3As we view a slide show on Montana Indians and reservations, you will use your: Reservation mapsOutline shapes of reservationsNote taking formsYou will be pasting reservation shapes onto your map and taking notes on each Montana tribe.
5Blackfeet Reservation Located at 48N/ W on your mapCut and paste Blackfeet Reservation onto your mapShares borders with:Alberta, Canada to the northGlacier National Park to the westInteresting features:Marias RiverSt. Mary’s LakeCities: Heart Butte, East Glacier, St. Mary, Babb, BrowningUsed with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
6BlackfeetLocated on Blackfeet Reservation in northwestern Montana (Tribal Headquarters in Browning)Originally located in present day Montana, Idaho, Alberta, CanadaBuffalo hunting societyEuropeans had big impact:In the 1500’sbrought horsesinvaluable for hunting buffaloIn the 1800’sbrought smallpox which infected tribeBlackfeet language is spoken by half of the tribal members ( a difficult language to learn)
7Blackfeet Tribe ( located on the Blackfeet Reservation) Blackfeet womenowned the tipiwore long deerskin dresses decorated with elk teeth and porcupine quillsBlackfeet menwere hunters and warriorswore tunics and breechclothschiefs wore feather headdressessome men wore 3 braidsin a topknotpainted faces for special occasionsused long bows, arrows, clubs, hide shields for hunting and war
8Blackfeet (Located on the Blackfeet Reservation) Both men and women were story tellers, artists, musicians and medicine peopleChildren hunted, fished, had special games and dollsBlackfeet is the official nameWas given by the white man,many tribal people refer to themselves as BlackfeetTipiwas their homemade out of buffalo hideset up and taken down in an hour, sometimes lessbelonged to the women and were disassembled and carried by them when relocating
9Blackfeet (Located on the Blackfeet Reservation) Councilsin the past consensus had to be reached when deciding a matter for the tribe (all chiefs had to agree)at present all council members are elected by tribal members (like a mayor or governor is elected)
11Preserving the Past – Blackfeet Quillwork is not a simple process:Gather quills from porcupines that have died.Pluck and clean quills.Dye quills, using:ChokecherriesOnion skinsKoolaidRit dyeSoften quills by placing in mouth between gum and cheek.Flatten quills to be woven or wrapped into a desired shape.
12Flathead Reservation Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille Located at 47N/ W on your mapCut and paste Flathead Reservation onto your mapFlathead Reservation:In northwestern MontanaTribal Headquarters in PabloIncludes Flathead, Lake, Missoula, and Sanders CountiesBorders are formed by:Mission Mountains on the eastFlathead Lake and Cabinet Mountains to the northSalish Mountains to the westInteresting features:Rivers: Clark Fork, Jocko, FlatheadFlathead Lake (formed by building of Kerr Dam)Cities: Arlee, Ravalli, Dixon, St. Ignatius, Charlo, Ronan, Pablo, Polson, Big Arm, Elmo, Rollins, Lone Pine, Hot SpringsUsed with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
13Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille Lived between Cascade Mountains in Washington and Rocky Mountains in MontanaEstablished headquarters near eastern slope of Rocky MountainsSalish means “the people”KootenaiLived further northAt times had friendly relations with SalishTradedIntermarriedPend d’OreilleOccupied both sides of the Rocky Mountains
14Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille (Located on the Flathead Reservation) 1805First written record: September 5, met with Lewis and Clark1870Chief Victor diesChief Charlot becomes new chief after Victor dies1871President Grant declares Flathead Reservation was better suited to the needs of the tribeGovernment forges Chief Charlot’s X (signature) onto agreement1889Chief Charlot signs agreement to leave Bitterroot ValleyTribe was near starvationDelayed the move for two additional years1891Troops from Fort Missoula force tribe from Bitterroot ValleySoldiers roughly marched tribe to the Flathead Reservation 60 miles away
16Salish – Preserving the Past Allen Kenmille - (Oshanee's great-great grandson)“I’m very lucky because I learn a lot from her.”A photograph of Montana Salish women from an earlier century tanning hides.Copyright 2006, Char-Koosta News
17Rocky Boy’s Reservation Chippewa and Cree Located at 48N/110W on your mapCut and paste Rocky Boy’s Reservation onto your mapIncludes Hill and Choteau CountiesInteresting features:Mount BaldyMount CentennialHaystack MountainEast Fork DamBonneau DamCities: Box Elder, Rocky BoyMilk River
18Chippewa-Cree (Located on the Rocky’s Boy Reservation) Located on the Rocky Boy’s Reservationnorth central Montanasouth of Havre in the Bear Paw Mountainstribal Headquarters in Rocky BoyMixed group of Native AmericansCree from Southern CanadaChippewa from the Turtle Mountains in North DakotaResisted reservation systemDeported to CanadaReturned to hunt buffaloagreed to settle on the lands of the Rocky Boy reservation
19From Past to Present Plains peoples Proud warrior tradition. Patriotic in the past and the present1940’s - Three World War II Marine Corps Women Reservists at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.woman on left is Blackfootwoman on right is Chippewa.Crow warriors imprisonedat the Crow Agency.
20From Past to Present – Plains Warriors Shadow WolvesAn elite unit of Native American trackers in ArizonaCreated in 1972 by an Act of CongressCurrently consists of 15 members from 7 tribes, including Blackfeet.In 2003 became part of The Department of Homeland Security.(C) Copyright 2008 Shadow-Wolves.org™All Rights Reserved
21Plains Warriors – Preserving the Past in Song Joseph Fire CrowGrew up in log cabin on Northern Cheyenne Reservation with no running water until age nine.Now makes his own native flutes and records songs.The very first time I heard the flute, I was a young boy living on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation located in Southeastern Montana. Grover Wolfvoice was the flute man playing this wonderful music.-Joseph Fire CrowSongs come through you out to the people.Bill Runsabove
22Plains Warriors – Preserving the Past in Song My Brave Soldier BoyMy brave soldier boyYou might have to goOn the sea or in the airO’er Germany or TokyoJust the same my heart is there with you.Over Iraq or Afghanistan(Used with permission of Joseph Fire Crow)Joseph Fire Crow has written a song called My Brave Soldier Boy, which we will listen to now.How is this music the same and how is it different from music you usually listen to?How do the lyrics remind you of the warrior tradition?Click again to see the lyrics. Listen to CD.[Track #6 (American Indian Music – More than Just Flutes and Drums)]
23Crow Reservation - Crow Tribe Located at 45N/ W on your mapCut and paste Crow Reservation on your mapBordersWyoming on the southInteresting features:Big Horn MountainsPryor MountainsWolf Teeth MountainsBig Horn RiverLittle Bighorn RiverPryor CreekCities: Hardin, Dunmore, Crow Agency,Lodge Grass, Wyola, Fort Smith, PryorYellowtail DamUsed with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
24Crow Located on the Crow Reservation Apsaalooke (native name) in southeastern MontanaTribal Headquarters in Crow AgencyApsaalooke (native name)Split from the Hidatsa group8000 people in band in the 1800’sDecimated by smallpox in 1800’sLocated in three mountainous areas:Big Horn MountainsPryor MountainsWolf Teeth MountainsPoints of Historic InterestLittle Bighorn BattlefieldChief Plenty Coups State Park
26Northern Cheyenne Reservation Northern Cheyenne Tribe Located at 45N/ W on your mapCut and paste Northern Cheyenne Reservation onto mapNorthern Cheyenne ReservationIn southeastern MontanaTribal Headquarters in Lame DeerIncludes Big Horn and Rosebud CountiesBordered by:Crow Reservation on the westTongue River on the eastCities:Busby, Ashland, Birney, MuddyTongue River
27Northern Cheyenne (Located on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation) Originally came from northwestern Minnesota area1700’sMainly farmed corn and hunted buffalo1750’sAcquired horsesHunting buffalo became major lifestyle1876Joined the Sioux in Battle of the Little BighornCheyenne call the battle “where Long Hair was wiped away forever”1884Part of Crow Reservation land set aside for Northern Cheyenne
28Northern Cheyenne (Located on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation) Cheyenne oral history recalls:Smoking peace pipe with Custer, who agreed to never fight Cheyenne againAshes were dropped on his boot and scattered on the ground then wiped awayAshes were a symbol of Custer committing to never fight the Cheyenne againCheyenne call themselves “Morning Star People”To honor Chief Dull Knife (Morning Star)
29Northern Cheyenne – Preserving the Past The War Shirt,written by Bently Spangillustrated by Troy AndersonThe setting of this story is in eastern Montana. As you look at the pictures, notice how the scenery compares to land around Butte.Read the story now.Break into pairs.Sit shoulder to shoulder.Alternate reading pages with your partner.After all groups have finished reading, return to your station.We will now STOP and read. When we regroup, we will click to advance so that we can visit the author’s web site.Click on the link below to visit the web siteClick the magnifying glass to zoom in.Click the image of the shirt in the lower right-hand corner and drag to view shirt with the magnifying glass.The War Shirt Exhibit
30Fort Belknap Reservation Assiniboine and Gros Ventre Located at 48N/ W your mapCut and paste Fort Belknap Reservation onto mapIncludes Blaine and Phillips CountiesBordered by:Missouri River on the southInteresting features:Bear Paw MountainsLittle Rocky MountainsMilk RiverMissouri RiverCities: Lodge Pole, Hays, Fort BelknapUsed with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
31Assiniboine (Located on the Fort Belknap/Fort Peck Reservations) Located on the Fort Belknap Reservation in north central MontanaAssiniboine (Asiniibwaan, native name)Semi-nomadic, following buffalo herdsFormed alliances with other tribes to ward off BlackfeetKnown as NakodaTobaccoUsed by the tribeReserved for ceremonies1888Fort Peck Reservation established
32Gros Ventre - Ah-ah-nii-nen Gros Ventre is French for Big BellyMontana Gros Ventre Indians- call themselves - Ah-ah-nii-nen- means White Clay PeopleFort Belknap ReservationMost Gros Ventres live on the south end of the reservationnear the Little Rocky Mountains1754First contact with whites on Saskatchewan RiverSmall pox reduced tribal number greatly1868Fort Browning built on Milk RiverBuilt for the Gros Ventre, but built on Sioux hunting groundsAbandoned in 1871
33Gros Ventre Cultural Traditions Important ceremonies include the Sun Dance.Pipes important to the Gros Ventre culture.Pipes are held sacredPipes form the spiritual center of the tribeTribe originally had ten sacred pipesEight of the ten were buried with their keepersOnly two sacred pipes remainFeathered pipeFlat pipeThese two sacred pipes are used when prayers are offered to the spirits.[http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/gros_ventre.html]
34Preserving the Past - Ah-ah-nii-nen Tradition of the Drum is very important todayBrings the people togetherProvides beat to dancers to offer praise to the Creator and Mother EarthHelps heal the sickCarries songs and prayers to the Great Above All PersonTwo main kinds of drums in the northern plainsHand drum – played by one personLarge drum – used at powwows and played by several peoplePow wow Drum – Creative Commons license:jazamarripae – September 20, 2006“They say when an unborn child is developing, the first thing they hear is the heartbeat of the mother —so when babies go to powwows and hear the music, it is just natural. The drumbeat symbolizes the heartbeat of mother earth.” Bill Runsabove
35Preserving the Past – Ah-ah-nii-nen Drum Making Al Chandler GoodstrikeEnrolled member of the White Clay People (Ah-ah-nii-nen)Known for his tipi and hide painting, as well as his drumsPrepares elk and buffalo hides by cleaning, scraping, and tanningPaints hides with natural earth paints and a bone brush.
36Fort Peck Reservation Assiniboine and Sioux Located at 48N/ W on your mapCut and paste Fort Peck Reservation onto mapLocated in northeastern MontanaIncludes Roosevelt CountyBordersMcCone County (south)Medicine Lake (east)Interesting featuresRivers:Poplar RiverMilk RiverCities: Poplar, BrocktonUsed with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
37Sioux (Located on the Fort Peck Reservation) Located in north central MontanaDakota SiouxGot horses from Spanish in 1500’sNomadic tribe, following buffalo, which they considered sacredUsed surround system-- killed 100 buffalo at one timeCeremoniesSun DanceSacred ceremonyCircular danceOutlawed on reservation in 1882 by whitesVision QuestCould be done for family membersIncluded fasting (not eating) for 1-4 daysSweat LodgeUsed before any important eventRed hot rocks placed inside a lodgeWater poured over hot rocks
38From Past to PresentThis map shows traditional ancestral lands of the Assiniboine and the Sioux.Animals plentiful in this region included bison, deer, elk and porcupineThe people used these animals for raw materials in their homes, tools, and clothing.
39Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Special occasions require special attire.Traditional clothing can be worn for:WeddingsNaming ceremonies (person gets a name in their native language)Honoring “giveaways” (things of value are given away to honor someone)PowwowsTraditional clothing is sometimes referred to as regalia.Women injingledressesCreative Commons license:liberalmindExamples of regalia:Female regalia:Elkhide or deerhide dress covered in beads.Cloth dress covered in shells, elk teeth, or jingles (cone-shaped tin)Male regalia:Beaded outfit consisting of a belt, moccasins, vest, headband, etc.
40Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Regalia dresses are full of meaningDecorated with designs and symbols that tell stories in honor of family members.In the past, many elk teeth on a dress meant great wealth.Only the two ivory “eyeteeth” of an elk were used on a dress.In the past, a boy would collect elk teeth over many years of hunting and would save them to be sewn by his mother or sisters on a dress for the woman he would marry.The use of elk teeth showed the value the people of the Plains placed on the elk.Today, mountain designs on dresses show how Indians value the land and their surroundings.Sioux dress from the 1850’s:DeerhideStitched with sinewDecorated with pony beads150 elk teeth
41Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Porcupines are found along rivers and streams in great numbers in the Northern Plains.Porcupine quills:were among the first materials used to decorate clothingwere pulled from the hide, washed, dyed, dried, sorted by size, and then softened in the mouth and flattened.were softened, flattened, and wrapped or woven around other material.were dyed different colors and used to make detailed designs.Natural materials such as plants, flowers, and berries were used to dye quills.Quillwork is still done by Plains artists today.Lewis and Clark Journal Entry:Capt. Lewis, May 3, 1805—near the entranceof the river, we saw an unusual number ofPorcupines from which we determined tocall the river after that anamal [sic], andaccordingly denominated it Porcupine river[now called the Poplar River].
42Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux With European contact, the variety of materials from which Indian women made their clothing increased, as the map below shows.
43Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Before European contact, beads were made from shell, bone, or stone.After beads were introduced by Europeans, two types were usedPony beads –Early 1800’sLarge beadsWhite, red, blue, blackSeed beads –After 1840Smaller beadMore color choicesMost early beads came from ItalyVisit the web site below to create a simple design with beads.Wait patiently for the site to load.Once you are at the site, click on “Forming Cultural Identity”Scroll across to the right if needed.Click on the white right-pointing arrow 23 times to reach activity.Follow the directions on the screen.Identity by Design
45Preserving the Past – Assiniboine & Sioux Visit the link below to see the beaded design on one of Ms. Fogarty’s dresses.You have to work to see the design, but not as hard as Ms. Fogarty had to work creating it!It’s a jigsaw puzzle:Solve if you have timeAuto-solve if you don’t.Wait patiently for the site to load.Click on “Forming Cultural Identity”Scroll across to the right if needed.Click on the white right-pointing arrow 24 timesDrag and drop all the pieces into place to see the design.Interactive Jigsaw Puzzle
46Clothing SymbolsRead below the meanings of the symbols in Ms. Fogarty’s Give Away Horses dress.
47Clothing Symbols - Activity We have seen a war shirt designed by Bently Spang, a Northern CheyenneWe have seen a Give Away Horse dress designed by Joyce Growing Thunder Fogarty.Tribal peoples have traditionally expressed themselves in meaningful ways through their clothing.We can also express what is meaningful to us through our own clothing.Use sketch paper and crayons, colored pencils, or pastels.Put your name on your sketch paper before you begin (in a corner or on the back).Design a shirt or dress (be creative in your choice of materials if you choose).Decorate your shirt or dress with symbols that have special meaning to you.You have many options for creativity. Some decorating choices you have are:Symbols that have personal meaning to youSymbols that have special meaning for your familySymbols that have special meaning because of your heritageSymbols that relate to your hobbies or friendsSymbols that deal with your past, present, or future
48Little Shell (Have no reservation land) “Landless Indians”No designated reservation—headquarters in Great FallsNot federally recognized, but recognized by state of Montana1892Original tribal lands were sold for $90,000 without tribal permission1896600 tribe members were placed in boxcars and sent to CanadaDuring winter they walked back; lived in deplorable conditions outside the Hi-Line towns
49Test for Reservations and Tribes Name______________________ 1. There are______ reservations in Montana10972. The disease _________ killed many Native People.cancersmallpoxthe common cold
503. When the Indians got _______ hunting and traveling became much easier. dogscowsHorses4. Blackfeet ________ owned the tipi and were responsible for packing and carrying it.womenchildrenmen 5. At councils Blackfeet chiefs all had to reach _________ (all had to agree)companyeach otherconsensus
516. The Salish chief __________ had his X mark forged on a treaty. CharlotVictorSitting Bull7. The __________ tribe was deported to Canada.ChippewaTurtleCoyote8. The ________ tribe went from 8000 people to nearly half that number because of smallpox.AztecCrowNavajo 9. The Cheyenne Tribe called the Battle of the Little Bighorn “the battle where ___________ was wiped out forever”.Long HairLong BowLong Neck
5210 This tribe is also known as the Nakodas__________. SalishAssinboineCrow11 ____________ was used in many ceremonies.chickenTobacco plantBitterroot plant12 This ceremony uses hot rocks with water poured over them_____________________.Sweat lodgeSun DanceVision Quest
5313. This tribe is called the “landless Indians”_____________ Chippewa-CreeCrowAntelope14. This animal was an important food source for theIndians ____________the foxthe roosterthe buffalo15 ____________ brought both the horse and disease to theIndiansEuropeansCubansSouth Americans