Presentation on theme: "George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS"— Presentation transcript:
1 Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports & Response-to-Intervention George SugaiOSEP Center on PBISCenter for Behavioral Education & ResearchUniversity of ConnecticutJune
2 PURPOSEExamination of current SWPBS data practices, systems, & outcomes in context of “responsiveness-to-intervention”Keynote overview: AllFollow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluatorsCoaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluatorsBrief History & RationalePBIS FoundationsRtIData
3 Problem Statement“We give schools strategies & systems for improving practice & outcomes, but implementation is not accurate, consistent, or durable, & desired outcomes aren’t realized. School personnel & teams need more than exposure, practice, & enthusiasm.”
6 ReikoAssessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, in last 4 weeks her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher.What would you do?
7 Kiyoshi What would you do? Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student.What would you do?
8 MitchMitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly.What would you do?
9 Rachel What would you do? Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it.What would you do?
10 Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… ASSESS these situationsDevelop behavior intervention PLANS based on our assessmentMONITOR student progress & make enhancementsAll in ways that can be culturally & contextually APPROPRIATEContext Matters!Crone & Horner, 2003; Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2007
11 “159 Days”Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.Reiko is in this school!
12 5,100 referrals =76,500 min =1,275 hrs =159 8 hrs
13 Kiyoshi is in this school! “Da place to be”During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell.Kiyoshi is in this school!
14 “Cliques”During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups.Mitch is in this school!
15 Rachel is in this school! “4 Corners”Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners.Rachel is in this school!
16 Emphasis on punishment 1980s SW Discipline ProblemReactiveNon-constructiveEmphasis on punishmentPoor implementation fidelityLimited effects“Drowning Frogs”“Green to Yellow to Red” Cards“Full to partial to limited” privileges
17 “Big Ideas” from Early Years Teach & recognize behavior directly, school-wideColvin & Sugai (1992)Focus adult behavior in team-based SW action planningColvin, Kame’enui, & Sugai (1993)Consider ALL as foundation for some by establishing local behavioral expertiseSugai & Horner (1994)Integrate evidence-based practices in 3-tiered prevention logicWalker, Horner, Sugai, Bullis, Sprague, Bricker, & Kaufman (1996)
19 23 ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTFEW~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%SOMEPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings23ALL~80% of Students
20 Prevention Logic for All Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996Decrease development of new problem behaviorsPrevent worsening & reduce intensity of existing problem behaviorsEliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviorsTeach, monitor, & acknowledge prosocial behaviorRedesign of teaching environments…not students
21 SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is for enhancing adoption & implementation ofContinuum of evidence-based interventions to achieveAcademically & behaviorally important outcomes forAll studentsFramework
22 Changing Adult Behavior 1.“Change is slow, difficult, gradual process for teachers2.“Teachers need to receive regular feedback on student learning outcomes”3.“Continued support & follow-up are necessary after initial training”Guskey, 1986, p. 59
23 Supporting Social Competence & IntegratedElementsSupporting Social Competence &Academic AchievementOUTCOMES15SupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
24 Continuum of Support for ALL 23Continuum of Support for ALLUniversalTargetedIntensiveFewSomeNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”AllDec 7, 2007
25 Continuum of Support for ALL “Theora” UniversalTargetedIntensiveMathScienceSpanishReadingNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Soc skillsSoc StudiesBasketballLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
26 Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom”UniversalTargetedIntensiveAnger man.Prob Sol.Ind. playAdult rel.Self-assessNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Baker, 2005 JPBIAttend.Coop playPeer interacLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
34 RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.Reduced major disciplinary infractionsImprovements in academic achievementEnhanced perception of organizational health & safetyImproved school climateReductions in teacher reported bullying behavior
35 Maximum Student Benefits “Making a turn”IMPLEMENTATIONEffectiveNot EffectivePRACTICEMaximum Student BenefitsFixsen & Blase, 2009
36 Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch. Startw/What WorksFocus on FidelityResearch to Practice is dependent on good research.Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.
40 EVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICES SCHOOL-WIDE1. Leadership teamBehavior purpose statementSet of positive expectations & behaviorsProcedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluationEVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICESCLASSROOMAll school-wideMaximum structure & predictability in routines & environmentPositively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised.Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- based instructional curriculum & practicesContinuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior.Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior.INDIVIDUAL STUDENTBehavioral competence at school & district levelsFunction-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodationsNONCLASSROOMPositive expectations & routines taught & encouragedActive supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact)Precorrections & remindersPositive reinforcementFAMILY ENGAGEMENTContinuum of positive behavior support for all familiesFrequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgementsFormal & active participation & involvement as equal partnerAccess to system of integrated school & community resources
41 Responsiveness to Intervention Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Circa 1996
42 ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS TERTIARY PREVENTIONTERTIARY PREVENTIONFunction-based supportWraparoundPerson-centered planning~5%~15%SECONDARY PREVENTIONCheck in/outTargeted social skills instructionPeer-based supportsSocial skills clubSECONDARY PREVENTIONPRIMARY PREVENTIONTeach SW expectationsProactive SW disciplinePositive reinforcementEffective instructionParent engagementPRIMARY PREVENTION~80% of Students