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Learning and Development Paraeducator Institute. 2 Ice Breaker: Our common experience Education is the process of helping everyone discover his or her.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning and Development Paraeducator Institute. 2 Ice Breaker: Our common experience Education is the process of helping everyone discover his or her."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning and Development Paraeducator Institute

2 2 Ice Breaker: Our common experience Education is the process of helping everyone discover his or her uniqueness, to teach him or her how to develop that uniqueness, and then to show him or her how to share it….. Leo Buscalia

3 3 Ice Breaker: Our common experience Which teacher helped you grow and find your uniqueness? Reflect Share with one other person

4 4 Todays Objectives Understand the patterns of typical child development. Understand the developmental foundations of the California Content Frameworks.

5 5 Todays Objectives Understand the external factors which influence learning. Develop skills in formulating content strategies to support students with special needs.

6 6 Typical Growth and Development To understand different learning patterns among students, we must first recognize how typical growth and development proceeds. This allows us to know how to adjust our strategies and approaches to meet the needs of special education students. Hold high expectations and demand excellence

7 7 Typical Growth and Development We will look at how children develop generally. Then beginning at birth and going to late adolescence we will look at motor, language, social and cognitive growth.

8 8 Overview of Typical Development Certain communication, motor, and social developmental milestones are reached from birth to age 5.

9 9 Overview of Development For most children, a concrete approach to learning is more successful until ages After this age, most children are able to handle more abstract concepts.

10 10 Overview of Development Certain developmental tasks are achieved during adolescence that often impact learning. -Adjustment to physical changes -Development of independence from parents -Establishment of social relationships with peers of the same or opposite sex - Preparation for a meaningful vocation

11 11 Typical Motor Development: Birth to 5 18 months to 24 months -Runs -Kicks a ball -Builds a cube tower

12 12 Typical Motor Development: Birth to 5 2 to 3 years -Jumps off a step -Rides a tricycle -Uses crayons -Builds a 9-10 cube tower

13 13 Typical Motor Development: 3 to 4 years of age -Stands on one leg -Jumps up and down -Draws a circle and a cross (4 years) -Self Sufficient in many routines of home life

14 14 Typical Motor Development: 4 to 5 years of age 4 to 5 years -Skips -Broad jumps -Dresses Self -Copies a square and triangle

15 15 Typical Language Development: Birth to 5 18 to 24 months -Vocabulary develops (200 words or more) 2 to 3 years -Short sentences -Controls and explores with language -Stuttering (may appear briefly)

16 16 Typical Language Development: 4 to 5 years of age -Speaks clearly -Uses adult speech sounds -Has mastered basic grammar -Relates a story -Knows over 2000 words at 5 years of age

17 17 Typical Language Development: 6 years of age Language at age 6 -Mastery of some beginning consonants -Concepts of 7 -Should be able to tell a connected story about a picture -Can see relationships between objects and happenings

18 18 Typical Language Development: 7 years of age -Mastery of consonants -Handle opposite analogies easily -Understands such terms as: alike, different, beginning, end -Able to tell time to the quarter hour -Simple reading -Writes or prints words

19 19 Typical Language Development: 8 years of age -Can relate involved accounts of events. -All speech sounds, including consonant blends should be established. -Reads with ease. -Writes simple compositions. -Uses social amenities appropriately. -Follows complex directions. -Has well developed time and number concepts.

20 20 Typical Social Development: 18 to 24 months of age -Obeys limited commands. -Feeds self.

21 21 Typical Social Development: 2 to 3 years -Uses I, me, you -Copies parents actions -Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys -Parallel play with other children (playing along side other children) -Negativism, resists parental demands (enters the terrible twos!) -Gives orders

22 22 Typical Social Development: 3 to 4 years -Likes to share -Uses we -Cooperative play with other children -Imitates parents -Beginning of identification with same sex parent -Intense curiosity in other childrens bodies -Imaginary friend

23 23 Typical Social Development: 4 to 5 years -Prefers to play with other children -Becomes competitive -Prefers gender appropriate activities

24 24 Table Discussion Early Milestones

25 25 Typical Cognitive Development: 7 to 11 years of age -Shows evidence for logical organized thought. -Can perform multiple classification tasks. -Thinking becomes less egocentric. -Is capable of concrete problem solving. -Exhibits reversability (3+4=7 and 7-4=3). -Can sort unlike objects into logical groups (e.g., animals, toys, & food may be sorted on the basis or color or size).

26 26 Typical Cognitive Development: 11 to 15 years of age -Thought becomes more abstract -Can incorporate principles of formal logic. -Can generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and possible outcomes. -Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality.

27 27 Table Discussion Typical Growth & Development Cognition

28 28 4 Questions facing adolescents 1. Who am I ? (social role and sexuality) 2. Am I normal ? (Do I fit in with a certain crowd?) 3. Am I competent? (Am I good at something that is valued by peers and adults?) 4. Am I lovable and loving? (Can someone besides Mom and Dad love me?)

29 29 Developmental Goals of Adolescence 1. Develop new levels of trust and closeness with peers. 2. Gain independence from parents and achieve new status within the family. 3. Develop a sense of personal identity. 4. Move toward autonomy in the larger world.

30 30 Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Early Adolescence 9 to 13 years of age -Significant physical and sexual maturation -Intense concern with body image -Growing independence in decision-making

31 31 social/behavioral Typical social/behavioral development: Early Adolescence -Increasing influence of peers -Feelings of attraction toward others begins -Experimenting with new ways of behaving begins

32 32 Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Middle Adolescence -Continuing physical/sexual changes -Less concern with body image -Development of sense of identity -Exploration of ability to attract partners begins

33 33 Typical Social/Behavioral Development: Middle Adolescence -Enormous influence of peers/school environment -Increase in sexual interest -Risk-taking behavior

34 34 Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Late Adolescence -Physical/sexual changes complete -Greater acceptance of physical appearance -Sense of identity established

35 35 Typical Social/Behavioral Development: Late Adolescence -Family influence is more in balance with peer influence. -Serious intimate relationships begin to develop. -Transition to work, college, independent living begins. -Capacity for realistic risk assessment develops.

36 36 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Give them a chance to reflect on who they are. A way to do this is to engage then in non- threatening questions such as: 1. Who do you admire? 2. What do you like to do in your free time? 3. What do you consider to be your strengths? 4. What have you done that you feel proud of?

37 37 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Casually show rational decision-making strategies, such as discussing how someone you know defined a problem, generated options, anticipated outcomes, and made a decision. Discuss ethical and moral problems that are in the news.

38 38 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Encourage them to: -take more responsibility in schoolwork and school-related activities -hold summer jobs -develop future goals -get involved in community activities -examine career/educational options

39 39 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Show warmth and respect. Show serious interest in their choices and lives. Attend to the changes they are experiencing. Implement clear standards of discipline and close supervision. Communicate high expectations for achievement and ethical behavior. Use democratic ways of dealing with conflict.

40 40 Application Exercise Leticia Joe Kate Ethan

41 41 Developmental Aspects of the California Content Frameworks

42 42 Developmental Aspects of the California Content Frameworks

43 43 Organization of the Framework Introduction Grade level expectations Standards

44 44 Developmental Aspects of the Content Frameworks (Activity) The content of classroom instruction is based on the California Content Standards. --A copy of introduction to a specific grade level for either a Language Arts or Math framework is being distributed. --In groups of 2 to 4, review the introduction and discuss the questions on the next slide.

45 45 Questions: Examine the Packet How is the developmental information presented earlier used in the Framework? Do you think any skill or concept is too hard or too easy? How can you use this information when working with the students in your classroom?

46 46 Important things to consider when using content standards There should be a common understanding of the meaning of the standard among those instructing students. Students must know what the standard means and what performance is expected.

47 47 Important things to consider when using standards Students must understand the relationship between the standards, what they are taught and the assessments they take. Student work should be graded based on providing feedback on how they are learning the standardsthis is called a rubric.

48 48 Some additional things that influence learning Even in a classroom that is considering: -what is appropriate developmentally to ask of students -and which teaches to standards -and which has high expectations there are still some additional influences on how students learn………

49 49 How do Children Learn? What goes on in the learning process? IMITATION -Children imitate and model what adults do and say.

50 50 How do children learn? What goes into the learning process? IMAGERY-MENTAL PICTURES Mother said, The painting is nice.

51 51 How do children learn? Attention Attitude Attention and learning go together. and A positive attitude is key when learning new skills.

52 52 How do children learn? Feedback Comes from the outside For learning about ones own responses Necessary for correcting mistakes

53 53 How do children learn? Reinforcement Internal or external Will influence whether or not behavior will be repeated or learned

54 54 FEEDBACK & REINFORCEMENT May be positive (increases a given response) or negative (decreases a given response) Can motivate a child to learn Should be immediate and promote learning

55 55 MEMORY Memory can be strengthened. Memory is closely associated with learning. Teacher: John, spell money. m

56 56 METACOGNITION What do I know? How do I learn?

57 57 Motivation Motivation increases learning.

58 58 Anxiety Most of the time anxiety decreases learning.

59 Learning and Development David Sousa Lecture

60 60 Language Acquisition Some students have problems with language acquisition. Learning a second language is not a disability nor a handicapping condition. Individuals acquire second languages at different rates.

61 61 Reading Difficulties Difficulty in reading is one of the most common reasons for referral for special education services. A reading problem alone is not indicative of a learning disability.

62 62 Reading Difficulties Children with learning disabilities and poor readers respond equally well to instructional programs and techniques in phonemic awareness and phonics.

63 63 Learning Disabilities The definition of learning disability states that the student must have average general ability (cognitive status must be within the average range).

64 64 Discussion Characteristics of students with learning disabilities What strategies were discussed? What are some other strategies? What strategies would you use with some students that you know of?

65 65 Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD is a disorder and not an identified disability under federal or CA state law. Students with ADHD may meet the criteria as Other Health Impaired (OHI) if their educational performance is adversely affected.

66 66 What are the causes of ADHD behavior? Caffeine & other diet contributors Sleep deprivation Lack of parental rule enforcement Depression Some medications

67 67 What are the causes of ADHD behavior? School environment Arbitrarily applied rules of discipline Too much sitting for the students Too much teacher talk Room too dark Not enough student-teacher interaction Other drugs (i.e., drugs for asthma)

68 68 Managing ADHD Behavior Display a short list of positive rules. Make sure that students understand them. Post the classroom schedule of assignments clearly. Describe specific tasks and due dates. Call attention to any schedule changes. Design a quite workspace that students can use on request.

69 69 Managing ADHD Behavior Seat problem students near positive peer models. Use morning hours for academics. Provide frequent stretch breaks. Use attention-getting devices (e.g., secret signals, color codes, etc.) Do a countdown for the last several minutes of an activity.

70 70 Managing ADHD Behavior If a student begins to get disruptive, divert the student with another activity. Sincerely praise students for constructive behavior. Shift the focus away from competition to contribution, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Contact parents to report good news and build a supportive relationship.

71 71 Hop-To-It Activity for Students Emphasizes Sequential acquisition of information….

72 72 School Induced ADHD What may cause school-induced ADHD? What are some strategies that may be used with students who exhibit these behaviors?

73 73 Discussion Strategies to use with students who display ADHD behaviors

74 74 Language Disorders birth Responds to prosody Phoneme recognition Attaches meaning to words Recognizes noun/verb differences Recognizes other Grammatical differences Most language activity moves to left hemisphere TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

75 75 Putting It All Together Phonology Phonemes (the smallest sounds of language) Morphology Word formation Syntax Sentence formation Semantics Word and sentence meaning

76 76 Putting It All Together Prosody Intonation and rhythm of speech Pragmatics Effective use of language for different purposes, following rules of conversation, and staying on topic

77 77 Language Problems Inability to detect phoneme differences Problems with verbal short-term memory Long-term memory deficits

78 78 Strategies for Developing Oral Language Skills Talk to the child. Have the child talk back to you. Ask open-ended questions. Solicit longer answers (e.g., answers longer than fine, yes, no, etc.)

79 79 Strategies for Developing Oral Language Skills Have the child describe objects and point to them as they describe them. Have the child describe actions and behaviors.

80 80 Phonemic Awareness Development Play rhyming games. Play the Broken Record Game. Take dictation from a child, write it down and read it back to them

81 81 Phonemic Awareness Development I Spy Game I spy something in this room that is ______ ______ A student in the room responds, goes to stand by the object, and then it is her turn to describe an object (or the teacher may continue to provide the descriptions) NOTE: THE TEACHER MODELS AND STUDENTS RESPOND WITH ORAL LANGUAGE AND WITH THEIR BODIES

82 82 Using Our Bodies Body parts represent the locations of the continents.

83 83 Discussion Strategies to use with students who show language disorders

84 84 Reading Disorders How the brain reads: Auditory Processing: What do I hear? (Phonology) Understanding: What does it mean? furry animal that barks dawg Visual Processing: What do I see? (Orthography) dog

85 85 Successful Reading Requires the coordination of three neural networks: 1. Visual processing 2. Sound Recognition (Auditory Processing) 3. Word Interpretation

86 86 Reading Problems Deficits in phoneme awareness and the alphabetic principle Problems in visual acquisition Word meaning problems

87 87 Story Maps _____Name of Story _____Problem/Main Idea _____Main Persons _____Main Character _____How is the problem resolved?

88 88 Reading Strategies Previewing Predicting Search for key words Explain to your neighbor

89 89 Discussion Discuss strategies

90 90 Writing RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPEECH AND HANDWRITING Auditory Input Auditory Analysis Phonological Output Speech Phoneme to Grapheme Conversion Visual Input Orthographic Analysis Motor Output Writing Graphemic Output


92 92 Writing Strategies Power Strategy P – Plan the paper O – Organize a draft W – Write a draft E – Edit the draft R – Review the work For Students Who Already Have Some Writing Skill

93 93 Discussion Discuss strategies. What are some others?

94 94 Mathematical Disorders Calculations Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe More complex calculations Other brain areas are activated

95 95 Dyscalculia Poor ability to do calculations: Problems with counting numbers Problems with arithmetic skills Left hemisphere problems Deficits in long-term memory Problems with working memory Visual-spatial deficits Right hemisphere

96 96 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills 1. Follow sequential directions. 2. Recognize patterns. 3. Estimate by forming a reasonable guess about quantity, size, magnitude, and amount 4. Visualize pictures in ones mind and manipulate them.

97 97 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills 5. Have a good sense of spatial orientation and space organization, including telling left from right, compass directions, horizontal and vertical directions, etc.

98 98 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills 6. Do deductive reasoning, that is, reason from a general principle to a particular instance, or from a stated premise to a logical conclusion.

99 99 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills 7. Do inductive reasoning, that is, come to a natural understanding that is not the result of conscious attention or reasoning, easily detecting the patterns in different situations and the interrelationships between procedures and concepts.

100 100 Mathematics Strategies Shorten the way that math is taught. Shorten the time relationship between learning numbers and learning number concepts. Use more manipulatives.

101 101 Mathematics Strategies Emphasize patterns in math. Build on the students strengths. Use novelty.

102 102 An ending thought Tell me what you expect of me. Give me the opportunity to perform. Let me know how I am getting along. Give me guidance where I need it. Reward me according to my contribution. Paul Bear Bryant

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