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THE HISTORY OF WOMENS FASHION Fashion as a reflection of social and political changes.

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1 THE HISTORY OF WOMENS FASHION Fashion as a reflection of social and political changes

2 Directoire and Empire ( ) Classical Greek and Roman images reflected the democratic revolutions of this period. silhouette for women which was long, narrow, uncorsetted, and high-waisted. Initially the color of choice was white, and the fabrics soft cottons, often virtually transparent Shawls and long gloves were introduced to cover bare shoulders and arms; shawls would remain in fashion until the advent of the bustle in the 1880's. Hair might be cut short, and turbans and caps were worn. omantic/romantic.htm

3 Romantic ( ) After 1815 women's dress became increasingly fussy and decorative (full skirts, Severe corseting, layers of petticoats) women were pushed back into a more modest role, befitting the "weaker" sex dress reflected the perception of women as weak and decorative omantic/romantic.htm

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5 Early Victorian ( ) Queen Victoria era The major characteristic of the dress silhouette in this period was the exceptionally full and long skirts that completely shrouded the lower bodyexceptionally full and long skirts hoops were needed to support the skirts The bodice and shoulders were very narrow, accentuating a weak upper body silhouette and tiny waist accentuated by the voluminous skirts 1840s and 1850s deep bonnets were worn that modestly hid the face and neck

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7 Dress Reform… it was also in this period that the first protests against this restrictive form of dress appeared. Dress reform was associated with concern for protecting the health and welfare of women Dress reform An alternative costume was promoted that was based on loose-fitting pants borrowed from traditional Turkish women's costumetraditional Turkish women's costume This costume became known as BloomersBloomers

8 The Sewing Machine Invention In this period the sewing machine was invented, revolutionizing the manufacture of clothing. By the mid 1850s sewing machines were appearing in private homes, and began to account for a substantial proportion of domestic clothing production. This invention also made possible the rise of the ready-to-wear clothing industry.

9 The 1 st Couturier Charles Frederick Worth became established in Paris in this period as the first true couturier-- that is the first dressmaker who would set fashion, not merely follow the instructions of his wealthy clients. Charles Frederick Worth His premier client was the French Empress Eugenie. By the 1870s the well-to- do women of the world came to his salon to be dressed by the great Worth.the French Empress Eugenie.By the 1870s

10 Later Victorian ( ) After the death of her husband in 1861, Victoria went into seclusion somber colors came into fashion (colour of mourning) a new silhouette appeared that accentuated the body while still covering it

11 tightly fitted bodice remained tight narrow skirt in the front, with all the fullness arranged in the back. rear emphasis in dress, typified by the bustlebustle a padded arrangement of drapery that accentuated the buttocks

12 The Working Woman This was a period in which more women were coming out of the home to do volunteer work…start of working women! In this period the women's rights movement (which included suffrage, protection for working women, and dress reform) gained momentumdress reform Since fashionable dress limited mobility, changes in dress were called for to accommodate these new realities.

13 Art Nouveau ( ) Increasing numbers of young unmarried women now worked in shops and offices, and housewives were often active in church work and other community voluntary activities echoed the look of the early Romantic period.

14 the hour-glass figure with its erect posture, stiffly boned collar band, and high shoulders suggested a more formidable image than the slope-shouldered "decorative butterfly" of the 1820s and 1830s.

15 After 1900 clothing was becoming more relaxed as women's lives continued to expand. After 1900 Soft, gauzy fabrics combined with lace became the style, and for special occasions, lightweight white lacy cotton dresses were worn by every one

16 silhouette shifted to the "s" curve of the new corset style Art Nouveau style as we have seen it in furnishings and architecture

17 Early Art Deco ( ) Period of immense social upheaval, particularly for women (Women's movement) the decade of World War I called upon women to step into roles never before filled by women, as men went off to war

18 Between 1911 and 1919, dress forms moved to a narrow, relaxed, almost semi- fitted silhouette Hemlines also began to climb from ankle length The waistline essentially disappeared Tubular silhouette throughout the period this was also a period of great experimentation in fashion--

19 surface embellishment and abstract, graphic design is a general characteristic of art deco design Menswear concepts were used Sweater concept was adopted for women Knits, leather, and rayon for the first time became important fashion materials

20 Late Art Deco ( ) During the depression years of the 1930's fashion was driven by the fantasies of Hollywood women were forced by economics to return to a more traditional life. In the face of mass unemployment, it was generally felt that women should leave the workplace to men

21 draping and intricate seaming learned in the 1920s were now applied to making dresses that clung to the body Soft crepe, chiffon, and satin cut on the bias For evening the bared back was the new erotic zone, replacing the legs of the 1920s

22 The Shirt Dress is Born As the decade advanced, hemlines would rise again. The shirt dress was a new style introduced in this period that would become a classic. Vionnet and Schiaparelli were among the leading designers. Vionnet Schiaparelli

23 Pants for Women! movie stars made it okay for women to wear trousers in public. World War II - women were being encouraged to replace men in the factories and offices clothing generally became more tailored, and frequently borrowed from military looks

24 Padded square shoulders Wartime shortages led to official directives to keep dresses narrow and short, without extra draping and excessive use of fabric. Accessories became important as a way of varying a limited wardrobe The war also provided an opportunity for American designers to establish themselves; previously fashion ideas had emanated mainly from Paris.

25 Post war: the New Look ( ) soldiers returned to take up careers and marry, and women were expected to give up their wartime careers to become homemakers and mothers. there was a move toward a more feminine look also a desire to indulge in luxury, after the years of deprivation and rationing.

26 The French designer Christian Dior introduced the New Look in Long hemlines, narrow shoulders and closely fitted bodices, and full, crinolined skirts Resembled the fashions of the Early Victorian era, which was also a period that focused on domesticity

27 Dior subsequently introduced a narrow long skirt, which gave a figure revealing silhouette not unlike that of The New Look also required a kind of corseting, in the form of the two-way stretch Among the ideals of feminine beauty and style in this period were Marilyn Monroe and Doris Day.

28 Post war: St. Laurent ( ) In 1955 Dior suddenly died, leaving his empire to a 21 year old assistant named Yves St. Laurent he experimented with less closely fitted styles (tubular silhouette) Other influential designers in this period were Givenchy, Claire McCardell and Bonnie Cashin.

29 Among the ideals of the fashionable woman in this period were Audrey Hepburn and Jacqueline Kennedy.

30 An Era of Youth and Change ( ) This was a period dominated by youth, but also by an explosion of political and social revolutions that changed society, and brought about profound changes for everyone. The Civil Rights movement, the Vietnam War, and the Women's movement dominated national attention.

31 Baby Boomers – dominant demographic post war generation known as the "baby boomers" entered college in this period Because of their numbers, their age is the dominant demographic fact in any period following world war II. the characteristics were those of youth-- experimentation, revolution, and innovation Fashions of the period reflected these qualities

32 The Mini Skirt The miniskirt is the quintessential symbol of the 60s For first time fashion came to be dictated not by designers, but instead arose from the street. invention of pantyhose Boots

33 During this period styles ranged from the "space age" look to the mod styles originating in London Variety of ethnic looks ( Zandra Rhodes ) and the colorful influence of psychedelia typified by the prints of Emilio Pucci and others Zandra RhodesEmilio Pucci

34 Maxi Coat By the end of the period, hemlines might be worn anywhere from mid thigh to floor length The average wardrobe would contain mini skirts and floor length ones To keep exposed legs warm, or coordinate with a long skirt, the "maxi" coat became popular at the end of the decade

35 The Pant Suit For the first time the pants suit allowed women to wear pants in professional and even formal situations. Vinyl and double knits were added to the materials available for clothing, along with a number of new synthetic fibres.


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