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Paragraph development by comparison and contrast usually have three patterns to follow: one is to develop through illustrations to show how things are different, another is to discuss similarities only, and still another is to treat both likenesses and differences. We can use all the three patterns or just one of them to show the similarities and/or differences about objects or opinions both in social and academic life. Paragraph Development by Comparison and Contrast
Examine the sample below to see how the paragraph is developed by means of comparison and contrast. People in different countries make different hand gestures. A common example is the gesture of waving farewell. In Italy the palm of the hand is held toward the speaker and the fingers make the motion of drawing the departing person back. In Spain the movement is the same, but the hand is held horizontally. In France, however, the palm is frequently held facing the departing person, and the movement of the hand appears to push the departing person on his way. Similarly, Americans are inclined to show the palm also and move the flattened hand from left to right. Sample Exercises
Ex. 16Read the following paragraph and try to fill in the blanks by choosing from the list of transitions given below. Common transitions for comparison accordinglyat the same time first, second, third, etc. for one thingfurthermore in addition toin fact likewise another besidesequally importantmoreover thentoo Common transitions for contrast different fromin contrast in spite ofon the contrary on the other handnevertheless althoughbut despiteunlike whereasyet
There are both similarities and differences between the tourist- attracting countries Italy and Greece. 1)_____, both the Italians and Greeks are friendly people. 2) _____, the cultural relics of both countries are fascinating: Romes Colosseum and Athens Parthenon are two of the worlds great sights. Both countries offer comfortable tourist accommodations likewise. 3) _____, the luxury hotels in Rome and Athens are all excellent. 4) _____, there are important contrasts between Italy and Greece: 5) _____ dining in Italy can be a memorable experience, food in Greece tends to be wholesome but plain. And the look of each country is different. The Italian countryside is green and lush. 6) _____, the Greek terrain is dry and desertlike. 7) _____ the elegant Italians, the Greek citizen dresses and lives more simply. 8) _____ all these differences, a tourist can expect a delightful holiday in either country. Key
There are both similarities and differences between the tourist- attracting countries Italy and Greece. 1)_____________, both the Italians and Greeks are friendly people. 2) __________, the cultural relics of both countries are fascinating: Romes Colosseum and Athens Parthenon are two of the worlds great sights. Both countries offer comfortable tourist accommodations likewise. 3) ______, the luxury hotels in Rome and Athens are all excellent. 4) ____________, there are important contrasts between Italy and Greece: 5) ________ dining in Italy can be a memorable experience, food in Greece tends to be wholesome but plain. And the look of each country is different. The Italian countryside is green and lush. 6) __________, the Greek terrain is dry and desertlike. 7) ____________ the elegant Italians, the Greek citizen dresses and lives more simply. 8) _________ all these differences, a tourist can expect a delightful holiday in either country. For one thing For another In fact Nevertheless whereas In contrast Different from In spite of
Ex. 17Write a paragraph on one of the following topics, using comparison and contrast to support the topic. 1.Two Modes of Travel: Individual Travel and Package Tour 2.On-line Shopping and Traditional Shopping Reference
Individual travel is usually an independent travel. Most travelers of this kind have to arrange everything the flights, hotels, meals, and sightseeing program themselves. Cumbrous as these things are, they provide you a good chance to contact local people and practice your ability to deal with various unexpected events. The simplest and most comfortable way of traveling at a reasonable price is a package tour. Participants will have their itinerary, hotel accommodation and meals, and sightseeing program booked in advance. A tour guide from the local travel agency will pick you up at the airport. He or she will take care of you and take you to the scenic spots.
A trip itinerary provides the travellers with a general description of program for sightseeing, and usually consists of a tour arrangement and a list of scenic spots for traveller to visit. Such trip itineraries are often seen in newspapers and magazines, and, more and more popular, on the Internet as tour advertisement. Trip Itinerary
The Best of London DateActivities Oct. 8London sightseeing the British Library, the Tower of London, an entertaining tour. Oct. 9Highlights of Westminster Westminster Abbey, Trafalgar Square, the National Gallery. Free time in the late afternoon and a perfect evening for the theater. Oct. 10St Paul's & British Museum a trip to St. Paul's for a tour of the church and the City financial district, the British Museum. After lunch, free time for Covent Garden, shopping, or other sightseeing. (To be continued on next page.) Sample
DateActivities Oct. 11Trip to Windsor a day outside the city, enjoying the Royal Family's castle and grounds at historic Windsor. Oct. 12Greenwich A cruise on the River Thames down to historic Greenwich, a day to explore the National Maritime Museum, Old Royal Observatory, or Cutty Sark clipper ship. Tonight we'll meet for our "last supper" and raise a toast to London. Oct. 13Tour over after breakfast To say our final farewells and head for home or further adventures. Thanks for exploring London with us. Cheers! Exercises Sample
Ex. 18Use the given information to write an itinerary for a 7-day Lhasa tour.
Time: Aug. 15 ~ Aug. 20 Places/spots to visit: Day 1: airport hotel Barkhor Street Bazaar Day 2: the Potala Palace the Norbulingka Park the Sera Monastery Day 3: the Drepung Monastery the Jokhang Temple the Tibetan Traditional Medicine Hospital the Tibetan Traditional Carpet Factory Day 4: Lhasa Shigatse the Tashilhumpo Monastery the New Palace of Panchen Day 5: Shigatse the Yangzhuoyong Lake the Karola snow mountain Lhasa Day 6: hotel airport Reference
The Best of Lhasa DateActivities Aug. 15 Our guide will pick you up at Lhasa airport and transfer to the hotel. Rest of the day is free at leisure to acclimatize yourself to the high latitude or free to explore the Barkhor Street Bazaar. Aug. 16Visit the Potala Palace, the Norbulingka Park and the Sera Monastery. Aug. 17Visit the Drepung Monastery, the Jokhang Temple, the Tibetan Traditional Medicine Hospital and the Tibetan Traditional Carpet Factory. (To be continued on next page.)
The Best of Lhasa DateActivities Aug. 18 Take car to Shigatse and transfer to the hotel. Visit the Tashilhumpo Monastery and the New Palace of Panchen. Aug. 19 Transfer to Lhasa. On the way visit the beautiful Yangzhuoyong Lake and the Karola snow mountain. Check in the hotel again. Aug. 20 See off.