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Masterclass 1 Stratford Grammar School for Girls July 6 th, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Masterclass 1 Stratford Grammar School for Girls July 6 th, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Masterclass 1 Stratford Grammar School for Girls July 6 th, 2010

2 A Brief Introduction to Corpus Linguistics

3 Corpus Linguistics - definition the study of language use in a collection or corpus of texts which is stored and accessed electronically written text or spoken language in transcription purpose is to study naturally occurring language produced by one or many writers or speakers more informative than consulting ones own intuition, or asking people what they do quantitative – counts show which words and features are common/ typical, and which are rare used as basis for decisions and descriptions by linguists, teachers, learners, lexicographers, translators (e.g. Collins Cobuild Dictionary)

4 Precursor to modern-day electronic corpora 1959 - Survey of English Usage (SEU) - UCL, London - 200 text samples, 5,000 wds - speech and writing - stored on cards - in chests of drawers

5 Some modern-day corpora small, finite, static corpora 1961 - Brown corpus; 1 mill. words1961 1967 - LOB corpus; 1 mill. words1961 1961 - Brown family 1 mill. words1931-1991 1975 - London /Lund corpus (100 sp. samples) ½ mill. words large, finite, static corpora 1991 British National Corpus (BNC) 100 million words 1986 Bank of English 450 million words modern, chronological, open-ended corpora 1989 - RDUES news corpus 1 bill. words 1984-ongoing 2006 - WebCorpLSE – mini-web' 12 bill. words ongoing 2008 - Corpus Contemp. Am. Engl. (COCA) 400m wds 1990-ongoing …… the sky is the limit

6 Corpus; pl. corpora - definition A corpus is a collection of texts, written or spoken, built to answer a question about language in use. i.this could be: what was the language of Dickens like? and the corpus consists of all known works of Dickens ii. or the other extreme: what is the language of today like? and the corpus represents the language in use today of course, this is impossible in the strict sense the normal compromise is to select texts from wide range of text types or take a single, varied text type like UK journalism

7 Concordance - definition term introduced in 1244 by first concordancer - Hugues, de Saint-Cher a concordance was an index of some or all of the words in a manuscript/collection of manuscripts words might also be extracted within their contexts; with definitions or annotations; cross-referencing to their locations in the original text(s) or to topic headings purpose: to aid devotional, and later, literary study

8 Evolution of concordances 1. as general research resources 1230 –index to the Vulgate Bible; by Hugues, de Saint-Cher + 500 fellow-Dominicans printed 1470 1790 – Shakespeare index by Samuel Ayscough 1845 – full Shakespeare concordance by Mary Cowden Clarke

9 Cowden Clarke concordances The complete concordance to Shakspere: being a verbal index to all the passages in the dramatic works of the poet by Mary Cowden Clarke, compiled 1809-1898.

10 Evolution of concordances 2. as aid in dictionary preparation back to 1755 - Samuel Johnsons archive of 15,000 illustrative citations on slips of paper, for 40,000 head words 1879- 1928 - Oxford English Dictionary 447, 000 word forms, 2.4 mill. quotations by James A. H. Murray

11 Modern-day concordances/concordance lines - definition nowadays, a full concordance is a set of all the instances of every single word in the corpus, extracted with their contexts words, sub-words and phrases can be the object of study the concordance lines (or informally, concordances) for a word are presented as a series of single-line extracts, with the node word situated centrally

12 Concordance with node word centrally placed speak to her, and do asadface, to show I feel her did nothing to intervene. What asadwaste of a young life. What in Las Vegas tomorrow night. Howsaddoes it get? These are two contract is illegal and irrelevant. Thesadreality is that a proud Premiership measured, and it would be rathersadif we didn't take some pride again soon and that is verysad. "His aim was to play in myself finally moved by this desperatelysadfilm and by the performances of

13 a concordance; concordance lines but the accompanying context can also be longer - sentence or paragraph length, with the node word falling where it may

14 Sentence-length concordance lines And I put my head to the side when I speak to her, and do a sad face, to show I feel her pain. What a sad waste of a young life. How sad does it get? The sad reality is that a proud Premiership club has brought our game into disrepute. Greenwich mean time is the standard by which time in the rest of the world is measured, and it would be rather sad if we didn't take some pride in that. He is unlikely to be playing again soon and that is very sad. " I don't know but found myself finally moved by this desperately sad film and by the performances of Rowan McNamara and Marissa Gibson as the lovers themselves.

15 Ordering of concordance lines concordance lines are ordered in different ways usually alphabetical usually by first word to the right/left of the node word ordering is important because it helps to find patterns of meaning for the node word

16 Concordance lines ordered to left confirm that it's the most beautifulcreatureever to inhabit this earth. It's satisfaction of having helped a fellowcreatureat the risk of your own 1940 s, Berry spotted "a gorgeouscreaturewho was a librarian. We got to be thought a cold, heartlesscreature, but unless you survive, you can't a selkie, a legendarycreaturethat's a seal in the water Darko might be right, every livingcreatureon earth dies alone but we on the horizon, grilling any livingcreature in the immediate vicinity that couldn't is apparently a "selkie", a mythicalcreature from the seas, whose singing charms fun. David Willetts is a rarecreature. Britain does not produce many public A good risotto is a rarecreature, and this was very good indeed the distance a huge dinosaur typecreaturegrazed. I don't think I'd be had to pick which furry woodlandcreatureto sport, it's a toss up

17 Concordance lines ordered to right used to a high level ofcreaturecomforts, and money sloshing around the landscape. There are all thecreaturecomforts you'd expect, yet it has him like an alien, like acreaturefrom outer space, so he became from this year's Coraline is acreaturefrom your worst nightmares. But earlier expected." Are you acreatureof habit? If not, Pizza Express. I'm acreatureof habit, me, and this predatory choice. You become acreatureof the night, unable to stand artist of the decade. Entirely acreatureof the noughties, she arrived happy to be compared to acreatureon the verge of extinction. Serious

18 collocation, collocate (n/v) -definition the words to the left and right of the node word in a text are its collocates – they co-locate with it. why do we study words in context, with their collocates?

19 sole

20 a living from catching sole and other fish in the channel species like cod, haddock, sole, plaice, shrimps and langoustines I tried to get a large unfilleted sole to come apart on the plate oysters, followed by roast dover sole with cherry tomatoes sole

21 investigators believe he may be the sole survivor from the crash I accept sole responsibility for the military action in Cyprus although their sole aim is to live in Israel officers whose sole aim was the harassment of black youth businesses run by sole traders, partnerships, and companies sole

22 It's a Tudor leather shoe sole. Look at that tiny instep detonate explosives hidden in the hollowed-out sole of his shoe more chunky, yet the heavy sole and heel flatter the leg the shoes I'm wearing have been repaired, heel and sole. Heel pain is a soreness or tenderness on the sole of your foot. sole

23 a living from catching sole and other fish in the channel species like cod, haddock, sole, plaice, shrimps and langoustines I tried to get a large unfilleted sole to come apart on the plate oysters, followed by roast dover sole with cherry tomatoes --- investigators believe he may be the sole survivor from the crash I accept sole responsibility for the military action in Cyprus are a part. Although their sole aim is to live in Israel, officers whose sole aim was the harassment of black youth businesses run by sole traders, partnerships, and companies --- It's a Tudor leather shoe sole. Look at that tiny instep detonate explosives hidden in the hollowed-out sole of his shoe more chunky, yet the heavy sole and heel flatter the leg the shoes I'm wearing have been repaired, heel and sole Heel pain is a soreness or tenderness on the sole of your foot sole

24 a living from catching sole and other fish in the channel species like cod, haddock, sole, plaice, shrimps and langoustines I tried to get a large unfilleted sole to come apart on the plate oysters, followed by roast dover sole with cherry tomatoes --- investigators believe he may be the sole survivor from the crash I accept sole responsibility for the military action in Cyprus are a part. Although their sole aim is to live in Israel, officers whose sole aim was the harassment of black youth businesses run by sole traders, partnerships, and companies. --- It's a Tudor leather shoe sole. Look at that tiny instep detonate explosives hidden in the hollowed-out sole of his shoe more chunky, yet the heavy sole and heel flatter the leg the shoes I'm wearing have been repaired, heel and sole Heel pain is a soreness or tenderness on the sole of your foot sole

25 collocation, collocate (n/v) so in corpus linguistics, we look at words together with their collocates - because the collocates help us to find the senses and uses of the word

26 collocational span - definition immediate –neighbour collocates have the strongest and most important relationship with the node word (they often form a compound) pastimes like stamp collecting and writing poetry the order is not always fixed, and they can also be separated: like all children in those days, I collected stamps Sir Graham Day is a collector. Not stamps but chairmanships. Pupils at several schools collect and swap stamps so we may look at the node word in a span of 1 or more words to left and right, depending on the kind of word

27 What is the missing word? Which clues tell you? 08/10/88 elderly couples tend ______ vegetable gardens. The farmers 02/06/90 whole building looks in ______ condition. In the Chapel, 16/03/91 decorated bedrooms, with an ______ garden with a swimming pool 15/09/91 a gleaming building amid ______ lawns and flower beds 22/09/92 no woman to launder the ______ jeans and shirt he is wearing 22/08/93 charmless perfection. The ______ gardens and leafy cul-de-sacs 24/06/95 As dew glistened on the ______ lawn of the residence 27/09/96 to which he replied in his ______ italic handwriting 30/09/97 the house next door was in ______ condition, Mr Bowes did no 26/09/97 Mrs Thatcher, because their ______ coiffeurs were their power 14/10/99 maintain his croquet lawn in ______ condition. Mr Farmer, 18/05/99 suggest that his was an ______ conception and a virgin birth 08/05/99 Both women looked ______ in designer tennis dresses 22/08/99 in her tan trouser suit, with ______ nails and shiny blonde hair 03/08/99 lounger in the garden of his ______ bungalow, sipping tea

28 What is the missing word? Which clues tell you? 08/10/88 elderly couples tend ______ vegetable gardens. The farmers 02/06/90 whole building looks in ______ condition. In the Chapel, 16/03/91 decorated bedrooms, with an ______ garden with a swimming pool 15/09/91 a gleaming building amid ______ lawns and flower beds 22/09/92 no woman to launder the ______ jeans and shirt he is wearing 22/08/93 charmless perfection. The ______ gardens and leafy cul-de-sacs 24/06/95 As dew glistened on the ______ lawn of the residence 27/09/96 to which he replied in his ______ italic handwriting 30/09/97 the house next door was in ______ condition, Mr Bowes did no 26/09/97 Mrs Thatcher, because their ______ coiffeurs were their power 14/10/99 maintain his croquet lawn in ______ condition. Mr Farmer, 18/05/99 suggest that his was an ______ conception and a virgin birth 08/05/99 Both women looked ______ in designer tennis dresses 22/08/99 in her tan trouser suit, with ______ nails and shiny blonde hair 03/08/99 lounger in the garden of his ______ bungalow, sipping tea

29 What is the missing word? Which clues tell you? 08/10/88 elderly couples tend ______ vegetable gardens. The farmers 02/06/90 whole building looks in ______ condition. In the Chapel, 16/03/91 decorated bedrooms, with an ______ garden with a swimming pool 15/09/91 a gleaming building amid ______ lawns and flower beds 22/09/92 no woman to launder the ______ jeans and shirt he is wearing 22/08/93 charmless perfection. The ______ gardens and leafy cul-de-sacs 24/06/95 As dew glistened on the ______ lawn of the residence 27/09/96 to which he replied in his ______ italic handwriting 30/09/97 the house next door was in ______ condition, Mr Bowes did no 26/09/97 Mrs Thatcher, because their ______ coiffeurs were their power 14/10/99 maintain his croquet lawn in ______ condition. MrFarmer, 18/05/99 suggest that his was an ______ conception and a virgin birth 08/05/99 Both women looked ______ in designer tennis dresses 22/08/99 in her tan trouser suit, with ______ nails and shiny blonde hair 03/08/99 lounger in the garden of his ______ bungalow, sipping tea


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