Presentation on theme: "Content Analysis Michelle Dymerski Pitzer College 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Content Analysis Michelle Dymerski Pitzer College 2009
Definition Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as, "any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages"
Keys to success Word frequency counts are most effective when a keyword is looked at in its context What makes the technique particularly rich and meaningful is its reliance on coding and categorizing of the data. A category is a group of words with similar meaning or connotations Categories must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive
Emergent Coding First, two people independently review the material and come up with a set of features that form a checklist. Second, the researchers compare notes and reconcile any differences that show up on their initial checklists. Third, the researchers use a consolidated checklist to independently apply coding. Fourth, the researchers check the reliability of the coding.
Example Dear Mrs. Roosevelt I am writing to you for some of your old soiled dresses if you have any. As I am a poor girl who has to stay out of school. On account of dresses & slips and a coat. I am in the seventh grade but I have to stay out of school because I have no books or clothes to ware. I am in need of dresses & slips and a coat very bad. If you have any soiled clothes that you don't want to ware I would be very glad to get them. But please do not let the news paper reporters get hold of this in any way and I will keep it from geting out here so there will be no one else to get hold of it. But do not let my name get out in the paper. I am thirteen years old. Yours Truly, Miss L. H. Gravette, Ark. R #3 c/o A. H.
Reliability Stability, or intra-rater reliability. Can the same coder get the same results try after try? Reproducibility, or inter-rater reliability. Do coding schemes lead to the same text being coded in the same category by different people?
Obama U.N. Speech 1) Form a check list of key ideas from the text 2) Compare your checklist with a colleague and decide upon a final set of categories. ( this becomes your coding scheme ) 3) Apply the coding scheme to the text Assign each sentence to ONE category. (highlighter/ cut & paste etc..) 4) Check reliability by comparing with colleague
Discussion How does the task of coding a document enrich the dialogue? Does this build literacy? Does this build content? Could you use this in your classroom?