3The 20’s: an age of transition World War I and After"The world must be made safe for democracy" Woodrow Wilson the President had declared, "Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundation of political liberty." --- a spirit of idealism Americans entered the war in 1917.America fought for approx. a year and a half and lost just over 100,000 men to the war (about 40,000 due to influenza pandemic).War and industrial revolution incredibly vitalized the economy/1918 the war had been won but nothing worth winning had been gained, because idealism had been used-up, that caused uneasy feelings and a general disillusionment among the people which caused nervousness: racism, intolerance, violence, Ku Klux Klan, immigrants, political intolerance "ghost of bolshevism" behind every form of social protest/ strikes.
4The 20’s: an age of transition World War I and AfterThere was a general disillusionment among the people which caused nervousness: racism, intolerance, violence, Ku Klux Klan, immigrants, political intolerance1922 foreign policy of Isolationism1929 Stock Market Crash1932 New Deal era1918 the war had been won but nothing worth winning had been gained, because idealism had been used-up, that caused uneasy feelings and a general disillusionment among the people which caused nervousness: racism, intolerance, violence, Ku Klux Klan, immigrants, political intolerance "ghost of bolshevism" behind every form of social protest/ strikes.
5Post WWI Standard of living increased for most Americans abandoned small towns in exchange for urban livingEconomy prospered as Americans tried to forget troubles of war- frivolous spending- illegal liquor- immorality
6The 1920s: Nicknames The Roaring ‘20s The Jazz Age The Flapper Era The Aspirin AgeThe Age of Wonderful Nonsense
81920’s Context WWI made Americans question traditional ideals. Literature and art denied foundations of the past and went for the new.The philosophy of the Jazz Age was called “modernism."
9ModernismModernism was an artistic trend that sought to find new ways to communicateWriters stripped away descriptions of characters and setting and avoided direct statements of themes and resolutionsThis “fragmented” style of writing enabled the reader to choose meaning for himself, believing life had no meaning.
10Roaring Twenties Economy booming America partied Organized crime Prohibition ActDecline of moral standardsDecline or destiny? Period between wars.
11OPTIMISM business, change and innovation, laissez faire- economy rapid growth of industry and mechanization: unlimited progress: electricity, automobile, telephoneeven skeptics believe in progress and in solving of problems: new" Golden Age" for AmericaView of contemporaries
12CRITICS they called the decade "decline and degradation" Americans are caught up in a "surge of materialism", people who had failed to grasp the meaning and significance of life.they feel disillusioned or disenchanted, they lost faith in life and in the possibility of social progress that caused their absolute lack of interest in politics.Mainly from literary intellectuals
13SOCIAL ATMOSPHERE OF CHANGE relaxing of structures within the sphere of private and public moralityrelationship between the sexeschange of the status of women
14SPIRIT OF THE 1920’s urbanization and the move away from the land fascination with the dream of successdevelopment of the cinema as a medium of entertainmentpopularity of jazzincreased mobility brought about by the mass produced automobile
15The Jazz Age Prohibition was in effect Dances such as the Charleston were popularPopular sayings included 23 Skidoo, Bee’s KneesEconomy was in a “Boom”
16PROHIBITIONthe 18th Amendment(1919)prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol.although alcohol was illegal it was distributed through" bootleggers"bootlegging means the production and sale of liquor.alcohol was served in illegal night-clubs which were called a "speakeasy."it was the time of famous gangsters like Al Capone and events like the St. Valentine's Day massacre happened. During that time the Mafia became important in American society.In "The Great Gatsby" Jay Gatsby is suspected to be a bootlegger and a murderer. And Meyer Wolfshiem is said to have "fixed the World's Series" in Even Jordan Baker is someone who cheated at playing golf. Illegal gambling and bootlegging led to wide-spread corruption in the United States at that time. Prohibition is not taken seriously in "The Great Gatsby": in almost every chapter alcoholic drinks are offered.
17The FlappersFlappers were women who rebelled against the fashion and social norms of the early 1900’s.They married at a later age and drank and smoked inpublicFlappers were known for their carefree lifestyles.
18Flapper FashionFlappers dressed in shapeless dresses that came to the knee.Dresses were made to look “boy-like”Gender bending was common. Women would try to make themselves look more man-like.
19THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN The 19th Amendment(1920) gave women the right to vote.during the Twenties 9 million women were employed and earned money on their own, many younger women used their money to enjoy themselveswomen bobbed their hairthey were able to drink and smoke in public. For the first time female alcoholism is a major problem.the liberated young women were called" flappers" In The Great Gatsby Jordan Baker is such a new type of woman. She is living alone and has equal relationships to men. She is self-confident in dealing with others. Tom comments on her new freedom as a woman.The role of women changed – their behavior, looks, and aims connected to the 20th century speed.World War I brought about the first step towards a new role of women in American society. During the war women were employed in all jobs of the work force because of the manpower shortage. Then during the twenties they had found entrance to business and politics though in the very minority. In the work sector about ten million women earned money themselves now .Suffrage In 1920 women's suffrage was finally fixed throughout the United States: The right ... to vote shall not be denied or abridged ... on account of sex. The Nineteenths Amendment didn't effect American politics.Behavior But the relations between the sexes changed radically during the decade. Prohibition of alcohol reshaped into secret fun: men and women began drinking together at private cocktail parties which replaced the illegal saloon. Women started smoking. For those who could afford it the automobile became a further means of liberation. And they enjoyed sports like golf. On Saturday afternoon quite a few also attended the Big Game, watched football. The new dancing style expressed a new joy of life. The new woman revolted against being treated as a love object or male property. Feminist leaders fought against the general idea of women as a mother and housewife. The conduct shows the disintegration of the values and customs of the older generations.Looks And just as well the looks of the young women experienced drastic change. Girls had their hair cut short like boys (in a bob) and went hatless. They wore short shirts or dresses and their coats reached only to their knees. These young women were known as flappers.SexSexual relations were now more like open discussions. Some feminists denounced sexuality as a male problem. Some men described women as becoming frigid and masculine.
20FACTS ABOUT THE DECADE 106,521,537 people in the United States 2,132,000 unemployed, Unemployment 5.2%Life expectancy: Male 53.6, Female 54.6in military (down from 1,172,601 in 1919)Average annual earnings $1236; Teacher's salary $970Illiteracy rate reached a new low of 6% of the population.Gangland crime included murder, swindles, racketeeringIt took 13 days to reach California from New York There were 387,000 miles of paved road.
21Historical Connections F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote and set The Great Gatsby in the United States in the 1920s.The novel chronicles an era that Fitzgerald himself dubbed the "Jazz Age." Following the shock and chaos of World War I, American society enjoyed unprecedented levels of prosperity during the "roaring" 1920s as the economy soared.At the same time, Prohibition, the ban on the sale and manufacture of alcohol made millionaires out of bootleggers and led to an increase in organized crime.Although Fitzgerald, like Nick Carraway in his novel, idolized the riches and glamor of the age, he was uncomfortable with the unrestrained materialism and the lack of morality that went with it.
22Conspicuous Consumption This term was originally coined to refer to the rise & power of extremely rich businessmen, who displayed their wealth in ostentatious houses & extravagant behaviour.This was invariably wasteful & implied increasing poverty among the lower classes in society.
23Who is F. Scott Fitzgerald? Born in 1896, in St. Paul, Minnesota.He attended Princeton University.1917 joined the army.Met his wife Zelda.Published The Great Gatsby at 23 in 1925.Regarded as the speaker of the Jazz Age.Drinking and wife’s schizophreniaDied in 1940.
24Facts on F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald's full name was Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald. He was named after his second cousin three times removed who was also the author of the United States' National AnthemThe Great Gatsby was written in the summer of 1924 when Fitzgerald was in FranceHis wife, Zelda Sayre was the daughter of an Alabama Supreme Court judgeF. Scott Fitzgerald worked for a very short time on Gone with the WindFitzgerald's most famous work was The Great Gatsby even though he made most of his income from magazine articles and stories
25F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Impact on Society Fitzgerald named the 1920’s “The Jazz Age”Wrote screenplays for Metro-Goldwyn-MayerCreated the The Great Gatsby which is said to be the most accurate description of the 1920’s
26Characters of The Great Gatsby Jay Gatsby- The self-made wealthy man who lives next door to Nick Carraway and loves Daisy Buchanan
27Characters of The Great Gatsby Nick Carraway- the narrator, Daisy’s cousin, Gatsby’s neighbor
28Characters in The Great Gatsby Daisy Buchanan- married to Tom, Gatsby’s love interest before the war, socialite
29Characters in The Great Gatsby Tom Buchanan- Daisy’s husband, has an affair with MyrtleMyrtle Wilson- Tom’s woman in the city, married to GeorgeGeorge Wilson- owns the gas stationJordan Baker- Daisy’s friend, professional golfer
30Old Money Vs. New Money New Money: Someone who has achieved the American DreamNot as respected in the 1920’sOld MoneyMoney from family wealthBorn richNot earned through work done by yourselfRespected above all in the 1920’s
31Setting of The Great Gatsby West Egg- where Nick and Gatsby live, represents new moneyEast Egg- where Daisy lives, the more fashionable area, represents old money
32Settings in The Great Gatsby The City- New York City, where the characters escape to for work and playThe Valley of Ashes- between the City and West Egg, where Wilson’s gas station is
34Symbols in The Great Gatsby Green Light- at the end of Daisy’s dock and visible from Gatsby’s mansion. Represents Gatsby's hopes and dreams about Daisy.
35Symbols in The Great Gatsby The Valley of Ashes- the area between West Egg and New York City. It is a desolate area filled with industrial waste. .It represents the social and moral decay of society during the 1920’s. It also shows the negative effects of greed
36Symbols in The Great Gatsby The Eyes of Dr. T. J. Ekleburg- A decaying billboard in the Valley of Ashes with eyes advertising an optometrist. There are multiple proposed meanings, including the representation of God’s moral judgment on society.
37WHAT IS THE AMERICAN DREAM? It describes an attitude of hope and faith that looks forward to the fulfillment of human wishes and desires.“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”These wishes were expressed in Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence.The concept of the American Dream is presented from two different POV
38The American DreamGatsby is the ideal image of one who has achieved the American Dream.What is the American Dream and who has achieved it in our time?
40SPIRITUAL AND MATERIAL IMPROVEMENT Materialism achieved too quickly.Thus, lacking spiritual life/purpose.Gatsby is a character that represents this DREAM.The American Dream relates to a desire for spiritual and material improvement.But what happened was the material aspect clearly outraced the spiritual ideals… it was achieved too quickly. So there emerged a state of material well-being but lacking in spiritual life or purpose.
41FAILURE OF THE AMERICAN DREAM Poverty- the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money.Discrimination-the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or categoryExploitation-treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work.Hypocrisy-practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one's own behavior does not conformCorruption- dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in powerSuppression- forceful prevention; putting down by power or authorityThe American Dream has totally failed to bring any kind of fulfillment, whether spiritual or material.For all the progress and prosperity, for all the declaration of democratic principles, there are still poverty, discrimination, exploitationAs far as morality and values, there are also hypocrisy, cu=corruption and suppression.The Great Gatsby also comments on this. Condition.
42How is this developed? Through the 5 central characters Through certain dominant images and symbolsThrough diction.
43Pre-reading: 1.Why are we still reading a book written in the 1920’s? What gives a book its longevity?2.How was the 1920’s a reaction to WWI?3.Some people think that having money leads to happiness. Do you agree? Why or why not? What are the advantages or disadvantages of being wealthy.4.What is the "American Dream"? Where did it originate, and how has it changed over the centuries?5.Have you ever wanted to relive a moment from your past, to redo it? Describe the situation. How and why would you change the past?