Presentation on theme: "A People of Opportunity"— Presentation transcript:
1 A People of Opportunity The CreeA People of OpportunityAn Investigation By:Thomas HunterAndBrett Israel
2 Schedule of Events Brief Introduction to the Cree What groups make up the Cree?Plains CreeDescription of AppearanceDescription of HomesExplanation of LifestyleRelations with other groupsFoodSpiritualityOral TraditionModern HistoryQ and A
3 The Cree One of largest Aboriginal Tribes in North America Extremely expansive TribeEstimated population in year ,000+The Cree belong to the Algonkian Language familyTribe originated in the James Bay area, first made contact with the French around this location
4 Reason for SeparationUpon initial contact with the European’s, the Cree where thrust into a world of tradeEuropean traders wanted Cree animal hides and fursDue to demand, the central Woodland Cree separated into a number of Sub tribes (7)Sub tribes can be categorized into 3 main groups defined by geographic regionWoods Cree(Saskatchewan and Manitoba)Plains Cree (Saskatchewan and Alberta)Swampy Cree (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec)
7 AppearanceMany of the men would shave off their head hair except for a small patch, however those who didn’t would braid their hair.Their clothes were animal skin with a breech cloth and leggings which were worn in the summer and a more complete buckskin dress in the winter. Their shoes were traditional moccasins and they wore leather and fur mittens in the winter.Cree woman wore long dresses with removable sleeves, along with traditional moccasins and the leather and fur mittens in the winter. Much of their clothing was made from different hides of the animals they hunted and later skinned.
9 HomesCree people pitched camp with large buffalo-hide tents called teepees. Teepees are tents traditionally made of animal skins and wooden poles. Teepees were durable, provided warmth and comfort in the winter, stayed dry during heavy rains, and stayed cool in the heat of summer.Teepees could be disassembled and packed away quickly which was perfect for the Cree Natives because they were nomadic people and were constantly on the move.Cree people would also build ridge pole lodges when settling in for extended periods of time (i.e. Winter)
12 LifestyleCree Natives were strongly associated with the Europeans as traders and hunters in the North American fur tradeThe lived in small nomadic groups for a majority of the summer, and would come back together into larger groups for the winterThey trapped and hunter, deer, beaver, mink, fish, moose, and of course buffalo when present.The Cree were a peaceful people for the most part and can be characterized as hunters for they lived on the Canadian Shield full of abundant wildlife.Cree men were hunters and fisherman, and sometimes went to war to protect their families.Cree woman took care of the children, built their families house and gathered plants to eat and herbs to use for medicine.
13 Trade with EuropeansThe trade with the Europeans was one of factors that caused the Cree to be nomadic (French were not interested in Corn)Trade brought Cree greater wealth and toolsWhile Europeans were new authority figure, few ventured father inland past trading postsThe Cree remained politically sovereign well into their trade with the Europeans
14 Introduction to the Horse The domesticated horse was first introduced to the Cree people in the early 1700’sThey would trade pelts and hides for themHorses not only improved the quality of life for the Cree, but also their efficiency in huntingIt allowed people to cover a far greater area of land faster
15 Relations With other Tribes Cree were very peaceful people as they saw Warfare as a road block in the path to progressThey protected their trade with the Europeans through being extremely efficient with their huntingHowever, certain Cree groups would quarrel with other tribes such as the BlackfootCree aligned themselves with the Assiniboine to help fight the BlackfootWarfare would typically consist of camp raids, introduction of horses added to this
17 Hunting Methods Buffalo was the largest game for the Cree While other animals were killed more for their furs, Buffalo was killed for its meat and other body parts (to be used by Cree)Cree would work in a team to chase buffalo off of a cliff until the fall to their deathThe Cree also created corals (pounds) which they would chase wild Buffalo into in order to kill the Buffalo at a time that suited themTeamwork was critical
19 Food The Cree depended on Buffalo for most of their food Buffalo are very large, weighing over 1000 kgTongue, shoulder, heart and kidneys were all eaten directly after killingThe remaining meat was made into Pemican by the womenPemican is a dried mixture of meat, berries and animal fatIt was a staple for those living on the plains as it was very nutritious and didn’t go badprairie chickens, rabbits, elk, ducks, fish, turnips, blueberries, cranberries and other berries were also all eaten
20 Spirituality Cree had a very complex spiritual view It was a mixture of historical Cree teachings, but it evolved as the people moved into the plains regionAtayohkan are the spirits (also know as Manito) that look after all of the living things that were createdi.e. a Manito looks after the buffaloSimilar to other tribes, the Cree practiced the Vision QuestThe Cree also used conjuring lodges (building where shaman could connect with the Manito
21 Oral TraditionSimilar to other tribes, oral tradition was a key element of the Cree’s culturePlease listen to Thomas and Brett as they pass on the tradition to you
22 Modern HistoryAs European influence continued to grow, the Cree could no longer remain sovereignSoon like other first nation groups, they were forced onto reserves, Buffalo were killed, and the nomadic people were forced to settle downThe missionaries came as wellCree started intermarying with the EuropeansThe conquering of the West was not however without one last stand
23 Red River RebellionThe Red River Rebellion was the sequence of events related to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now Manitoba.Riel and his followers prevented an English speaking governor, William McDougall, from controlling or even entering the Red River Colony.Two of his fellow Cree Native allies included Chief Poundmaker, the chief of the Plains Cree who sent a letter to Louis Riel calling for war. He was later convicted of treason and sent to prison. The other, Chief Big Bear, who did not participate in the conflict led by Riel. Instead he led a series of smaller battles in Saskatchewan, unfortunately Big Bear’s efforts to stop the massacre failed. He was brought to trial in Regina and found guilty of treason.
25 Cree TodayThere are over 200,ooo Cree in North America today with a majority still living in CanadaMany haven given up the nomadic life to settle down in city lifeAboriginal self government and economic development are goals close of the Cree todayt