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The Great Gatsby: The 1920s and the AmericanDream.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Gatsby: The 1920s and the AmericanDream."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Great Gatsby: The 1920s and the AmericanDream

3 A Quick Introduction…

4 The 20s: an age of transition World War I and After "The world must be made safe for democracy" Woodrow Wilson the President had declared, "Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundation of political liberty." --- a spirit of idealism Americans entered the war in America fought for approx. a year and a half and lost just over 100,000 men to the war (about 40,000 due to influenza pandemic). War and industrial revolution incredibly vitalized the economy/

5 The 20s: an age of transition World War I and After There was a general disillusionment among the people which caused nervousness: racism, intolerance, violence, Ku Klux Klan, immigrants, political intolerance 1922 foreign policy of Isolationism 1929 Stock Market Crash 1932 New Deal era

6 Post WWI Standard of living increased for most Standard of living increased for most Americans abandoned small towns in exchange for urban living Americans abandoned small towns in exchange for urban living Economy prospered as Americans tried to forget troubles of war Economy prospered as Americans tried to forget troubles of war - frivolous spending - illegal liquor - immorality

7 The 1920s: Nicknames The Roaring 20s The Roaring 20s The Jazz Age The Jazz Age The Flapper Era The Flapper Era The Aspirin Age The Aspirin Age The Age of Wonderful Nonsense The Age of Wonderful Nonsense

8 Fitzgeralds View of the 1920s

9 1920s Context WWI made Americans question traditional ideals. Literature and art denied foundations of the past and went for the new. The philosophy of the Jazz Age was called modernism."

10 Modernism Modernism was an artistic trend that sought to find new ways to communicate Modernism was an artistic trend that sought to find new ways to communicate Writers stripped away descriptions of characters and setting and avoided direct statements of themes and resolutions Writers stripped away descriptions of characters and setting and avoided direct statements of themes and resolutions This fragmented style of writing enabled the reader to choose meaning for himself, believing life had no meaning. This fragmented style of writing enabled the reader to choose meaning for himself, believing life had no meaning.

11 Roaring Twenties Economy booming Economy booming America partied America partied Organized crime Organized crime Prohibition Act Prohibition Act Decline of moral standards Decline of moral standards

12 OPTIMISM business, change and innovation, laissez faire- economy business, change and innovation, laissez faire- economy rapid growth of industry and mechanization: unlimited progress: electricity, automobile, telephone rapid growth of industry and mechanization: unlimited progress: electricity, automobile, telephone even skeptics believe in progress and in solving of problems: new" Golden Age" for America even skeptics believe in progress and in solving of problems: new" Golden Age" for America

13 CRITICS they called the decade "decline and degradation" they called the decade "decline and degradation" Americans are caught up in a "surge of materialism", people who had failed to grasp the meaning and significance of life. Americans are caught up in a "surge of materialism", people who had failed to grasp the meaning and significance of life. they feel disillusioned or disenchanted, they lost faith in life and in the possibility of social progress that caused their absolute lack of interest in politics. they feel disillusioned or disenchanted, they lost faith in life and in the possibility of social progress that caused their absolute lack of interest in politics.

14 SOCIAL ATMOSPHERE OF CHANGE relaxing of structures within the sphere of private and public morality relaxing of structures within the sphere of private and public morality relationship between the sexes relationship between the sexes change of the status of women change of the status of women

15 SPIRIT OF THE 1920s urbanization and the move away from the land urbanization and the move away from the land fascination with the dream of success fascination with the dream of success development of the cinema as a medium of entertainment development of the cinema as a medium of entertainment popularity of jazz popularity of jazz increased mobility brought about by the mass produced automobile increased mobility brought about by the mass produced automobile

16 The Jazz Age Prohibition was in effect Prohibition was in effect Dances such as the Charleston were popular Dances such as the Charleston were popular Popular sayings included 23 Skidoo, Bees Knees Popular sayings included 23 Skidoo, Bees Knees Economy was in a Boom Economy was in a Boom

17 PROHIBITION the 18th Amendment(1919)prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol. the 18th Amendment(1919)prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol. although alcohol was illegal it was distributed through" bootleggers" although alcohol was illegal it was distributed through" bootleggers" bootlegging means the production and sale of liquor. bootlegging means the production and sale of liquor. alcohol was served in illegal night-clubs which were called a "speakeasy." alcohol was served in illegal night-clubs which were called a "speakeasy." it was the time of famous gangsters like Al Capone and events like the St. Valentine's Day massacre happened. During that time the Mafia became important in American society. it was the time of famous gangsters like Al Capone and events like the St. Valentine's Day massacre happened. During that time the Mafia became important in American society.

18 The Flappers Flappers were women who rebelled against the fashion and social norms of the early 1900s. Flappers were women who rebelled against the fashion and social norms of the early 1900s. They married at a later age and drank and smoked inpublic They married at a later age and drank and smoked inpublic Flappers were known for their carefree lifestyles. Flappers were known for their carefree lifestyles.

19 Flapper Fashion Flappers dressed in shapeless dresses that came to the knee. Flappers dressed in shapeless dresses that came to the knee. Dresses were made to look boy-like Dresses were made to look boy-like Gender bending was common. Women would try to make themselves look more man-like. Gender bending was common. Women would try to make themselves look more man-like.

20 THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN The 19th Amendment(1920) gave women the right to vote. The 19th Amendment(1920) gave women the right to vote. during the Twenties 9 million women were employed and earned money on their own, many younger women used their money to enjoy themselves during the Twenties 9 million women were employed and earned money on their own, many younger women used their money to enjoy themselves women bobbed their hair women bobbed their hair they were able to drink and smoke in public. For the first time female alcoholism is a major problem. they were able to drink and smoke in public. For the first time female alcoholism is a major problem. the liberated young women were called" flappers" In The Great Gatsby Jordan Baker is such a new type of woman. She is living alone and has equal relationships to men. She is self-confident in dealing with others. Tom comments on her new freedom as a woman. the liberated young women were called" flappers" In The Great Gatsby Jordan Baker is such a new type of woman. She is living alone and has equal relationships to men. She is self-confident in dealing with others. Tom comments on her new freedom as a woman.

21 FACTS ABOUT THE DECADE 106,521,537 people in the United States 106,521,537 people in the United States 2,132,000 unemployed, Unemployment 5.2% 2,132,000 unemployed, Unemployment 5.2% Life expectancy: Male 53.6, Female 54.6 Life expectancy: Male 53.6, Female in military (down from 1,172,601 in 1919) in military (down from 1,172,601 in 1919) Average annual earnings $1236; Teacher's salary $970 Average annual earnings $1236; Teacher's salary $970 Illiteracy rate reached a new low of 6% of the population. Illiteracy rate reached a new low of 6% of the population. Gangland crime included murder, swindles, racketeering Gangland crime included murder, swindles, racketeering It took 13 days to reach California from New York There were 387,000 miles of paved road. It took 13 days to reach California from New York There were 387,000 miles of paved road.

22 Historical Connections F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote and set The Great Gatsby in the United States in the 1920s. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote and set The Great Gatsby in the United States in the 1920s. United States1920s United States1920s The novel chronicles an era that Fitzgerald himself dubbed the "Jazz Age." Following the shock and chaos of World War I, American society enjoyed unprecedented levels of prosperity during the "roaring" 1920s as the economy soared. The novel chronicles an era that Fitzgerald himself dubbed the "Jazz Age." Following the shock and chaos of World War I, American society enjoyed unprecedented levels of prosperity during the "roaring" 1920s as the economy soared.novelJazz Age World War IroaringnovelJazz Age World War Iroaring At the same time, Prohibition, the ban on the sale and manufacture of alcohol made millionaires out of bootleggers and led to an increase in organized crime. At the same time, Prohibition, the ban on the sale and manufacture of alcohol made millionaires out of bootleggers and led to an increase in organized crime.Prohibition bootleggersorganized crimeProhibition bootleggersorganized crime Although Fitzgerald, like Nick Carraway in his novel, idolized the riches and glamor of the age, he was uncomfortable with the unrestrained materialism and the lack of morality that went with it. Although Fitzgerald, like Nick Carraway in his novel, idolized the riches and glamor of the age, he was uncomfortable with the unrestrained materialism and the lack of morality that went with it.materialism

23 Conspicuous Consumption This term was originally coined to refer to the rise & power of extremely rich businessmen, who displayed their wealth in ostentatious houses & extravagant behaviour. This term was originally coined to refer to the rise & power of extremely rich businessmen, who displayed their wealth in ostentatious houses & extravagant behaviour. This was invariably wasteful & implied increasing poverty among the lower classes in society. This was invariably wasteful & implied increasing poverty among the lower classes in society.

24 Who is F. Scott Fitzgerald? Born in 1896, in St. Paul, Minnesota. Born in 1896, in St. Paul, Minnesota. He attended Princeton University. He attended Princeton University joined the army joined the army. Met his wife Zelda. Met his wife Zelda. Published The Great Gatsby at 23 in Published The Great Gatsby at 23 in Regarded as the speaker of the Jazz Age. Regarded as the speaker of the Jazz Age. Drinking and wifes schizophrenia Drinking and wifes schizophrenia Died in Died in 1940.

25 Facts on F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald's full name was Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald. He was named after his second cousin three times removed who was also the author of the United States' National Anthem F. Scott Fitzgerald's full name was Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald. He was named after his second cousin three times removed who was also the author of the United States' National Anthem The Great Gatsby was written in the summer of 1924 when Fitzgerald was in France The Great Gatsby was written in the summer of 1924 when Fitzgerald was in France His wife, Zelda Sayre was the daughter of an Alabama Supreme Court judge His wife, Zelda Sayre was the daughter of an Alabama Supreme Court judge F. Scott Fitzgerald worked for a very short time on Gone with the Wind F. Scott Fitzgerald worked for a very short time on Gone with the Wind Fitzgerald's most famous work was The Great Gatsby even though he made most of his income from magazine articles and stories Fitzgerald's most famous work was The Great Gatsby even though he made most of his income from magazine articles and stories

26 F. Scott Fitzgeralds Impact on Society Fitzgerald named the 1920s The Jazz Age Fitzgerald named the 1920s The Jazz Age Wrote screenplays for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Wrote screenplays for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Created the The Great Gatsby which is said to be the most accurate description of the 1920s Created the The Great Gatsby which is said to be the most accurate description of the 1920s

27 Characters of The Great Gatsby Jay Gatsby- The self-made wealthy man who lives next door to Nick Carraway and loves Daisy Buchanan Jay Gatsby- The self-made wealthy man who lives next door to Nick Carraway and loves Daisy Buchanan

28 Characters of The Great Gatsby Nick Carraway- the narrator, Daisys cousin, Gatsbys neighbor Nick Carraway- the narrator, Daisys cousin, Gatsbys neighbor

29 Characters in The Great Gatsby Daisy Buchanan- married to Tom, Gatsbys love interest before the war, socialite Daisy Buchanan- married to Tom, Gatsbys love interest before the war, socialite

30 Characters in The Great Gatsby Tom Buchanan- Daisys husband, has an affair with Myrtle Tom Buchanan- Daisys husband, has an affair with Myrtle Myrtle Wilson- Toms woman in the city, married to George Myrtle Wilson- Toms woman in the city, married to George George Wilson- owns the gas station George Wilson- owns the gas station Jordan Baker- Daisys friend, professional golfer Jordan Baker- Daisys friend, professional golfer

31 Old Money Vs. New Money New Money: New Money: Someone who has achieved the American Dream Someone who has achieved the American Dream Not as respected in the 1920s Not as respected in the 1920s Old Money Old Money Money from family wealth Money from family wealth Born rich Born rich Not earned through work done by yourself Not earned through work done by yourself Respected above all in the 1920s Respected above all in the 1920s

32 Setting of The Great Gatsby West Egg- where Nick and Gatsby live, represents new money West Egg- where Nick and Gatsby live, represents new money East Egg- where Daisy lives, the more fashionable area, represents old money

33 Settings in The Great Gatsby The City- New York City, where the characters escape to for work and play The City- New York City, where the characters escape to for work and play The Valley of Ashes- between the City and West Egg, where Wilsons gas station is The Valley of Ashes- between the City and West Egg, where Wilsons gas station is

34 The Real Gold Coast

35 Symbols in The Great Gatsby Green Light- at the end of Daisys dock and visible from Gatsbys mansion. Represents Gatsby's hopes and dreams about Daisy. Green Light- at the end of Daisys dock and visible from Gatsbys mansion. Represents Gatsby's hopes and dreams about Daisy.

36 Symbols in The Great Gatsby The Valley of Ashes- the area between West Egg and New York City. It is a desolate area filled with industrial waste.. The Valley of Ashes- the area between West Egg and New York City. It is a desolate area filled with industrial waste.. It represents the social and moral decay of society during the 1920s. It also shows the negative effects of greed

37 Symbols in The Great Gatsby The Eyes of Dr. T. J. Ekleburg- A decaying billboard in the Valley of Ashes with eyes advertising an optometrist. There are multiple proposed meanings, including the representation of Gods moral judgment on society. The Eyes of Dr. T. J. Ekleburg- A decaying billboard in the Valley of Ashes with eyes advertising an optometrist. There are multiple proposed meanings, including the representation of Gods moral judgment on society.

38 WHAT IS THE AMERICAN DREAM? It describes an attitude of hope and faith that looks forward to the fulfillment of human wishes and desires. It describes an attitude of hope and faith that looks forward to the fulfillment of human wishes and desires. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

39 The American Dream Gatsby is the ideal image of one who has achieved the American Dream. Gatsby is the ideal image of one who has achieved the American Dream. What is the American Dream and who has achieved it in our time? What is the American Dream and who has achieved it in our time?

40 Achieving the American Dream

41 SPIRITUAL AND MATERIAL IMPROVEMENT Materialism achieved too quickly. Materialism achieved too quickly. Thus, lacking spiritual life/purpose. Thus, lacking spiritual life/purpose. Gatsby is a character that represents this DREAM. Gatsby is a character that represents this DREAM.

42 FAILURE OF THE AMERICAN DREAM Poverty- the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty- the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. Discrimination- the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category Discrimination- the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category Exploitation- treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work. Exploitation- treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work. Hypocrisy- practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one's own behavior does not conform Hypocrisy- practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one's own behavior does not conform Corruption- dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power Corruption- dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power Suppression- forceful prevention; putting down by power or authority Suppression- forceful prevention; putting down by power or authority

43 How is this developed? Through the 5 central characters Through the 5 central characters Through certain dominant images and symbols Through certain dominant images and symbols Through diction. Through diction.

44 Pre-reading: 1.Why are we still reading a book written in the 1920s? What gives a book its longevity? 2.How was the 1920s a reaction to WWI? 3.Some people think that having money leads to happiness. Do you agree? Why or why not? What are the advantages or disadvantages of being wealthy. 4.What is the "American Dream"? Where did it originate, and how has it changed over the centuries? 5.Have you ever wanted to relive a moment from your past, to redo it? Describe the situation. How and why would you change the past?


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