE A SENTENCE IN THE SUBJECT POSITION THE SUBJECT PRONOUN THIS STANDS FOR THE FIRST CLAUSE PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE BE + ADJ …and if there is a predicative adjective in the second clause,… IT …START the predicative adjective with IT TO IT IS DANGEROUS TO FLY AEROPLANES IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

8 HOME PAGE CLICK TO SEE THE RULE IT IS ADJECTIVE CLEVER STUPID EXCITING BORING REASONABLE UNREASONABLE TO EVENT TO NOT TO TO TO SAVE SOME MONEY VISIT OTHER COUNTRIES BE ABLE TO TRAVEL NOT TO EAT IN MODERATION

9 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE

10 IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE CLICK TO SEE THE RULE IT IS ADJECTIVE CONSIDERATE INCONSIDERATE STUPID STUPID FUNNY FUNNY EVENT IT WAS OF HIM TO OF HIM NOT TO OF US TO OF ME TO HELP US DO THE WORK WAIT OUTSIDE WAIT INDOORS OF US NOT TO OF ME NOT TO WEAR THE SHIRT INSIDE OUT WEAR THE T-SHIRT PROPERLY OF TO SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

11 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE SUBJECT GERUND, IT + INFINITIVE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. She didnt come on time, which was irresponsible. to come late. HER It was irresponsible of her It is crucial if you are in the right place and at the right time. and in the right time is crucial. PLACE Being in the right place There is no point in going on discussing this issue. on discussing this topic. IT It is pointless to go People need to develop effective listening skills. is necessary. SKILLS Developing effective listening skills You danced in womens garments, which was very funny. to dance in womens clothes. IT It was funny of you

12 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE SUBJECT GERUND

13 Click and match! Click and match! VERBS OF PERCEPTION SEE SEE HEAR STH HAPPEN FEEL FEEL SEE SEE HEAR STH HAPPENING FEEL FEEL You witness the whole action. You witness only a part of the whole action. Click and match! Click and match! AND I BELIEVE I MUST TELL YOU WHAT IT WAS ALL ABOUT THEN, THEY WENT SOMEWHERE ELSE TO GOSSIP I HEARD THEM SPEAKING ABOUT YOU A I HEARD THEM SPEAK ABOUT YOU B B A JUST BEFORE HE PHONED TO TELL HER HE WAS TOO ILL TO GO OUT THAT DAY WHEN SHE ENTERED THE ROOM TO SAY SURPRISE TESS HAD SEEN HER BOYFRIEND KISS A GIRL A TESS SAW HER BOYFRIEND KISSING A GIRL B A B SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

14 HOME PAGE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Because she was crying, we stopped minding our own business. to look at her. When we saw her WE crying we stopped We watched the train until it disappeared in the skyline. in the horizon. WE We watched the train disappear I saw a man who slipped a secret note in the presidents pocket. in the presidents pocket. I saw a man NOTE slip a secret note When I woke, my mothers snoring was audible. When I woke I MUM heard mum snoring. I was unable to sleep as mum kept snoring until the crack of dawn. the night out. I I heard mum snore

15 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

16 IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE IT IS ADJECTIVE DANGEROUS SAFE EVENT TO TO APPROACH APPROACH TOTOO TOO NOT ADJECTIVEEVENTTONOTENOUGH ENOUGH CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES ANIMATED RULE

17 IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE IT IS ADJECTIVE FAR CLOSE COMPLICATED SIMPLE EVENT TO TO REACH REACH TO TO SOLVE SOLVE TOTOO TOO NOT TOO NOT ADJECTIVEEVENTTONOTENOUGH CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES ENOUGH ENOUGH

18 IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE IT IS ADJECTIVE COSTLY CHEAP EVENT TO TO BUY BUY TOTOO TOO NOT ADJECTIVEEVENTTONOTENOUGH ENOUGH CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES ANIMATED RULE FOR FOR FOR Jim

19 IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT HOME PAGE IT IS ADJECTIVEEVENTTOTOO ADJECTIVEEVENTTONOTENOUGH FOR FOR STUBBORN LENIENT BAD GOOD SHE IS I AM TO TO CONVINCE CONVINCE TO TO BE A FRIEND TOO NOT TOO NOT CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES ENOUGH ENOUGH FOR US FOR YOU FOR US FOR YOU SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

20 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE IT + INFINITIVE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. It was such fine weather that he couldnt stay indoors. stay indoors. GOOD was too good to The flight was so bumpy that the baby couldnt sleep. the baby to sleep. SMOOTH was not smooth enough for My essay was so incoherent that the teacher couldnt understand it. teacher to understand. TOO too incoherent for the The steak was so tough that the old man couldnt chew it. the old man to chew. NOT was not tender enough for The food was so delicious that Carol couldnt stop eating. stop. YUMMY too yummy for Carol to The weather The flight My essay was The steak The food was

21 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION SUBJECT GERUND, IT + INFINITIVE

22 AFTER REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DOING After checking if all the windows were shut, I left the house. THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE Who checked all the windows in the RAC? HOME PAGE After I HAD checkED if all the windows were shut, I left the house. REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) CHANGES The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Main Clause (MC) Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form After I had checked... After checking... Omit the Subject in the RAC After I had checked... After checking... AFTER

23 CONVERSION PRACTICE After Smith had listened to her, he could better understand why she had behaved so. OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! listen MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! listening After Smith had listened to her, he could better understand why she had behaved so. After listening to her, Smith could better understand why she had behaved so. HOME PAGE AFTER Smith CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

24 BEFORE REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DOING Before leaving the house, I had checked if all the windows were shut. THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE Who left the house in the RAC? HOME PAGE Before I leFT the house, I had checked if all the windows were shut. REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) CHANGES The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Main Clause (MC) Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form Before I left Before leaving... Omit the Subject in the RAC Before I left... Before leaving... BEFORE

25 CONVERSION PRACTICE Before Smith could understand why she had behaved that way, he had listened to her twice. OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! understand MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! understanding Before Smith could understand why she had behaved that way, he had listened to her. Before understanding why she had behaved so, Smith had listened to her twice. HOME PAGE BEFORE Smith CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

26 BECAUSE REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DOING NOT waning to offend him, Amber weighed her words carefully. THE SUBJECT OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DROPS WITH THE ADVERB BECAUSE, AND THE VERB TENSE ALTERS INTO A GERUND TO REDUCE THE ADVERB CLAUSE TO A MODIFYING CLAUSE. Who didnt want to offend him in the RAC? HOME PAGE BECAUSE Amber DIDnt want to offend him, SHE weighed her words carefully. REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) CHANGES The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Main Clause (MC) Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form Because Amber didnt want to... NOT wanting to... Omit the Subject and the adverb BECAUSE in the RAC Because Amber didn t want to..., she... Not wanting to..., Amber... BECAUSE

27 CONVERSION PRACTICE Because Janet had nowhere to go, she spent the whole night in an abandoned car. OMIT BECAUSE!OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! have MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! Having Because Janet had nowhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car. Having nowhere to go, Janet spent the night in an abandoned car. HOME PAGE BECAUSE Janet CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

28 CONVERSION PRACTICE Because Janet didnt have anywhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car. OMIT BECAUSE!OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! not have MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! Not having Because Janet didnt have anywhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car. Not having anywhere to go, Janet spent the night in an abandoned car. HOME PAGE BECAUSE Janet CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

29 CONVERSION PRACTICE Because Craig is a snob, he looks down on other people. OMIT BECAUSE!OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE! be MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!ADD A GERUND! Being Because Craig is a snob, he looks down on other people. Being a snob, Craig looks down on other people. HOME PAGE BECAUSE Craig CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

30 CONVERSION PRACTICE Because Hugh was asked a most inappropriate question, he was at a loss for words. OMIT BECAUSE!OMIT THE SUBJECT! OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE! be MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! Being Because Hugh was asked a most inappropriate question, he was at a loss for words. Being asked a most inappropriate question, Hugh was at a loss for words. HOME PAGE BECAUSE Hugh CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

31 SINCE REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DOING Since moving to the big city, Heather has made many new friends. THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE Who moved to the big city the RAC? HOME PAGE Since she movED to the big city, HEATHER has made many new friends. REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) CHANGES The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Main Clause (MC) Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form Since she moved... Since moving... Omit the Subject in the RAC Since she moved... Since moving... SINCE

32 CONVERSION PRACTICE Since Cheryl met him, she has changed beyond recognition. OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! meet MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! meeting Since Cheryl met him, she has changed beyond compare. Since meeting him, Cheryl has changed beyond compare. HOME PAGE SINCE Cheryl CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

33 WHILE REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DOING W h i l e f i s h i n g, T o m f e l l a s l e e p. THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE Who was fishing in the RAC? HOME PAGE While Tom WAS fishing, he fell asleep. REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE) CHANGES The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted. Main Clause (MC) Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form While Tom was fishing... While fishing... Omit the Subject in the RAC and make it definite in the MC While Tom was fishing..., he... While fishing..., Tom... WHILE

34 CONVERSION PRACTICE While Chantal was daydreaming in class, she fell asleep. OMIT THE SUBJECT!OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB! daydream MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE! ADD A GERUND! daydreaming While Chantal was daydreaming in class, she fell asleep. While daydreaming in class, Chantal fell asleep. HOME PAGE WHILE Chantal CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

35 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. He prayed, and then he asked her for a dance. for a dance. He prayed HER before asking her Because Wilma was a working mother, she was so busy. Wilma was so busy. A Being a working mother, The child was flipping through the pages, when he found the note. pages. The child found the note THE while flipping through the Carla panicked in the exam because she didnt have enough time. Carla panicked in the exam. NOT Not having enough time, Hilary has been unable to sleep since she unearthed the secret. Hilarys been sleepless. THE Since unearthing the secret

36 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

37 HOME PAGE S E N T E N C E O R D E R JOHN MOVED TO A VILLAGE CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE S E N T E N C E O R D E R JOHN MOVED TO A VILLAGE JOHN S MOV ING TO A VILLAGE JOHNS MOVING TO A VILLAGE Verb +ing Subject +s NEXT SENTENCE SURPRISED US THIS SURPRISED US CLICK! SURPRISED US POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND IN SUBJECT POSITION S U B J E C T

38 HOME PAGE S E N T E N C E O R D E R TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE S E N T E N C E O R D E R TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION TRACY S HAND ING IN HER RESIGNATION TRACYS HANDING IN HER RESIGNATION Verb +ing Subject +s NEXT SENTENCE EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT THIS CLICK! EVERYONE IS TALKING ABOUT POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND IN SUBJECT POSITION O B J E C T SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

39 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Paula left Tommy, and this has scathed him. hurt him deeply. HAS Paulas leaving Tommy has We were outraged by the fact that Velma had betrayed us. everyone. SHOCKED Velma's betraying us shocked He keeps insulting everyone, which is inexcusable. We cant excuse HIS his insulting everyone. Laureen got admitted to Harvard, and we celebrated this. We celebrated GETTING Laureens getting admitted to Harvard. Zach keeps bunking off work, which is intolerable. We cant tolerate OFF Zachs bunking off work all the time.

40 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND

41 MAKE DO sth TO FORCE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AGAINST THEIR WILL TIM HAD HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE. TIM MADE HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE. It was not easy, but Tims mother, at last, saw a point in buying him a motorbike. A Tim gave his mom a reason to buy him a motorbike, and she said yes. B B C TIM GOT HIS MOTHER TO BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE. Tim was so hard on his mother that she had to buy that motorbike. C A CAUSATIVE VERBS WITH ZERO INFINITIVE HAVE DO sth GET TO DO sth TO PERSUADE sb TO DO sth TO PERSUADE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AFTER SOME DIFFICULTY She wanted him to stay longer, but she couldnt bend him to her will. She couldnt HAVE have him stay longer. TO PAY AND ASK sb TO DO sth SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

42 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. We were forced to walk barefoot all the way. all the way. They US made us walk barefoot The teacher failed to achieve silence in the classroom. The teacher couldnt BE get the students to be Zoey will call an electrician to repair the damage Zoey will REPAIR have an electrician repair You cant influence me to play truant again. You cant TO get me to play truant Even a faintest smile of hers would be enough for us to do what she wanted. She could US have us do what she silent. again. wanted even with a smallest smile. CAUSATIVE VERBS WITH ZERO INFINITIVE the damage.

43 GET sth DONE TO MANAGE SOMETHING OFTEN DIFFICULT GET STH DONE HAVE STH DONE GET STH DONE My arm got broken. A Phew! Ive finished the report. B B C HAVE STH DONE I had somebody repair the car. C A CAUSATIVE VERBS HAVE sth DONE TO SUFFER FROM SOMETHING UNFORTUNATE Someone is cutting her hair at the moment. She CUT is having her hair cut TO HAVE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING FOR YOU IVE G GG GOT THE REPORT FINISHED I H HH HAD / G GG GOT THE CAR REPAIRED I H HH HAD MY ARM BROKEN MATCHINGCAUSATIVE SENTENCE right now. GET STH DONE HAVE STH DONE GET STH DONE HAVE STH DONE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

44 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION HOME PAGE Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. A tailor is taking in her dresses around the waist now. in. Presently, she HER is having / getting her dresses taken Have you finished decorating the new house? Have you THE got the new house decorated? I wonder when you will go to a dentist to check your teeth. I wonder when you REPAIR will have / get your teeth checked. His ankle was badly sprained while playing football. He BADLY had his ankle badly sprained Somebody broke into the garage yesterday. We THE had the garage broken into during a game of football. yesterday. CAUSATIVE VERBS

45 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE CAUSATIVE VERBS

46 CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE S E N T E N C E -A-S E N T E N C E -B- SOMETHING OBJECT SUBJECT VERB O B J E C T SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A THE SUBJECT OF SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION O B J E C T CAROL IS SAID T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E TO LOVE HER PROFESSION THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST P R E S E N TP R E S E N T CAROL CAROL

47 CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING S E N T E N C E -A-S E N T E N C E -B- SOMETHING SUBJECT VERB P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 CAROL IS SAID T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E TO LOVE HER PROFESSION THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST P R E S E N T People think that the manager has a terrible secret. a terrible secret. The manager BELIEVED is believed to have People think that Irene is planning to leave. Irene BE being is thought to be planning to leave. BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

48 IS SAID SHE IS A SPYTHAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Broken Object: The subject in the object clause she replaces the subject of the sentence it 1 Broken Object Connector: The infinitive TO replaces THAT2 SHE TO Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive TO3 BE It is believed that the sales will drop dramatically. The ARE sales are believed to drop It is thought that urbanization poses a great threat to the nature. Urbanization IS is thought to pose dramatically. a big threat to the nature. present - TO - present present - TO - future past - TO - past P R E S E N T BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

49 KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING S E N T E N C E -A-S E N T E N C E -B- SOMETHING OBJECT SUBJECT VERB O B J E C T SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS O B J E C T KATE WAS BELIEVED T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E TO HAVE SUPERPOWERS THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST P A S TP A S T KATE KATE BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

50 CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING S E N T E N C E -A-S E N T E N C E -B- SOMETHING SUBJECT VERB P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 KATE WAS BELIEVED T O i n f i n i t i v e B A R E I N F I N I T I V E TO HAVE SUPERPOWERS THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES PRESENT PRESENT PAST PAST P A S T People claimed that he possessed a terrible secret. a terrible secret. He POSSES was claimed to possess People acknowledged that he was a great authority in his field. He BE be was acknowledged to be a great authority in his field. BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

51 WAS SAID AMY HATED CHILDRENTHAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Broken Object: The subject in the object clause Amy replaces the subject of the sentence it 1 Broken Object Connector: The infinitive TO replaces THAT2 Amy TO Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive TO3 HATE It was said that Tom had an embarrassing secret. Tom WAS was said to have a It was thought that Jim didnt trust anyone. Jim WAS was thought to trust skeleton in the cupboard. no one. present - TO - present present - TO - future past - TO - past P A S T BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

52 IS BELIEVED TOM WILL MARRY NO ONETHAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Broken Object: The subject in the object clause Tom replaces the subject of the sentence it 1 Broken Object Connector: The infinitive TO replaces THAT2 TOM TO Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive TO3 MARRY It is said that Phil will move to another country next year. Phil IS is said to move It is believed that rising corbondioxide levels will cause calamities. Rising carbondioxide levels ARE are believed to cause to another country next year. calamities soon. present - TO - present present - TO - future past - TO - past P R E S E N TF U T U R E BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

53 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

54 SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING S E N T E N C E -A-S E N T E N C E -B- SOMETHING OBJECT SUBJECT VERB O B J E C T SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS O B J E C T SHAKESPEARE IS SAID T O H A V E P e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e P A S T P A R T I C I P L E TO HAVE INVENTED NEW WORDS THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO HAVE IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE FURTHER BACK IN TIME PRESENT PAST PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT PAST PAST PERFECT P R E S E N TP A S T SHAKESPEARE SHAKESPEARE TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

55 CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING S E N T E N C E -A-S E N T E N C E -B- SOMETHING SUBJECT VERB P A S S I V E VOICE OBJECT + BE + V3 SHAKESPEARE IS SAID T O H A V E P e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e P A S T P A R T I C I P L E TO HAVE INVENTED NEW WORDS P R E S E N TP A S T People believed that he had taken alcohol before driving. alcohol before driving. He HAVE was believed to have taken People say that she has graduated from Harvard. She HAVE is said to have graduated from Harvard. TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH TO HAVE IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE FURTHER BACK IN TIME PRESENT PAST PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT PAST PAST PERFECT

56 IS CLAIMED MARS POSSESSED LIFETHAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Broken Object: The subject in the object clause Mars replaces the subject of the sentence it 1 Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive TO HAVE replaces THAT2 MAR S TO HAVE Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive TO3 POSSESSED It is thought that old civilizations lived in insecurity. Old civilizations ARE are thought to have lived It is believed that Salvador Dali had many quirks. Salvadaor Dali IS is believed to have had in insecurity. many quirks. present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE - present perfect past - TO HAVE - past PERFECT P R E S E N TP A S T TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

57 IS SAID RON HAS GOT A DIVORCE THAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Broken Object: The subject in the object clause Ron replaces the subject of the sentence it 1 Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive TO HAVE replaces THAT2 RON TO HAVE Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive TO3 GOT It is said that Seth has come back from Africa. Seth IS is said to have come Its thought that the murder has been committed because of jealousy. The murder IS is believed to have been back from Africa. caused by jealousy. present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE - present perfect past - TO HAVE - past PERFECT P R E S E N TP R E S E N T P E R F E C T TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

58 WAS CLAIMED I HAD CHEATEDTHAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Broken Object: The subject in the object clause I replaces the subject of the sentence it 1 Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive TO HAVE replaces THAT2 I TO HAVE Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive TO3 CHEATED It was believed that Prometheus had stolen the fire from Titans. Prometheus WAS was believed to have stolen It was claimed that the he had embezzled the funds of the company. He WAS was claimed to have embezzled the fire from Titans. the funds of the company. present - TO HAVE - past present - TO HAVE - present perfect past - TO HAVE - past PERFECT P A S TP A S T P E R F E C T TO HAVE PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

59 IS BELIEVED AMY IS PRETENDING LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM THAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Amy TO BE It is thought that the world is getting worse each day The world IS is thought to be getting It is believed that Dan was keeping a secret from us. Dan IS is believed to have been worse each day. keeping a secret from us. IS BELIEVED AMY WAS PRETENDINGTHAT S U B J E C T V E R B O B J E C T C L A U S E IT Amy TO HAVE BEEN CLICK TO SEE THE TRANSFORMATION

60 Return to the home page to link to another use of Gerunds and Infinitives. HOME PAGE LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM

61 NOT READY YET! HOME PAGE


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