Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Life of the 1920s U.S. History Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:
The Roaring Life of the 1920s U.S. History Chapter 13
Section 1 - Changing Ways of Life Many people were living in cities. The New Urban Scene – Jobs – day. Movies, vaudeville theaters at night. – City life challenging, impersonal.
The Prohibition Experience 18 th Amendment – banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. Takes affect in January Was unenforceable. Volstead Act – set up to enforce Prohibition, underfunded.
Hidden saloons and nightclubs – speakeasies. Bootleggers – smugglers of alcohol.
Organized Crime Al Capone – Chicago - 6 years of gang warfare – bootlegging - $60 million/year. He killed off his competition while traveling around in his armor-plated car with bulletproof windows. Public Enemy Number One Went to jail for tax evasion Crimes led to prostitution, gambling, drugs. Harassed honest merchants in to paying them for protection from other gangs, or they would smash their stores. By 1930, the annual take for the underworld was between $12 to $18 billion/year.
By mid 20s only 19% support Prohibition – repealed with the 21 st Amendment.
Science and Religion Clash Fundamentalism – protestant movement grounded in a literal interpretation of the Bible. Rejected Charles Darwins theory of evolution In the South – lots of revivals, led by people like Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson
The Scopes Trial TN -crime to teach evolution. ACLU – promised to defend any teacher who wanted to protest it. – John Scopes – They hired Clarence Darrow as his lawyer. – William Jennings Bryan - prosecutor.
Scopes Trial – also called the Monkey Trial – role of science and religion in public schools and society. Bryan called to the stand as an expert on the Bible. On the stand Bryan admitted the Bible could be interpreted different ways. Scopes found guilty, fined $100. Later changed, but law teaching evolution remained in effect.
Section 2 The Twenties Woman Women – independent, rejecting the values of the 19 th century. The Flapper – liberated young women embracing new fashions and urban attitudes. Hats, short dresses, beads, short dyed hair. Smoked, drank, danced. Saw marriage as an equal partnership. Casual dating - more acceptable.
Women Shed Old roles at Home and at Work New opportunities for women in the workplace – nurses, teachers, librarians, clerical work.
The Changing Family Birthrate decreased. More birth control available. Margaret Sanger – founded American Birth Control League. Household life easier thanks to things that could be bought in stores. Working women juggling home and work.
Section 3 Education and Popular Culture 1914 – 1 million attending high school 1926 – 4 million attending high school Why? High educational standards for industrial jobs, offering more courses. Also states were requiring young people to remain in school until age 16 or 18. Literacy increased as education increased
Radio Comes of Age November 1920 – Pittsburgh station KDKA broadcast the new of the Harding landslide. By late 1920s improvements had been made that allowed long-distance broadcasting possible. Created the experience of hearing the news together as it happened, like hearing the President speak, or sporting events like boxing or the World Series. Families gathered around the radio to listen to programming.
America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams $4.5 billion spend on entertainment Babe Ruth Andrew Rube Foster – founded Negro National League Helen Willis – tennis Charles Lindbergh - Spirit of St. Louis Amelia Earhart
Entertainment and the Arts Movies popular – 1903 – first movie – The Great Train Robbery. First full length movie – The Birth of a Nation (1915) First talkie – The Jazz Singer (1927) George Gershwin – concert musician Painters – Edward Hoper and Georgia OKeeffe
Writers of the 1920s 1920s – one of the richest eras in literary history Sinclair Lewis F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway William Faulkner Poetry – Ezra Pound and T.S. Elliot
Section Four – The Harlem Renaissance Marcus Garvey – Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) – Promote African American businesses – Encouraged followers to return to Africa Convicted of mail fraud and jailed
The Harlem Renaissance A literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture Writers: – Claude McKay – Langston Hughes – poet Performers: – Paul Robeson – actor – Louis Armstrong – jazz – Duke Ellington – jazz pianist and composer – Bessie Smith – blues singer