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1 4 th Grade Montana Indian Reservations and Tribes.

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1 1 4 th Grade Montana Indian Reservations and Tribes

2 2 Native American Montana Tribes Blackfeet Salish, Kootenai, Pend dOreille Chippewa/Cree Crow Northern Cheyenne Assiniboine Sioux Gros Ventre Little Shell

3 3 As we view a slide show on Montana Indians and reservations, you will use your: Reservation maps Outline shapes of reservations Note taking forms You will be pasting reservation shapes onto your map and taking notes on each Montana tribe.

4 4 Montana Reservations

5 5 Blackfeet Reservation Located at 48N/ W on your map Cut and paste Blackfeet Reservation onto your map Shares borders with: Alberta, Canada to the north Glacier National Park to the west Interesting features: Marias River St. Marys Lake Cities: Heart Butte, East Glacier, St. Mary, Babb, Browning Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site

6 6 Blackfeet Located on Blackfeet Reservation in northwestern Montana (Tribal Headquarters in Browning) Originally located in present day Montana, Idaho, Alberta, Canada Buffalo hunting society Europeans had big impact: In the 1500s brought horses invaluable for hunting buffalo In the 1800s brought smallpox which infected tribe Blackfeet language is spoken by half of the tribal members ( a difficult language to learn)

7 7 Blackfeet Tribe ( located on the Blackfeet Reservation) Blackfeet women owned the tipi wore long deerskin dresses decorated with elk teeth and porcupine quills Blackfeet men were hunters and warriors wore tunics and breechcloths chiefs wore feather headdresses some men wore 3 braids in a topknot painted faces for special occasions used long bows, arrows, clubs, hide shields for hunting and war

8 8 Blackfeet (Located on the Blackfeet Reservation) Both men and women were story tellers, artists, musicians and medicine people Children hunted, fished, had special games and dolls Blackfeet is the official name Was given by the white man, many tribal people refer to themselves as Blackfeet Tipi was their home made out of buffalo hide set up and taken down in an hour, sometimes less belonged to the women and were disassembled and carried by them when relocating

9 9 Blackfeet (Located on the Blackfeet Reservation) Councils in the past consensus had to be reached when deciding a matter for the tribe (all chiefs had to agree) at present all council members are elected by tribal members (like a mayor or governor is elected)

10 10 Blackfeet – Preserving the Past Leonda Fast Buffalo Horse Member of the Blackfeet Nation Grew up in Seattle Returned home to Browning In a ceremony in 1989 her hands were blessed to give her the right to do traditional Blackfeet quillwork. Also does stained glass. Quillwork Moccasins © Kim Thielman-Ibes

11 11 Preserving the Past – Blackfeet Quillwork is not a simple process: Gather quills from porcupines that have died. Pluck and clean quills. Dye quills, using: Chokecherries Onion skins Koolaid Rit dye Soften quills by placing in mouth between gum and cheek. Flatten quills to be woven or wrapped into a desired shape.

12 12 Flathead Reservation Salish, Kootenai, Pend dOreille Located at 47N/ W on your map Cut and paste Flathead Reservation onto your map Flathead Reservation: In northwestern Montana Tribal Headquarters in Pablo Includes Flathead, Lake, Missoula, and Sanders Counties Borders are formed by: Mission Mountains on the east Flathead Lake and Cabinet Mountains to the north Salish Mountains to the west Interesting features: Rivers: Clark Fork, Jocko, Flathead Flathead Lake (formed by building of Kerr Dam) Cities: Arlee, Ravalli, Dixon, St. Ignatius, Charlo, Ronan, Pablo, Polson, Big Arm, Elmo, Rollins, Lone Pine, Hot Springs Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site

13 13 Salish, Kootenai, Pend dOreille Salish Lived between Cascade Mountains in Washington and Rocky Mountains in Montana Established headquarters near eastern slope of Rocky Mountains Salish means the people Kootenai Lived further north At times had friendly relations with Salish Traded Intermarried Pend dOreille Occupied both sides of the Rocky Mountains

14 14 Salish, Kootenai, Pend dOreille (Located on the Flathead Reservation) 1805 First written record: September 5, met with Lewis and Clark 1870 Chief Victor dies Chief Charlot becomes new chief after Victor dies 1871 President Grant declares Flathead Reservation was better suited to the needs of the tribe Government forges Chief Charlots X (signature) onto agreement 1889 Chief Charlot signs agreement to leave Bitterroot Valley Tribe was near starvation Delayed the move for two additional years 1891 Troops from Fort Missoula force tribe from Bitterroot Valley Soldiers roughly marched tribe to the Flathead Reservation 60 miles away

15 15 Salish – Preserving the Past Oshanee Kenmille Born in 1916 in Arlee (died in February, 2009) Spoke 3 languages: English Salish Kootenai Expert beadworker To preserve her tribes past, she: Taught hide tanning Made traditional regalia Taught Salish language Received $20,000 National Heritage Fellowship in ©2008 The National Council for the Traditional Arts

16 16 Salish – Preserving the Past Allen Kenmille - (Oshanee's great-great grandson) Im very lucky because I learn a lot from her. A photograph of Montana Salish women from an earlier century tanning hides. Copyright 2006, Char-Koosta News

17 17 Rocky Boys Reservation Chippewa and Cree Located at 48N/110W on your map Cut and paste Rocky Boys Reservation onto your map Includes Hill and Choteau Counties Interesting features: Mount Baldy Mount Centennial Haystack Mountain East Fork Dam Bonneau Dam Cities: Box Elder, Rocky Boy Milk River

18 18 Chippewa-Cree (Located on the Rockys Boy Reservation) Located on the Rocky Boys Reservation north central Montana south of Havre in the Bear Paw Mountains tribal Headquarters in Rocky Boy Mixed group of Native Americans Cree from Southern Canada Chippewa from the Turtle Mountains in North Dakota Resisted reservation system Deported to Canada Returned to hunt buffalo agreed to settle on the lands of the Rocky Boy reservation

19 19 From Past to Present Plains peoples Proud warrior tradition. Patriotic in the past and the present 1940s - Three World War II Marine Corps Women Reservists at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. woman on left is Blackfoot woman on right is Chippewa Crow warriors imprisoned at the Crow Agency.

20 20 From Past to Present – Plains Warriors Shadow Wolves An elite unit of Native American trackers in Arizona Created in 1972 by an Act of Congress Currently consists of 15 members from 7 tribes, including Blackfeet. In 2003 became part of The Department of Homeland Security. (C) Copyright 2008 Shadow-Wolves.org All Rights Reserved

21 21 Plains Warriors – Preserving the Past in Song The very first time I heard the flute, I was a young boy living on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation located in Southeastern Montana. Grover Wolfvoice was the flute man playing this wonderful music. -Joseph Fire Crow Joseph Fire Crow Grew up in log cabin on Northern Cheyenne Reservation with no running water until age nine. Now makes his own native flutes and records songs. Songs come through you out to the people. Bill Runsabove

22 22 Plains Warriors – Preserving the Past in Song Joseph Fire Crow has written a song called My Brave Soldier Boy, which we will listen to now. How is this music the same and how is it different from music you usually listen to? How do the lyrics remind you of the warrior tradition? Click again to see the lyrics. Listen to CD. [ Track #6 (American Indian Music – More than Just Flutes and Drums)] My Brave Soldier Boy My brave soldier boy You might have to go On the sea or in the air Oer Germany or Tokyo Just the same my heart is there with you. My brave soldier boy You might have to go On the sea or in the air Over Iraq or Afghanistan Just the same my heart is there with you. (Used with permission of Joseph Fire Crow)

23 23 Crow Reservation - Crow Tribe Located at 45N/ W on your map Cut and paste Crow Reservation on your map Borders Wyoming on the south Interesting features: Big Horn Mountains Pryor Mountains Wolf Teeth Mountains Big Horn River Little Bighorn River Pryor Creek Cities: Hardin, Dunmore, Crow Agency, Lodge Grass, Wyola, Fort Smith, Pryor Yellowtail Dam Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site indian/flags

24 24 Crow Located on the Crow Reservation in southeastern Montana Tribal Headquarters in Crow Agency Apsaalooke (native name) Split from the Hidatsa group 8000 people in band in the 1800s Decimated by smallpox in 1800s Located in three mountainous areas: Big Horn Mountains Pryor Mountains Wolf Teeth Mountains Points of Historic Interest Little Bighorn Battlefield Chief Plenty Coups State Park

25 25 Crow – Preserving the Past Birdie Real Bird Started to make Crow-style dolls in 1998 to honor her mothers memory. Makes Crow Womens regalia Makes dolls using traditional natural materials Body made from buckskin stuffed with buffalo hair Faces and attire use beads, sinew, buckskin Two of her dolls were purchased by the Smithsonian Museum. ©2008 The National Council for the Traditional Arts

26 26 Northern Cheyenne Reservation Northern Cheyenne Tribe Located at 45N/ W on your map Cut and paste Northern Cheyenne Reservation onto map Northern Cheyenne Reservation In southeastern Montana Tribal Headquarters in Lame Deer Includes Big Horn and Rosebud Counties Bordered by: Crow Reservation on the west Tongue River on the east Cities: Busby, Ashland, Birney, Muddy Tongue River

27 27 Northern Cheyenne (Located on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation) Originally came from northwestern Minnesota area 1700s Mainly farmed corn and hunted buffalo 1750s Acquired horses Hunting buffalo became major lifestyle 1876 Joined the Sioux in Battle of the Little Bighorn Cheyenne call the battle where Long Hair was wiped away forever 1884 Part of Crow Reservation land set aside for Northern Cheyenne

28 28 Northern Cheyenne (Located on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation) Cheyenne oral history recalls: Smoking peace pipe with Custer, who agreed to never fight Cheyenne again Ashes were dropped on his boot and scattered on the ground then wiped away Ashes were a symbol of Custer committing to never fight the Cheyenne again Cheyenne call themselves Morning Star People To honor Chief Dull Knife (Morning Star)

29 29 Northern Cheyenne – Preserving the Past The War Shirt, written by Bently Spang illustrated by Troy Anderson The setting of this story is in eastern Montana. As you look at the pictures, notice how the scenery compares to land around Butte. Read the story now. Break into pairs. Sit shoulder to shoulder. Alternate reading pages with your partner. After all groups have finished reading, return to your station. We will now STOP and read. When we regroup, we will click to advance so that we can visit the authors web site. Click on the link below to visit the web site Click the magnifying glass to zoom in. Click the image of the shirt in the lower right-hand corner and drag to view shirt with the magnifying glass. The War Shirt Exhibit

30 30 Fort Belknap Reservation Assiniboine and Gros Ventre Located at 48N/ W your map Cut and paste Fort Belknap Reservation onto map Includes Blaine and Phillips Counties Bordered by: Missouri River on the south Interesting features: Bear Paw Mountains Little Rocky Mountains Milk River Missouri River Cities: Lodge Pole, Hays, Fort Belknap Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site

31 31 Assiniboine (Located on the Fort Belknap/Fort Peck Reservations) Located on the Fort Belknap Reservation in north central Montana Assiniboine (Asiniibwaan, native name) Semi-nomadic, following buffalo herds Formed alliances with other tribes to ward off Blackfeet Known as Nakoda Tobacco Used by the tribe Reserved for ceremonies 1888 Fort Peck Reservation established

32 32 Gros Ventre - Ah-ah-nii-nen Gros Ventre is French for Big Belly Montana Gros Ventre Indians - call themselves - Ah-ah-nii-nen - means White Clay People Fort Belknap Reservation Most Gros Ventres live on the south end of the reservation near the Little Rocky Mountains 1754 First contact with whites on Saskatchewan River Small pox reduced tribal number greatly 1868 Fort Browning built on Milk River Built for the Gros Ventre, but built on Sioux hunting grounds Abandoned in 1871

33 33 Gros Ventre Cultural Traditions Important ceremonies include the Sun Dance. Pipes important to the Gros Ventre culture. Pipes are held sacred Pipes form the spiritual center of the tribe Tribe originally had ten sacred pipes Eight of the ten were buried with their keepers Only two sacred pipes remain Feathered pipe Flat pipe These two sacred pipes are used when prayers are offered to the spirits. [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/gros_ventre.html]http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/gros_ventre.html

34 34 Preserving the Past - Ah-ah-nii-nen Tradition of the Drum is very important today Brings the people together Provides beat to dancers to offer praise to the Creator and Mother Earth Helps heal the sick Carries songs and prayers to the Great Above All Person Two main kinds of drums in the northern plains Hand drum – played by one person Large drum – used at powwows and played by several people They say when an unborn child is developing, the first thing they hear is the heartbeat of the mother so when babies go to powwows and hear the music, it is just natural. The drumbeat symbolizes the heartbeat of mother earth. Bill Runsabove Pow wow Drum – Creative Commons license: jazamarripae – September 20, 2006

35 35 Preserving the Past – Ah-ah-nii-nen Drum Making Al Chandler Goodstrike Enrolled member of the White Clay People (Ah-ah-nii-nen) Known for his tipi and hide painting, as well as his drums Prepares elk and buffalo hides by cleaning, scraping, and tanning Paints hides with natural earth paints and a bone brush.

36 36 Fort Peck Reservation Assiniboine and Sioux Located at 48N/ W on your map Cut and paste Fort Peck Reservation onto map Located in northeastern Montana Includes Roosevelt County Borders McCone County (south) Medicine Lake (east) Interesting features Rivers: Poplar River Milk River Cities: Poplar, Brockton Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site

37 37 Sioux (Located on the Fort Peck Reservation) Located in north central Montana Dakota Sioux Got horses from Spanish in 1500s Nomadic tribe, following buffalo, which they considered sacred Used surround system-- killed 100 buffalo at one time Ceremonies Sun Dance Sacred ceremony Circular dance Outlawed on reservation in 1882 by whites Vision Quest Could be done for family members Included fasting (not eating) for 1-4 days Sweat Lodge Used before any important event Red hot rocks placed inside a lodge Water poured over hot rocks

38 38 From Past to Present This map shows traditional ancestral lands of the Assiniboine and the Sioux. Animals plentiful in this region included bison, deer, elk and porcupine The people used these animals for raw materials in their homes, tools, and clothing.

39 39 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Special occasions require special attire. Traditional clothing can be worn for: Weddings Naming ceremonies (person gets a name in their native language) Honoring giveaways (things of value are given away to honor someone) Powwows Traditional clothing is sometimes referred to as regalia. Examples of regalia: Female regalia: Elkhide or deerhide dress covered in beads. Cloth dress covered in shells, elk teeth, or jingles (cone-shaped tin) Male regalia: Beaded outfit consisting of a belt, moccasins, vest, headband, etc. Creative Commons license: liberalmind Women in jingle dresses

40 40 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Regalia dresses are full of meaning Decorated with designs and symbols that tell stories in honor of family members. In the past, many elk teeth on a dress meant great wealth. Only the two ivory eyeteeth of an elk were used on a dress. In the past, a boy would collect elk teeth over many years of hunting and would save them to be sewn by his mother or sisters on a dress for the woman he would marry. The use of elk teeth showed the value the people of the Plains placed on the elk. Today, mountain designs on dresses show how Indians value the land and their surroundings. Sioux dress from the 1850s: Deerhide Stitched with sinew Decorated with pony beads 150 elk teeth

41 41 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Porcupines are found along rivers and streams in great numbers in the Northern Plains. Porcupine quills: were among the first materials used to decorate clothing were pulled from the hide, washed, dyed, dried, sorted by size, and then softened in the mouth and flattened. were softened, flattened, and wrapped or woven around other material. were dyed different colors and used to make detailed designs. Natural materials such as plants, flowers, and berries were used to dye quills. Quillwork is still done by Plains artists today. Lewis and Clark Journal Entry: Capt. Lewis, May 3, 1805near the entrance of the river, we saw an unusual number of Porcupines from which we determined to call the river after that anamal [sic], and accordingly denominated it Porcupine river [now called the Poplar River].

42 42 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux With European contact, the variety of materials from which Indian women made their clothing increased, as the map below shows.

43 43 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Before European contact, beads were made from shell, bone, or stone. After beads were introduced by Europeans, two types were used Pony beads – Early 1800s Large beads White, red, blue, black Seed beads – After 1840 Smaller bead More color choices Most early beads came from Italy Visit the web site below to create a simple design with beads. Wait patiently for the site to load. Once you are at the site, click on Forming Cultural Identity Scroll across to the right if needed. Click on the white right-pointing arrow 23 times to reach activity. Follow the directions on the screen. Identity by Design

44 44 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Joyce Growing Thunder Fogarty An Assiniboine and Sioux woman from the Fort Peck Reservation Comes from a long line of dressmakers and beaders Spent two years making her first traditional Sioux dress Received a Lifetime Achievement Award for her artistry. articleID= &page=1 ©Steven G. Smith "I watched my grandmothers do a lot of beadwork on the reservation," says Growing Thunder Fogarty, who worked 16 hours a day on her dress. ©Steven G. Smith

45 45 Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Visit the link below to see the beaded design on one of Ms. Fogartys dresses. You have to work to see the design, but not as hard as Ms. Fogarty had to work creating it! Its a jigsaw puzzle: Solve if you have time Auto-solve if you dont. Wait patiently for the site to load. Click on Forming Cultural Identity Scroll across to the right if needed. Click on the white right-pointing arrow 24 times Drag and drop all the pieces into place to see the design. Interactive Jigsaw Puzzle

46 46 Clothing Symbols Read below the meanings of the symbols in Ms. Fogartys Give Away Horses dress.

47 47 Clothing Symbols - Activity We have seen a war shirt designed by Bently Spang, a Northern Cheyenne We have seen a Give Away Horse dress designed by Joyce Growing Thunder Fogarty. Tribal peoples have traditionally expressed themselves in meaningful ways through their clothing. We can also express what is meaningful to us through our own clothing. Use sketch paper and crayons, colored pencils, or pastels. Put your name on your sketch paper before you begin (in a corner or on the back). Design a shirt or dress (be creative in your choice of materials if you choose). Decorate your shirt or dress with symbols that have special meaning to you. You have many options for creativity. Some decorating choices you have are: Symbols that have personal meaning to you Symbols that have special meaning for your family Symbols that have special meaning because of your heritage Symbols that relate to your hobbies or friends Symbols that deal with your past, present, or future

48 48 Little Shell (Have no reservation land) Landless Indians No designated reservationheadquarters in Great Falls Not federally recognized, but recognized by state of Montana 1892 Original tribal lands were sold for $90,000 without tribal permission tribe members were placed in boxcars and sent to Canada During winter they walked back; lived in deplorable conditions outside the Hi-Line towns

49 49 Test for Reservations and Tribes Name______________________ 1. There are______ reservations in Montana The disease _________ killed many Native People. 1. cancer 2. smallpox 3. the common cold

50 50 3. When the Indians got _______ hunting and traveling became much easier. 1. dogs 2. cows 3. Horses 4. Blackfeet ________ owned the tipi and were responsible for packing and carrying it. 1. women 2. children 3. men 5. At councils Blackfeet chiefs all had to reach _________ (all had to agree) 1. company 2. each other 3. consensus

51 51 6. The Salish chief __________ had his X mark forged on a treaty. 1. Charlot 2. Victor 3. Sitting Bull 7. The __________ tribe was deported to Canada. 1. Chippewa 2. Turtle 3. Coyote 8. The ________ tribe went from 8000 people to nearly half that number because of smallpox. 1. Aztec 2. Crow 3. Navajo 9. The Cheyenne Tribe called the Battle of the Little Bighorn the battle where ___________ was wiped out forever. 1. Long Hair 2. Long Bow 3. Long Neck

52 52 10 This tribe is also known as the Nakodas__________. Salish Assinboine Crow 11 ____________ was used in many ceremonies. chicken Tobacco plant Bitterroot plant 12 This ceremony uses hot rocks with water poured over them_____________________. Sweat lodge Sun Dance Vision Quest

53 This tribe is called the landless Indians_____________ 1. Chippewa-Cree 2. Crow 3. Antelope 14. This animal was an important food source for the Indians ____________ 1. the fox 2. the rooster 3. the buffalo 15 ____________ brought both the horse and disease to the Indians 1. Europeans 2. Cubans 3. South Americans


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