2Ice Breaker: Our common experience “Education is the process of helping everyone discover his or her uniqueness, to teach him or her how to develop that uniqueness, and then to show him or her how to share it…..”Leo Buscalia
3Ice Breaker: Our common experience Which teacher helped you grow and find your uniqueness?ReflectShare with one other person
4Today’s ObjectivesUnderstand the patterns of typical child development.Understand the developmental foundations of the California Content Frameworks.
5Today’s ObjectivesUnderstand the external factors which influence learning.Develop skills in formulating content strategies to support students with special needs.
6Typical Growth and Development To understand different learning patterns among students, we must first recognize how typical growth and development proceeds. This allows us to know how to adjust our strategies and approaches to meet the needs of special education students.Hold high expectations and demand excellence
7Typical Growth and Development We will look at how children develop generally.Then beginning at birth and going to late adolescence we will look at motor, language, social and cognitive growth.
8Overview of Typical Development Certain communication, motor, and social developmental milestones are reached from birth to age 5.
9Overview of Development For most children, a concrete approach to learning is more successful until agesAfter this age, most children are able to handle more abstract concepts.
10Overview of Development Certain developmental tasks are achieved during adolescence that often impact learning.-Adjustment to physical changes-Development of independence fromparents-Establishment of social relationships withpeers of the same or opposite sex- Preparation for a meaningful vocation
11Typical Motor Development: Birth to 5 18 months to 24 months-Runs-Kicks a ball-Builds a cube tower
12Typical Motor Development: Birth to 5 2 to 3 years-Jumps off a step-Rides a tricycle-Uses crayons-Builds a 9-10 cube tower
13Typical Motor Development: 3 to 4 years of age -Stands on one leg-Jumps up and down-Draws a circle and a cross (4 years)-Self Sufficient in many routines of home life
14Typical Motor Development: 4 to 5 years of age -Skips-Broad jumps-Dresses Self-Copies a square andtriangle
15Typical Language Development: Birth to 5 18 to 24 months-Vocabulary develops (200 words or more)2 to 3 years-Short sentences-Controls and explores with language-Stuttering (may appear briefly)
16Typical Language Development: 4 to 5 years of age -Speaks clearly-Uses adult speech sounds-Has mastered basic grammar-Relates a story-Knows over 2000 words at 5 years of age
17Typical Language Development: 6 years of age Language at age 6-Mastery of some beginning consonants-Concepts of 7-Should be able to tell a connected story about a picture-Can see relationships between objects and happenings
18Typical Language Development: 7 years of age -Mastery of consonants-Handle opposite analogies easily-Understands such terms as: alike, different, beginning, end-Able to tell time to the quarter hour-Simple reading-Writes or prints words
19Typical Language Development: 8 years of age -Can relate involved accounts of events.-All speech sounds, including consonant blends should be established.-Reads with ease.-Writes simple compositions.-Uses social amenities appropriately.-Follows complex directions.-Has well developed time and number concepts.
20Typical Social Development: 18 to 24 months of age -Obeys limited commands.-Feeds self.
21Typical Social Development: 2 to 3 years -Uses “I”, “me”, “you”-Copies parents actions-Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys-Parallel play with other children (playing along side other children)-Negativism, resists parental demands(enters the terrible twos!)-Gives orders
22Typical Social Development: 3 to 4 years -Likes to share-Uses “we”-Cooperative play with other children-Imitates parents-Beginning of identification with same sex parent-Intense curiosity in other children’s bodies-Imaginary friend
23Typical Social Development: 4 to 5 years -Prefers to play with other children-Becomes competitive-Prefers gender appropriate activities
25Typical Cognitive Development: 7 to 11 years of age -Shows evidence for logical organized thought.-Can perform multiple classification tasks.-Thinking becomes less egocentric.-Is capable of concrete problem solving.-Exhibits reversability (3+4=7 and 7-4=3).-Can sort unlike objects into logical groups (e.g., animals, toys, & food may be sorted on the basis or color or size).
26Typical Cognitive Development: 11 to 15 years of age -Thought becomes more abstract-Can incorporate principles of formal logic.-Can generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and possible outcomes.-Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality.
27Typical Growth & Development Table DiscussionTypical Growth & DevelopmentCognition
284 Questions facing adolescents Who am I ? (social role and sexuality)Am I normal ? (Do I fit in with a certain crowd?)Am I competent? (Am I good at something that is valued by peers and adults?)Am I lovable and loving? (Can someone besides Mom and Dad love me?)
29Developmental Goals of Adolescence Develop new levels of trust and closeness with peers.Gain independence from parents and achieve new status within the family.Develop a sense of personal identity.Move toward autonomy in the larger world.
30Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Early Adolescence 9 to 13 years of age-Significant physical and sexual maturation-Intense concern with body image-Growing independence in decision-making
31Typical social/behavioral development: Early Adolescence -Increasing influence of peers-Feelings of attraction toward others begins-Experimenting with new ways of behaving begins
32Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Middle Adolescence -Continuing physical/sexualchanges-Less concern with body image-Development of sense of identity-Exploration of ability to attract partners begins
33Typical Social/Behavioral Development: Middle Adolescence -Enormous influence of peers/school environment-Increase in sexual interest-Risk-taking behavior
34Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Late Adolescence -Physical/sexual changes complete-Greater acceptance of physical appearance-Sense of identity established
35Typical Social/Behavioral Development: Late Adolescence -Family influence is more in balance with peer influence.-Serious intimate relationships begin to develop.-Transition to work, college, independent living begins.-Capacity for realistic risk assessment develops.
36Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Give them a chance to reflect on who they are. A way to do this is to engage then in non-threatening questions such as:Who do you admire?What do you like to do in your free time?What do you consider to be your strengths?What have you done that you feel proud of?
37Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Casually show rational decision-making strategies, such as discussing how someone you know defined a problem, generated options, anticipated outcomes, and made a decision.Discuss ethical and moral problems that are in the news.
38Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Encourage them to:-take more responsibility in schoolwork and school-related activities-hold summer jobs-develop future goals-get involved in community activities-examine career/educational options
39Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults Show warmth and respect.Show serious interest in their choices and lives.Attend to the changes they are experiencing.Implement clear standards of discipline and close supervision.Communicate high expectations for achievement and ethical behavior.Use democratic ways of dealing with conflict.
41Developmental Aspects of the California Content Frameworks
42Developmental Aspects of the California Content Frameworks
43Organization of the Framework IntroductionGrade level expectationsStandards
44Developmental Aspects of the Content Frameworks (Activity) The content of classroom instruction is based on the California Content Standards.--A copy of introduction to a specific grade level for either a Language Arts or Math framework is being distributed.--In groups of 2 to 4, review the introduction and discuss the questions on the next slide.
45Questions: Examine the Packet How is the developmental information presented earlier used in the Framework?Do you think any skill or concept is too hard or too easy?How can you use this information when working with the students in your classroom?
46Important things to consider when using content standards There should be a common understanding of the meaning of the standard among those instructing students.Students must know what the standard means and what performance is expected.
47Important things to consider when using standards Students must understand the relationship between the standards, what they are taught and the assessments they take.Student work should be “graded” based on providing feedback on how they are learning the standards—this is called a rubric.
48Some additional things that influence learning Even in a classroom that is considering:-what is appropriate developmentally to ask of students-and which teaches to standards-and which has high expectationsthere are still some additional influences on how students learn………
49How do Children Learn? What goes on in the learning process? IMITATION-Children imitate and model what adults do and say.Be aware of the impact of culture and practices within groups when considering how children learn.Children learn from what theySeeHear, andExperience in their environmentChildren learn from theirParentsTeachersOther adults around themChildren model the words and actions of others.
50How do children learn? What goes into the learning process? IMAGERY-MENTAL PICTURESMother said,“The painting isnice.”Children form a picture in their mind of what they are learning.Images and words are formed in their minds long before infants and children are able to verbalize them.For example, a toddler can follow a verbal direction lo9ng before they are able to verbalize that same direction.
51How do children learn? Attention Attitude andATTENTIONChildren who are attentive increase their chances of learning new information.ATTITUDEChildren will respond positively or negatively towards learning a new task.A positive attitude toward learning something new will increase that child’s chances of learning.Attention and learninggo together.A positive attitude is keywhen learning newskills.
52How do children learn? Feedback Comes from the outsideFor learning about one’s own responsesNecessary for correcting mistakesFeedback provides learners with information about their responses.-Feedback almost always comes from outside sources.Feedback is necessary to correct mistakes.BE CAREFUL THAT OUR FEEDBACK IS NOT SARCASTIC!SARCASM FROM ADULTS DIRECTED AT A STUDENT KILLS THE LEARNING PROCESS!
53How do children learn? Reinforcement Internal or externalWill influence whether or not behavior will be repeated or learnedReinforcement affects whether the child will repeat the response.Reinforcement may be external (from the environment) or internal (from the child).
54FEEDBACK & REINFORCEMENT May be positive (increases a given response) or negative (decreases a given response)Can motivate a child to learnShould be immediate and promote learning
55MEMORY m Teacher: John, spell Memory can be strengthened. Memory is closely associated with learning.Teacher: John, spell“money.”mNew information can be organized in ways that strengthen their attachment in the child’s memory.
56METACOGNITION What do I know? How do I learn? “Knowing what I know” As children get older, they begin to understand more about how they learn.This is an important component of the learning process.It helps learners recognize their own strengths and weaknesses.
57Motivation increases learning. Effective teachers use strategies that continually motivate their students to learn.Motivation is the key to engaging students in the learning process.Motivation creates enthusiasm and a desire to learn more.
58Anxiety Most of the time anxiety decreases learning. Avoid strategies and techniques that create anxiety.Advance organizers prepares the learner for what is coming and can decrease anxiety about the academic task.
59Learning and Development David Sousa LectureThe emphasis on the lecture should be placed on the strategies that have proved successful for students in special education classes.You will see that the strategies utilized are good teaching approaches that may be used with all students.The video provides useful information about the biology of ALL brains, and and should be viewed from that perspective.The following slides represent notes taken from the lecture.You may also want to add your own.
60Language AcquisitionSome students have problems with language acquisition.Learning a second language is not a disability nor a handicapping condition.Individuals acquire second languages at different rates.
61Reading DifficultiesDifficulty in reading is one of the most common reasons for referral for special education services.A reading problem alone is not indicative of a learning disability.
62Reading DifficultiesChildren with learning disabilities and poor readers respond equally well to instructional programs and techniques in phonemic awareness and phonics.
63Learning Disabilities The definition of learning disability states that the student must have average general ability (cognitive status must be within the average range).
64Discussion Characteristics of students with learning disabilities What strategies were discussed?What are some other strategies?What strategies would you use with some students that you know of?
65Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD is a disorder and not an identified disability under federal or CA state law.Students with ADHD may meet the criteria as Other Health Impaired (OHI) if their educational performance is adversely affected.
66What are the causes of ADHD behavior? Caffeine & other diet contributorsSleep deprivationLack of parental rule enforcementDepressionSome medications
67What are the causes of ADHD behavior? School environmentArbitrarily applied rules of disciplineToo much sitting for the studentsToo much teacher talkRoom too darkNot enough student-teacher interactionOther drugs (i.e., drugs for asthma)
68Managing ADHD Behavior Display a short list of positive rules.Make sure that students understand them.Post the classroom schedule of assignments clearly.Describe specific tasks and due dates.Call attention to any schedule changes.Design a quite workspace that students can use on request.
69Managing ADHD Behavior Seat problem students near positive peer models.Use morning hours for academics.Provide frequent stretch breaks.Use attention-getting devices (e.g., secret signals, color codes, etc.)Do a countdown for the last several minutes of an activity.
70Managing ADHD Behavior If a student begins to get disruptive, divert the student with another activity.Sincerely praise students for constructive behavior.Shift the focus away from competition to contribution, enjoyment, and satisfaction.Contact parents to report good news and build a supportive relationship.
71Hop-To-It Activity for Students EmphasizesSequential acquisition of information….
72School Induced ADHD What may cause school-induced ADHD? What are some strategies that may be used with students who exhibit these behaviors?
73DiscussionStrategies to use with students who display ADHD behaviors
74Language Disorders TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT birth Recognizes other GrammaticaldifferencesPhonemerecognitionMostlanguageactivitymoves to lefthemisphereRecognizesnoun/verbdifferencesAttachesmeaningto wordsRespondsto prosody362430birth61218
75Putting It All Together PhonologyPhonemes (the smallest sounds of language)MorphologyWord formationSyntaxSentence formationSemanticsWord and sentence meaning
76Putting It All Together ProsodyIntonation and rhythm of speechPragmaticsEffective use of language for different purposes, following rules of conversation, and staying on topic
77Language Problems Inability to detect phoneme differences Problems with verbal short-term memoryLong-term memory deficits
78Strategies for Developing Oral Language Skills Talk to the child.Have the child talk back to you.Ask open-ended questions.Solicit longer answers (e.g., answers longer than “fine,” “yes,” “no,” etc.)
79Strategies for Developing Oral Language Skills Have the child describe objects and point to them as they describe them.Have the child describe actions and behaviors.
80Phonemic Awareness Development Play rhyming games.Play the Broken Record Game.Take dictation from a child, write it down and read it back to them
81Phonemic Awareness Development I Spy GameI spy something in this room that is ____________A student in the room responds, goes to stand by the object, and then it is her turn to describe an object (or the teacher may continue to provide the descriptions)NOTE: THE TEACHER MODELS AND STUDENTS RESPOND WITH ORAL LANGUAGE AND WITH THEIR BODIES
82Using Our BodiesBody parts represent the locations of the continents.
83DiscussionStrategies to use with students who show language disorders
84Reading Disorders How the brain reads: Auditory Processing: “What do I hear?”(Phonology)Understanding:“What does it mean?”furry animalthat barksdawgVisual Processing:“What do I see?”(Orthography)dog
85Successful Reading Requires the coordination of three neural networks: Visual processingSound Recognition (Auditory Processing)Word Interpretation
86Reading ProblemsDeficits in phoneme awareness and the alphabetic principleProblems in visual acquisitionWord meaning problems
87Story Maps _____Name of Story _____Problem/Main Idea _____Main Persons _____Main Character_____How is the problem resolved?
88Reading Strategies Previewing Predicting Search for key words Explain to your neighbor
92For Students Who Already Have Some Writing Skill Writing StrategiesFor Students Who Already Have Some Writing SkillPower StrategyP – Plan the paperO – Organize a draftW – Write a draftE – Edit the draftR – Review the work
93DiscussionDiscuss strategies.What are some others?
94Mathematical Disorders CalculationsFrontal LobeParietal LobeMore complex calculationsOther brain areas are activated
95Dyscalculia Poor ability to do calculations: Problems with counting numbersProblems with arithmetic skillsLeft hemisphere problemsDeficits in long-term memoryProblems with working memoryVisual-spatial deficitsRight hemisphere
96Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills Follow sequential directions.Recognize patterns.Estimate by forming a reasonable guess about quantity, size, magnitude, and amountVisualize pictures in one’s mind and manipulate them.
97Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills Have a good sense of spatial orientation and space organization, including telling left from right, compass directions, horizontal and vertical directions, etc.
98Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills Do deductive reasoning, that is, reason from a general principle to a particular instance, or from a stated premise to a logical conclusion.
99Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills Do inductive reasoning, that is, come to a natural understanding that is not the result of conscious attention or reasoning, easily detecting the patterns in different situations and the interrelationships between procedures and concepts.
100Mathematics Strategies Shorten the way that math is taught.Shorten the time relationship between learning numbers and learning number concepts.Use more manipulatives.
101Mathematics Strategies Emphasize patterns in math.Build on the student’s strengths.Use novelty.
102An ending thought Tell me what you expect of me. Give me the opportunity to perform.Let me know how I am getting along.Give me guidance where I need it.Reward me according to my contribution.Paul “Bear” Bryant